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1.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542539

RESUMO

Social interaction is of vital importance for human beings. While the hyperscanning approach has been extensively used to study interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) during social interactions, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is one of the most popular techniques for hyperscanning naturalistic social interactions because of its relatively high spatial resolution, sound anatomical localization, and exceptionally high tolerance of motion artifacts. Previous fNIRS-based hyperscanning studies usually calculate a time-lagged INS using wavelet transform coherence (WTC) to describe the direction and temporal pattern of information flow between individuals. However, the results of this method might be confounded by the autocorrelation effect of the fNIRS signal of each individual. For addressing this issue, a method termed partial wavelet transform coherence (pWTC) was introduced, which aimed to remove the autocorrelation effect and maintain the high temporal-spectrum resolution of the fNIRS signal. In this study, a simulation experiment was performed first to show the effectiveness of the pWTC in removing the impact of autocorrelation on INS. Then, step-by-step guidance was offered on the operation of the pWTC based on the fNIRS dataset from a social interaction experiment. Additionally, a comparison between the pWTC method and the traditional WTC method and that between the pWTC method and the Granger causality (GC) method was drawn. The results showed that pWTC could be used to determine the INS difference between different experimental conditions and INS's directional and temporal pattern between individuals during naturalistic social interactions. Moreover, it provides better temporal and frequency resolution than the traditional WTC and better flexibility than the GC method. Thus, pWTC is a strong candidate for inferring the direction and temporal pattern of information flow between individuals during naturalistic social interactions.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4880, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385444

RESUMO

Accurate and imperceptible monitoring of electrophysiological signals is of primary importance for wearable healthcare. Stiff and bulky pregelled electrodes are now commonly used in clinical diagnosis, causing severe discomfort to users for long-time using as well as artifact signals in motion. Here, we report a ~100 nm ultra-thin dry epidermal electrode that is able to conformably adhere to skin and accurately measure electrophysiological signals. It showed low sheet resistance (~24 Ω/sq, 4142 S/cm), high transparency, and mechano-electrical stability. The enhanced optoelectronic performance was due to the synergistic effect between graphene and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which induced a high degree of molecular ordering on PEDOT and charge transfer on graphene by strong π-π interaction. Together with ultra-thin nature, this dry epidermal electrode is able to accurately monitor electrophysiological signals such as facial skin and brain activity with low-motion artifact, enabling human-machine interfacing and long-time mental/physical health monitoring.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Epiderme/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Artefatos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrofisiologia/instrumentação , Eletrofisiologia/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Grafite/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Movimento (Física) , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Pele
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0247100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857139

RESUMO

Bilingual language experience, such as switching between languages, has been shown to shape both cognitive and neural mechanisms of non-linguistic cognitive control. However, the neural adaptations induced by language switching remain unclear. Using fMRI, the current study examined the impact of short-term language switching training on the neural network of domain-general cognitive control for unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals. Effective connectivity maps were constructed by using the extended unified structural equation models (euSEM) within 10 common brain regions involved in both language control and domain-general cognitive control. Results showed that, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area (dACC/pre-SMA) lost connection from the right thalamus after training, suggesting that less neural connectivity was required to complete the same domain-general cognitive control task. These findings not only provide direct evidence for the modulation of language switching training on the neural interaction of domain-general cognitive control, but also have important implications for revealing the potential neurocognitive adaptation effects of specific bilingual language experiences.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , China , Conectoma/métodos , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(9): 4398-4410, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895811

RESUMO

While social interaction between a mother and her child has been found to play an important role in the child's committed compliance, the underlying neurocognitive process remains unclear. To investigate this process, we simultaneously recorded and assessed brain activity in 7-year-old children and in children's mothers or strangers during a free-play task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based hyperscanning. The results showed that a child's committed compliance was positively associated with the child's responsiveness but was negatively associated with mutual responsiveness and was not associated with the mother's responsiveness during mother-child interactions. Moreover, interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) at the temporoparietal junction mediated the relationship between the child's responsiveness and the child's committed compliance during mother-child interactions when the child's brain activity lagged behind that of the mother. However, these effects were not found during stranger-child interactions, nor were there significant effects in the mother-child pair when no real interactions occurred. Finally, we found a transfer effect of a child's committed compliance from mother-child interactions to stranger-child interactions via the mediation of mother-child INS, but the opposite did not occur. Together, these findings suggest that a child's responsiveness during mother-child interactions can significantly facilitate her or his committed compliance by increasing mother-child INS.

