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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127249, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600375

RESUMO

Thermal conversion of solid digestate following anaerobic digestion (AD) can be a solution for producing value-added products and closing the material loop. The products of the novel autogenic pressure carbonization (APC) of food waste and two digestates were characterized to evaluate the temperature effect, product distribution and physicochemical composition. As the temperature increased from 300 to 700 â„ƒ, char yields slightly decreased from 60.0% to 53.3% for the solid digestate from high-solid AD (SDH) while those of the solid digestate from low-solid AD (SDL) varied from 78.7% to 73.2%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that pyridinic N accounts for 40.0% of total N in char of SDL at 700 â„ƒ that can be upgraded to functional N-doped carbon materials. Maximum yield (39.8%) of syngas was obtained at 700 â„ƒ with SDH as a feedstock. After APC at 700 â„ƒ, syngas, mainly consisted of CH4 and CO2, had heating values ranging from 22.4 to 24.6MJm-3, which can be jointly utilized with biogas from AD as fuel. Overall, results from this study demonstrate that APC could be used as a potential thermal conversion process for producing value-added products (N-doped biochar) and biofuel (syngas).

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150982, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656567

RESUMO

Although microplastics have been investigated in terrestrial environments, the occurrence and transport of microplastics in semiarid regions with serious wind erosion are still limited. We investigated plastic debris, including macroplastics (>5 mm) and microplastics (50 µm to 5 mm), from twenty semiarid farmlands and then developed a mass flux model to calculate the quantities of plastic debris transport by wind erosion. Finally, the spatial extent of microplastic deposition was estimated. The average abundance of macroplastics increased with duration of mulching film use, whereas the abundance of microplastics did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Moreover, the highest abundance of microplastics among samples was from the farmland using greenhouse, which suggests that wind erosion played an essential role in retention of plastic debris. Besides, the enrichment ratio (ER) which depends on the shape of microplastics is identified to be a key indicator of the mass flux model. The results showed that 6.91-38.11 kg/ha of plastic debris was released by wind in the 25th year after film application, with 6.14 n/m2 of microplastics settling in February in Xi'an, which is 690 km away from the source.

3.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(9): 23259671211026624, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604425

RESUMO

Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, MPFL repair, and nonoperative treatment are important treatments for patients with patellar dislocation. However, it is unclear which treatment leads to better outcomes. Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of the 3 treatments in the treatment of patellar dislocation and compare the effect of MPFL reconstruction with MPFL repair, MPFL reconstruction with nonoperative treatment, and MPFL repair with nonoperative treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Wanfang databases were searched from inception to December 2020. Included were clinical studies that described the efficacy and safety of 2 of the 3 treatments, studies directly comparing the clinical effects of the 2 operative techniques, or studies comparing the effects of reconstruction or repair with nonoperative treatment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tools. The outcomes evaluated were postoperative redislocation rate, revision rate, complications, and Kujala score. We used traditional direct pairwise meta-analysis as well as network meta-analysis for comprehensive efficacy of all 3 treatment measures. Results: Twelve studies were included: 5 compared MPFL reconstruction with MPFL repair, 2 compared MPFL reconstruction with nonoperative treatment, and 5 compared MPFL repair with nonoperative treatment. The risk of bias was serious in 4, moderate in 4 and low in 4 articles. MPFL reconstruction led to significantly reduced redislocation and improved Kujala scores compared with MPFL repair and nonoperative treatment. MPFL repair led to reduced redislocation rates compared with nonoperative treatment but did not show an obvious benefit in primary dislocations. There was no significant difference among the 3 treatments in terms of revision rate and incidence of complications, although we found that treatment-related complications were least likely to occur in nonoperative treatment. Conclusion: The results of this review indicate that MPFL reconstruction decreases recurrent dislocation compared with MPFL repair or nonoperative treatment, but it has a higher possibility of complications. MPFL repair resulted in less postoperative redislocation than nonoperative treatment but did not show an obvious benefit in primary dislocation.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126079, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610428

RESUMO

Degradation of bioplastics in food-waste-treating anaerobic digestion (AD) plants is becoming an increasingly concerning issue as they are inevitably mixed with food waste during the waste collection process. The aim of this study was to assess the degradation of PBAT/PLA based biopolymer bags during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, co-digested with food waste, and subsequent aerobic post-treatment. After the AD process, no discernable biological degradation was observed for all of the PBAT/PLA polymers. The comparison of FTIR, XRD, TG analysis and contact angle analysis between raw and degraded PBAT/PLA polymer revealed structural changes after anaerobic incubation. Subsequent aerobic treatment facilitated the degradation of the PBAT/PLA polymers from thermophilic AD, which was attributed to the polymer-degrading microorganisms Brevundimonas and Sphingobacterium. Physical disintegration of the PBAT/PLA polymer was observed under thermophilic conditions. Those undegraded polymer fragments could affect digestate quality and increase the risk of releasing microplastics into the environment.

5.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 8(1): 38, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of retinal ischemia, neurodegeneration, and subclinical edema on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Ischemia was evaluated by the microvascular parameters measured by optical coherence tomography angiography. Neurodegeneration and subclinical edema were identified by the intraretinal layer thickness obtained by optical coherence tomography. Eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 132) from 89 patients were analyzed. Eyes were classified as having normal BCVA (n = 88 [66.7%], Snellen equivalent ≥ 20/20) or decreased BCVA (n = 44 [33.3%], Snellen equivalent < 20/20). The prevalence of ischemia, neurodegeneration, and subclinical edema was explored in patients with and without decreased BCVA, and correlations between BCVA and these pathological pathways were determined. RESULTS: Vessel density in the deep retinal capillary plexus (DRCP) and thickness of ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) were significantly lower in eyes with decreased BCVA compared with eyes with normal BCVA (both P < 0.05). In the final multiple regression predictive model, age, DRCP vessel density, and GCL-IPL thickness (all P ≤ 0.044) were predictors of BCVA. DRCP vessel density and GCL-IPL thickness have an interactive effect on visual acuity. The proportions of ischemia and neurodegeneration were significantly higher in eyes with decreased BCVA than in eyes with normal BCVA (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: During the natural course of the early stages of DR, ischemia and neurodegeneration were the main disease pathways associated with visual acuity, and the mechanisms varied among patients.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127144, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555763

RESUMO

During coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the exponential increase in clinical waste (CW) generation has caused immense burden to CW treatment facilities. Co-incineration of CW in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is an emergency treatment method. A material flow model was developed to estimate the change in feedstock characteristics and resulting acid gas emission under different CW co-incineration ratios. The ash contents and lower heating values of the feedstocks, as well as HCl concentrations in flue gas showed an upward trend. Subsequently, 72 incineration residue samples were collected from a MSWI performing co-incineration (CW ratio <10 wt%) in Wuhan city, China, followed by 20 incineration residues samples from waste that were not co-incineration. The results showed that the contents of major elements and non-volatile heavy metals in the air pollution control residues increased during co-incineration but were within the reported ranges, whereas those in the bottom ashes revealed no significant changes. The impact of CW co-incineration at a ratio <10 wt% on the distribution of elements in the incineration residues was not significant. However, increase in alkali metals and HCl in flue gas may cause potential boiler corrosion. These results provide valuable insights into pollution control in MSWI during pandemic.