5.
Brain Cogn ; 151: 105738, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915401

RESUMO

Although tend-and-befriend is believed to be the dominant stress response in women, little is known regarding the effects of acute psychosocial stress on different dynamic social interactions. To measure these effects, 80 female participants were recruited, paired into the dyads, and instructed to complete cooperative and competitive key-pressing tasks after experiencing acute stress or a control condition. Each dyad of participants should press the key synchronously when the signal was presented in the cooperative task and as fast as possible in the competitive task. During the tasks, brain activities of prefrontal and right temporo-parietal areas were recorded from each dyad using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The results showed that acute psychosocial stress evidently promoted competitive behavior, accompanied by increased interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Despite the lack of a significant difference in the overall cooperation rate, the response time difference between two stressed participants markedly declined over time with more widespread INS in the prefrontal cortex, suggesting that there ensued cooperative improvement among stressed women. These findings behaviorally and neurologically revealed context-dependent response patterns to psychosocial stress in women during dynamic social interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interpessoais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Estresse Psicológico
6.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(5): 1571-1584, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839942

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have highlighted the importance of listener-speaker neural coupling in successful verbal communication. Whether the brain-to-brain coupling changes with healthy aging and the possible role of this change in the speech comprehension of older adults remain unexplored. In this study, we scanned with fMRI a young and an older speaker telling real-life stories and then played the audio recordings to a group of young (N = 28, aged 19-27 year) and a group of older adults during scanning (N = 27, aged 53-75 year), respectively. The older listeners understood the speech less well than did the young listeners, and the age of the older listeners was negatively correlated with their level of speech understanding. Compared to the young listener-speaker dyads, the older dyads exhibited reduced neural couplings in both linguistic and extra-linguistic areas. Moreover, within the older group, the listener's age was negatively correlated with the overall strength of interbrain coupling, which in turn was associated with reduced speech understanding. These results reveal the deficits of older adults in achieving neural alignment with other brains, which may underlie the age-related decline in speech understanding.

7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(5): 1627-1639, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866405

RESUMO

Writing sequences play an important role in handwriting of Chinese characters. However, little is known regarding the integral brain patterns and network mechanisms of processing Chinese character writing sequences. The present study decoded brain patterns during observing Chinese characters in motion by using multi-voxel pattern analysis, meta-analytic decoding analysis, and extended unified structural equation model. We found that perception of Chinese character writing sequence recruited brain regions not only for general motor schema processing, i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, shifting, and inhibition functions, i.e., the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral pre-SMA/dACC, but also for sensorimotor functions specific for writing sequences. More importantly, these brain regions formed a cooperatively top-down brain network where information was transmitted from brain regions for general motor schema processing to those specific for writing sequences. These findings not only shed light on the neural mechanisms of Chinese character writing sequences, but also extend the hierarchical control model on motor schema processing.

8.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(4): 963-977, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502622

RESUMO

Many studies have examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms of bilingual language control, but few of them have captured the pattern information of brain activation. However, language control is a functional combination of both cognitive control and language production which demonstrates distinct patterns of neural representations under different language contexts. The first aim of the present study was to explore the brain activation patterns of language control using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA). During the experiment, Chinese-English bilinguals were instructed to name pictures in either Chinese or English according to a visually presented cue while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that patterns of neural activity in frontal brain regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral precentral gyri, and the left cerebellum reliably discriminated between switch and non-switch conditions. We then modeled causal interactions between these regions by applying effective connectivity analyses based on an extended unified structure equation model (euSEM). The results showed that frontal and fronto-cerebellar connectivity were key components of the language control network. These findings further reveal the engagement of the cognitive control network in bilingual language production.