7.
Water Res ; 204: 117586, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474248

RESUMO

Insights into microbiota adaptation to increased ammonia stress, and identification of indicator microorganisms can help to optimize the operation of anaerobic digesters. To identify microbial indicators and investigate their metabolic contribution to acetoclastic methanogenesis (AM), syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (HM), 40 anaerobic batch reactors fed with acetate of 110 mmol/L were set up at NH4+-N concentrations of 0.14 g/L, 5.00 g/L or 7.00 g/L, inoculated with thermophilic or mesophilic microbiota with or without pre-exposure to ammonia stress. Four stable carbon isotope probing approaches were applied in parallel, with [1,2-13C]-CH3COOH, [2-13C]-CH3COOH, [13C]NaHCO3 or non-labeled CH3COOH used individually. The last three approaches were used to quantify the methanogenic pathways by tracking labeled 13C or natural 13C signatures in the resulting CH4 and CO2, and consistently detected the dynamic transition of dominant pathways from AM to SAO-HM under ammonia stress. Results of quantitative PCR and fluorescence in-situ hybridization illustrated the procedure, acetotrophic methanogens being outcompeted by acetate-oxidizing syntrophs. The first and last isotope-labeling approaches were designed to probe the active acetate-mineralizing microbes with DNA-SIP. Known acetate-oxidizing bacteria like Syntrophaceticus and Tepidanaerobacter, as well as novel members of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Symbiobacteraceae were detected, with Methanoculleus as the predominant H2/CO2-utilizing partner. Using NanoSIMS, some bacterial cells were observed to be fixing CO2 from [13C]NaHCO3. In this study, Methanosaeta was only active with ammonia < 200 mg-N/L; the syntrophs catalyzing SAO-HM started to compete with AM-conducting Methanosarcina at intermediate concentrations of ammonia, i.e. 200-500 mg-N/L, and outcompeted the acetotrophic methanogens with ammonia > 500 mg-N/L. Under ammonia stress, diverse known and novel microbial taxa were involved in acetate mineralization, comparable with those identified in previous studies.


Assuntos
Amônia , Metano , Acetatos , Anaerobiose , Methanosarcina , Oxirredução
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495837

RESUMO

The advancements of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have provided us unprecedented opportunities to characterize cellular states and investigate the mechanisms of complex diseases. Due to technical issues such as dropout events, scRNA-seq data contains excess of false zero counts, which has a substantial impact on the downstream analyses. Although several computational approaches have been proposed to impute dropout events in scRNA-seq data, there is no strong consensus on which is the best approach. In this study, we propose a novel weighted ensemble learning method, named EnTSSR, to impute dropout events in scRNA-seq data. By using a multi-view two-side sparse self-representation framework, our model can exploit the consensus similarities between genes and between cells based on the imputed results of various imputation methods. Moreover, we introduce a weighted ensemble strategy to leverage the information captured by various imputation methods effectively. Down-sampling experiments, clustering analysis, differential expression analysis and cell trajectory inference are carried out to evaluate the performance of our proposed model. Experiment results demonstrate that our EnTSSR can effectively recover the true expression pattern of scRNA-seq data.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8185-8196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373736

RESUMO

Background: Efficient and specific induction of cell death in liver cancer is urgently needed. In this study, we aimed to design an exosome-based platform to deliver ferroptosis inducer (Erastin, Er) and photosensitizer (Rose Bengal, RB) into tumor tissues with high specificity. Methods: Exosome donor cells (HEK293T) were transfected with control or CD47-overexpressing plasmid. Exosomes were isolated and loaded with Er and RB via sonication method. Hepa1-6 cell xenograft C57BL/6 model was injected with control and engineered exosomes via tail vein. In vivo distribution of the injected exosomes was analyzed via tracking the fluorescence labeled exosomes. Photodynamic therapy was conducted by 532 nm laser irradiation. The therapeutic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma and toxic side-effects were systemically analyzed. Results: CD47 was efficiently loaded on the exosomes from the donor cells when CD47 was forced expressed by transfection. CD47 surface functionalization (ExosCD47) made the exosomes effectively escape the phagocytosis of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and thus increased the distribution in tumor tissues. Erastin and RB could be effectively encapsulated into exosomes after sonication, and the drug-loaded exosomes (Er/RB@ExosCD47) strongly induced ferroptosis both in vitro and in vivo in tumor cells after irradiation of 532 nm laser. Moreover, compared with the control exosomes (Er/RB@ExosCtrl), Er/RB@ExosCD47 displayed much lower toxicity in liver. Conclusion: The engineered exosomes composed of CD47, Erastin, and Rose Bengal, induce obvious ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with minimized toxicity in liver and kidney. The proposed exosomes would provide a promising strategy to treat types of malignant tumors.

10.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 8(1): 31, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myopia is the most common visual impairment in children and adolescents worldwide. This study described an economical and effective population-based screening pipeline and performed the project of a million scale children and adolescents myopia survey (CAMS), which will shed light on the further study of myopia from the level of epidemiology and precision medicine. METHODS: We developed a novel population-based screening pattern, an intelligent screening process and internet-based information transmission and analysis system to carry out the survey consisting of school children in Wenzhou, China. The examination items include unaided distance visual acuity, presenting distance visual acuity, and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Myopia and high myopia were defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ - 1.00 diopters (D) and SE ≤ - 6.00 D, respectively. Next, the reports of the vision checking were automatically sent to parents and the related departments. The CAMS project will be done two to four times annually with the support of the government. An online eyesight status information management system (OESIMS) was developed to construct comprehensive and efficient electronic vision health records (EVHRs) for myopia information inquiry, risk pre-warning, and further study. RESULTS: The CAMS completed the first-round of screening within 30 days for 99.41% of Wenzhou students from districts and counties, in June 2019. A total of 1,060,925 participants were eligible for CAMS and 1,054,251 (99.37% participation rate) were selected through data quality control, which comprised 1305 schools, and 580,609, 251,050 and 170,967 elementary, middle, and high school students. The mean age of participants was 12.21 ± 3.32 years (6-20 years), the female-to-male ratio was 0.82. The prevalence of myopia in elementary, middle, and high school students was 38.16%, 77.52%, and 84.00%, respectively, and the high myopia incidence was 0.95%, 6.90%, and 12.98%. CONCLUSIONS: The CAMS standardized myopia screening model involves automating large-scale information collection, data transmission, data analysis and early warning, thereby supporting myopia prevention and control. The entire survey reduced 90% of staff, cost, and time consumption compared with previous surveys. This will provide new insights for decision support for public health intervention.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4500-4509, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414750

RESUMO

Loess is widely distributed in northwestern China. Due to the arid climate and rainstorm erosion, lack of nutrients and microorganisms, as well as severe salinization limits the ecosystem carrying capacity of loess soil, which has become one of the major causes of regional land desertification. The fermentation broth derived from food waste usually contains substantial organic acids and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and it has the advantages of being easily produced industrially and applied as fertilizer. Hence, this broth has the potential to become a soil amendment for loess soils. This work studied the Lanzhou loess, which is a typical soil of the Loess Plateau of China, fertilized with fermentation broth for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and microbial analyses. After the application of the broth amendment, the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium, and organic matter content increased by 363%, 577%, 308%, and 204%, respectively. After planting grass, including Halogeton arachnoideus Moq. and Medicago sativa L., the comprehensive soil fertility level was further improved and the total salt content of the soil was decreased by 2.3 g·kg-1 and 1.2 g·kg-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the fermentation broth promoted the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea, which increased by 22 times, and fungi by 8.3 times. Therefore, food waste fermentation broth is conducive to further forming plant-microorganisms symbiosis, improving the ecological environment quality of loess soils.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Solo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Fermentação , Alimentos
12.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 710344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421527

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate whether short-term exposure to high temporal frequency full-field flicker has an impact on spatial visual acuity in individuals with varying degrees of myopia. Methods: Thirty subjects (evenly divided between control and experimental groups) underwent a 5-min exposure to full-field flicker. The flicker rate was lower than critical flicker frequency (CFF) for the experimental group (12.5 Hz) and significantly higher than CFF for the controls (60 Hz). Spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was measured before and immediately after flicker exposure. We examined whether the post flicker CSF parameters were different from the pre-exposure CSF values in either of the subject groups. Additionally, we examined the relationship between the amount of CSF change from pre to post timepoints and the degree of subjects' myopia. The CSF parameters included peak frequency, peak sensitivity, bandwidth, truncation, and area under log CSF (AULCSF). Results: There was no significant difference of all five pre-exposure CSF parameters between the two groups at baseline (P = 0.333 ∼ 0.424). Experimental group subjects exhibited significant (P < 0.005) increases in peak sensitivity and AULCSF, when comparing post-exposure results to pre-exposure ones. Controls showed no such enhancements. Furthermore, the extent of these changes in the experimental group was correlated significantly with the participants' refractive error (P = 0.005 and 0.018, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that exposure to perceivable high-frequency flicker (but, not to supra-CFF frequencies) enhances important aspects of spatial contrast sensitivity, and these enhancements are correlated to the degree of myopia. This finding has implications for potential interventions for cases of modest myopia.