9.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(3): 1647-1659, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145593

RESUMO

Interpersonal touch plays a key role in creating and maintaining affiliative pair bonds in romantic love. However, the neurocognitive mechanism of interpersonal touch in affiliative pair bonding remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) during interpersonal touch underlies affiliative pair bonding between romantic couples. To test this hypothesis, INS between heterosexual romantic couples and between opposite-sex friends was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based hyperscanning, while the pairs of participants touched or vocally communicated with each other. The results showed significantly greater INS between the mentalizing and sensorimotor neural systems of two members of a pair during interpersonal touch than during vocal communication between romantic couples but not between friends. Moreover, touch-induced INS was significantly correlated with the self-reported strength of romantic love. Finally, the results also showed that men's empathy positively modulated the association between touch-induced INS increase and the strength of romantic love. These findings support the idea that INS during interpersonal touch underlies affiliative pair bonding between romantic couples and suggest that empathy plays a modulatory role in the neurocognitive mechanism of interpersonal touch in affiliative pair bonding.

10.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 246-255, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150951

RESUMO

The ability to use language makes us human. For decades, researchers have been racking their minds to understand the relation between language and the human brain. Nevertheless, most previous neuroscientific research has investigated this issue from a 'single-brain' perspective, thus neglecting the nature of interpersonal communication through language. With the development of modern hyperscanning techniques, researchers have begun probing the neurocognitive processes underlying interpersonal verbal communication and have examined the involvement of interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) in communication. However, in most cases, the neurocognitive processes underlying INS are obscure. To tentatively address this issue, we propose herein a hierarchical model based on the findings from a growing amount of hyperscanning research. We suggest that three levels of neurocognitive processes are primarily involved in interpersonal verbal communication and are closely associated with distinctive patterns of INS. Different levels of these processes modulate each other bidirectionally. Furthermore, we argued that two processes (shared representation and interpersonal predictive coding) might coexist and work together at each level to facilitate successful interpersonal verbal communication. We hope this model will inspire further innovative research in several directions within the fields of social and cognitive neuroscience.

11.
Behav Brain Res ; 401: 113086, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359369

RESUMO

It has been documented that conflict adaptation (conflict resolution in a task enhanced by that in a previous task) exists not only in the same domain but also across different domains with shared cognitive control mechanisms. For the first time, the present study adopted a cross-task adaptive blocked design to examine the relationship between bilingual language control and cognitive control from the perspective of the immediately adjacent, mutual influence on the neural connectivity level. The results showed that the conflict setting induced by previous tasks changed the nodal degrees of the anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area and the right thalamus, and connectivity strength of shared links between adjacent language and cognitive control tasks. In addition, pre-activation of the cognitive control network affected the transitivity of the successive use of the language control network. These findings not only indicate a cross-task adaptation effect on the neural connectivity level, but also provide evidence for similarities in conflict detection and inhibition control between language-specific control and domain-general cognitive control. In addition, our results also suggest that there is only partial overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general cognitive control.

12.
Neuropsychologia ; 148: 107630, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976851

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have reported that the right cerebellar lobule VI is engaged in reading, but its role is unclear. The goal of our study was to identify functionally-dissociable subregions in the right lobule VI and how these subregions contribute to reading in children with normal or impaired reading. In Experiment I, typically developing children performed an orthographic task and a phonological task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We classified the voxels in the right lobule VI into seven zones based on the patterns of functional connectivity with the cerebrum across both tasks. In Experiment II, we compared the brain activation and cerebro-cerebellar connectivities of each subregion between children readers with different reading levels. We did not find significant group differences in cerebellar activation. However, we found that impaired readers had considerably higher functional connectivity between R1 and the right angular gyrus and the right precuneus compared to the control group in the phonological task. These findings show that the right cerebellar lobule VI is functionally parceled and its subregions might be differentially connected with the cerebrum between children with normal reading abilities and those with impaired reading.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Cérebro , Encéfalo , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
13.
Neuropsychologia ; 147: 107592, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858045

RESUMO

When bilinguals intend to speak in their first (L1) or second language (L2) according to the environment, a brain network involving cortical-subcortical regions is recruited to resolve cross-language interference. Research has found that the activation of these brain regions varies with language contexts. However, previous studies have not yet examined adaptive changes in the interactions of brain regions for different language contexts. To address this gap, we adopted extended unified structural equation modeling (euSEM) to identify the connectivity patterns of the bilingual control network. Twenty-one unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals were instructed to name pictures in L1-single, L2-single, and dual-language contexts while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that unbalanced bilinguals relied on a more functional integrated brain network, which was reflected by clearer core-periphery structures and increased global efficiency, in dual-language and L2-single contexts compared to L1-single context. Furthermore, the pattern of brain connectivity in the dual-language context was more similar to that in the L1-single context than the L2-single context. More importantly, we found more similarities between the connectivity patterns of dual-language and L1-single contexts in bilinguals with lower inhibitory control abilities. These findings provide the first connectivity evidence for the effect of language context on the bilingual language control network, which inhibits the base language and underpins bilinguals' change along the monolingual-bilingual mode continuum.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(1): 97-109, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022237

RESUMO

Human beings organise socially. Theories have posited that interpersonal neural synchronisation might underlie the creation of affiliative bonds. Previous studies tested this hypothesis mainly during a social interaction, making it difficult to determine whether the identified synchronisation is associated with affiliative bonding or with social interaction. This study addressed this issue by focusing on the teacher-student relationship in the resting state both before and after a teaching period. Brain activity was simultaneously measured in both individuals using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a significant increase in brain synchronisation at the right sensorimotor cortex between the teacher and student in the resting state after, but not before, the teaching period. Moreover, the synchronisation increased only after a turn-taking mode of teaching but not after a lecturing or video mode of teaching. A chain mediation analysis showed that brain synchronisation during teaching partially mediated the relationship between the brain synchronisation increase in the resting state and strength of the affiliative bond. Finally, both role assignment and social interaction were found to be required for affiliative bonding. Together, these results support the hypothesis that interpersonal synchronisation in brain activity underlies affiliative bonding and that social interaction mechanically mediates the bonding process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(3): 942-951, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318013

RESUMO

Whether auditory processing of speech relies on reference to the articulatory motor information of speaker remains elusive. Here, we addressed this issue under a two-brain framework. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to record the brain activities of speakers when telling real-life stories and later of listeners when listening to the audio recordings of these stories. Based on between-brain seed-to-voxel correlation analyses, we revealed that neural dynamics in listeners' auditory temporal cortex are temporally coupled with the dynamics in the speaker's larynx/phonation area. Moreover, the coupling response in listener's left auditory temporal cortex follows the hierarchical organization for speech processing, with response lags in A1+, STG/STS, and MTG increasing linearly. Further, listeners showing greater coupling responses understand the speech better. When comprehension fails, such interbrain auditory-articulation coupling vanishes substantially. These findings suggest that a listener's auditory system and a speaker's articulatory system are inherently aligned during naturalistic verbal interaction, and such alignment is associated with high-level information transfer from the speaker to the listener. Our study provides reliable evidence supporting that references to the articulatory motor information of speaker facilitate speech comprehension under a naturalistic scene.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(7): 2357-2371, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222427

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that training on inhibitory control (IC) leads to functional neural plastic changes, although this effect on individuals with different levels of IC abilities has yet to be studied. Here, we examined the individual differences in IC abilities of 85 participants, who performed a Simon task while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Participants in the experimental group followed an 8-day training session on IC between the pre- and the post-test, whereas the control group did not receive any training. The fMRI results reported that, in comparison to the control group, the training session elicited different patterns of neural adaptation between participants with high- and low-IC abilities in the experimental group. While training reduced activation levels in the supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral thalamus, and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of individuals with low-IC performance prior to the training, the same pattern was not found in participants with high-IC performance. In addition, individual differences in IC abilities before training also positively correlated with activation reduction in these brain regions after training. These results suggest that individual differences in IC abilities modulate the neural plasticity of IC, and IC training specifically enhanced neural efficiency in individuals with low-IC abilities. Our findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the functional neuroplasticity of the IC system by highlighting the interaction between individual variances in IC abilities and short-term training effects.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adulto , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuroimage ; 198: 63-72, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102737