13.
Analyst ; 146(16): 5074-5080, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318784

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus has received much attention because its complications include liver, kidney, eye, heart and cerebrovascular diseases. Thus, it would be highly significant to develop a rapid and efficient method for glucose detection in biological samples. In this work, a point-of-care testing (POCT) method of glucose detection was proposed using a standard colorimetric card for semi-quantitative determination patterns. In the prepared fluorescence color card for glucose, a good linear relationship was acquired by plotting the ratio of the grayscale value (I/I0) versus the logarithm of glucose concentration within 100.0 to 1000.0 µmol L-1, and the LOD of glucose detection was 1.1 µmol L-1. A large number of actual samples (30 serum and 7 urine) were analyzed and the results demonstrated that this method had good potential to be applied in the primary screening of diabetic patients. In addition, this method is universal and can be applied in the simultaneous detection of multiple small molecules. It provides a new strategy for the primary screening of multiple diseases simultaneously, which presents excellent application potential.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Testes Imediatos , Colorimetria , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Glucose , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
14.
J Refract Surg ; 37(7): 438-445, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the diagnostic power of vertical and horizontal thickness profiles of the corneal sublayers generated by ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT) in subclinical and suspected keratoconus. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 25 eyes with confirmed keratoconus, 63 eyes with suspected keratoconus, 15 eyes with subclinical keratoconus, and 42 normal eyes were investigated. Vertical and horizontal thickness profiles of the corneal epithelium, Bowman's layer, and stroma were measured by UHR-OCT. Diagnostic indices included ratios of thickness distribution and multimeric discriminant functions calculated by multiple logistic regression based on them. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to verify the predictive accuracy by the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Function consisting of two indices (vertical maximum ectasia index of epithelium and horizontal maximum ectasia index of Bowman's layer) performed well to discriminate subclinical keratoconus (AUC = 0.967) and suspected keratoconus (AUC = 0.932) from normal. In addition, when four indices were combined, the diagnostic power for subclinical keratoconus (AUC = 0.984) and suspected keratoconus (AUC = 0.971) was further increased. However, both binary and quaternary functions could not adequately discriminate suspected from subclinical keratoconus. CONCLUSIONS: UHR-OCT-generated thickness indices from the vertical and horizontal thickness profiles of the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer showed an evident diagnostic efficacy in discriminating suspected and subclinical keratoconus from normal eyes. The early changes in keratoconus might prefer thickness distribution in corneal sublayers rather than corneal thickness or topography. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(7):438-445.].


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Córnea , Topografia da Córnea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
15.
Analyst ; 146(15): 4775-4780, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231558

RESUMO

Cholesterol is an essential compound for human health, and a high or low concentration of cholesterol is closely related to various diseases. Thus, developing a simple method for POCT of cholesterol has great significance in clinical diagnosis. In this work, alginate (Alg) hydrogels with glow-type chemiluminescence (CL) were prepared and applied for rapid and quantitative cholesterol detection via a smartphone. The glow-type CL hydrogels (HRP/COD/luminol/Alg hydrogels) contained luminol as a chemiluminescent reagent, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholesterol oxidase (COD) for enzymatic cascade reactions. The HRP/COD/luminol/Alg hydrogels exhibited outstanding stability, which effectively avoided the enzyme inactivation during long-term storage. Furthermore, the HRP/COD/luminol/Alg hydrogels exhibited longer and more stable glow-type CL. With the help of COD catalytic specificity for cholesterol and bi-enzymatic cascade reactions, the glow-type CL hydrogels realized the specific and sensitive detection of cholesterol. The smartphone was used as a detector instead of a special large instrument for responding to the glow-type CL emission, and a LOD of 7.2 µM was obtained. Therefore, the proposed sensor expands the application of the glow-type CL in POCT and provides an alternative way for cholesterol detection in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análise , Hidrogéis , Testes Imediatos , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Luminol
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11674, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083622