RESUMO

When people communicate, they come to see the world in a similar way to each other by aligning their mental representations at such levels as syntax. Syntax is an essential feature of human language that distinguishes humans from other non-human animals. However, whether and how communicators share neural representations of syntax is not well understood. Here we addressed this issue by measuring the brain activity of both communicators in a series of dyadic communication contexts, by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Two communicators alternatively spoke sentences either with the same or with different syntactic structures. Results showed a significantly higher-level increase of interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) at right posterior superior temporal cortex when communicators produced the same syntactic structures as each other compared to when they produced different syntactic structures. These increases of INS correlated significantly with communication quality. Our findings provide initial evidence for shared neural representations of syntax between communicators.


Assuntos
Linguística , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Sincronização Cortical , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2405, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921937

RESUMO

The neural mechanism for selectively tuning in to a target speaker while tuning out the others in a multi-speaker situation (i.e., the cocktail-party effect) remains elusive. Here we addressed this issue by measuring brain activity simultaneously from a listener and from multiple speakers while they were involved in naturalistic conversations. Results consistently show selectively enhanced interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) between the listener and the attended speaker at left temporal-parietal junction, compared with that between the listener and the unattended speaker across different multi-speaker situations. Moreover, INS increases significantly prior to the occurrence of verbal responses, and even when the listener's brain activity precedes that of the speaker. The INS increase is independent of brain-to-speech synchronization in both the anatomical location and frequency range. These findings suggest that INS underlies the selective process in a multi-speaker situation through neural predictions at the content level but not the sensory level of speech.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(7): 3046-3057, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575392

RESUMO

The neural mechanism for the dyadic process of teaching is poorly understood. Although theories about teaching have proposed that before any teaching takes place, the teacher will predict the knowledge state of the student(s) to enhance the teaching outcome, this theoretical Prediction-Transmission hypothesis has not been tested with any neuroimaging studies. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based hyperscanning, this study measured brain activities of the teacher-student pairs simultaneously. Results showed that better teaching outcome was associated with higher time-lagged interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) between right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) of the teacher and anterior superior temporal cortex (aSTC) of the student, when the teacher's brain activity preceded that of the student. Moreover, time course analyses suggested that such INS could mark the quality of the teaching outcome at an early stage of the teaching process. These results provided key neural evidence for the Prediction-Transmission hypothesis about teaching, and suggested that the INS plays an important role in the successful teaching.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Pessoal de Educação , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Estudantes , Ensino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(2): 662-679, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124823

RESUMO

Reading is an important high-level cognitive function of the human brain, requiring interaction among multiple brain regions. Revealing differences between children's large-scale functional brain networks for reading tasks and those of adults helps us to understand how the functional network changes over reading development. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 adults (19-28 years old) and 16 children (11-13 years old), and graph theoretical analyses to investigate age-related changes in large-scale functional networks during rhyming and meaning judgment tasks on pairs of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that: (1) adults had stronger inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree in occipital regions, while children had stronger inter-regional connectivity in temporal regions, suggesting that adults rely more on visual orthographic processing whereas children rely more on auditory phonological processing during reading. (2) Only adults showed between-task differences in inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree, whereas children showed no task differences, suggesting the topological organization of adults' reading network is more specialized. (3) Children showed greater inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree than adults in multiple subcortical regions; the hubs in children were more distributed in subcortical regions while the hubs in adults were more distributed in cortical regions. These findings suggest that reading development is manifested by a shift from reliance on subcortical to cortical regions. Taken together, our study suggests that Chinese reading development is supported by developmental changes in brain connectivity properties, and some of these changes may be domain-general while others may be specific to the reading domain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Fonética , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
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