RESUMO

Direct comparison data on spatial patterns of visual field (VF) defects among primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) are not available. We aimed to compare the intraocular asymmetry of VF loss among patients with PACG, NTG and HTG across different severity levels. A total of 162 eyes of 114 patients with PACG, 111 eyes of 74 patients with HTG and 148 eyes of 102 patients with NTG were included. VF defects were categorized into 3 stages (early, moderate, and advanced), and each hemifield was divided into 5 regions according to the Glaucoma hemifield test (GHT). The mean total deviation (TD) of each GHT region was calculated. In the early stage, the paracentral, peripheral arcuate 1 and peripheral arcuate 2 regions in the superior hemifield in the NTG group had significantly worse mean TDs than their corresponding regions in the inferior hemifield. In the advanced stage, the central region in the superior hemifield in the PACG group had a significantly worse mean TD than that in the inferior hemifield. There was no significant difference in the mean TD for any of the five regions between hemifields across all severity levels in the in the HTG group. The superior hemifield was affected more severely than the inferior hemifield in all three subtypes of primary glaucoma. This asymmetric tendency was more pronounced in NTG than in PACG and HTG.

17.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 686932, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177459

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine if the spatial distribution of the relative corneal refractive power shift (RCRPS) explains the retardation of axial length (AL) elongation after treatment by either orthokeratology (OK) or multifocal soft contact lenses (MFCLs). Methods: Children (8-14 years) were enrolled in the OK (n = 35) or MFCL (n = 36) groups. RCRPS maps were derived by computing the difference between baseline and 12-month corneal topography maps and then subtracting the apex values. Values at the same radius were averaged to obtain the RCRPS profile, from which four parameters were extracted: (1) Half_x and (2) Half_y, i.e., the x- and y-coordinates where each profile first reached the half peak; (3) Sum4 and (4) Sum7, i.e., the summation of powers within a corneal area of 4- and 7-mm diameters. Correlations between AL elongation and these parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: AL elongation in the OK group was significantly smaller than that in the MFCL group (p = 0.040). Half_x and Half_y were also smaller in the OK group than the MFCL group (p < 0.001 each). Half_x was correlated with AL elongation in the OK group (p = 0.005), but not in the MFCL group (p = 0.600). In an analysis that combined eyes of both groups, Half_x was correlated with AL elongation (ß = 0.161, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The OK-induced AL elongation and associated RCRPS Half_x were smaller than for the MFCL. Contact lenses that induce RCRPS closer to the corneal center may exert better myopia control.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125378, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166927

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a matured technology for waste (water) remediation/stabilization and bioenergy generation in the form of biogas. AD technology has several inherent benefits ranging from generating renewable energy, remediating waste (water), and reducing greenhouse gas emission to improving health/hygiene and the overall socio-economic status of rural communities in developing nations. In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in applications of AD technology beyond biogas. This special issue (SI) entitled, "Anaerobic Digestion Beyond Biogas (ADBB-2021)," was conceptualized to incorporate some of the recent advances in AD in which the emphasis is beyond biogas, such as anaerobic biorefinery, chain elongation, treatment of micropollutants, toxicity and system stability, digestate as biofertilizer, bio-electrochemical systems, innovative bioreactors, carbon sequestration, biogas upgrading, microbiomes, waste (water) remediation, residues/waste pre-treatment, promoter addition, and modeling, process control, and automation, among others. This VSI: ADBB-2021 contains 53 manuscripts (14 critical reviews and 39 research). The key findings of each manuscript are briefly summarized here, which can serve as a valuable resource for AD researchers to learn of major advances in AD technology and identify future research directions.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Anaerobiose , Metano , Águas Residuárias
19.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 673491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149348

RESUMO

Purpose: Amblyopia affects not only spatial vision but also temporal vision. In this study, we aim to investigate temporal processing deficits in amblyopia. Methods: Twenty amblyopic patients (age: 27.0 ± 5.53 years, 15 males), and 25 normal observers (age: 25.6 ± 4.03 years, 15 males) were recruited in this study. Contrast thresholds in an orientation discrimination task in five target-mask stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) conditions (16.7 ms, 33.4 ms, 50.0 ms, 83.4 ms, and ∞/no noise) were measured. An elaborated perceptual template model (ePTM) was fit to the behavioral data to derive the temporal profile of visual processing for each participant. Results: There were significant threshold differences between the amblyopic and normal eyes [F(1,43) = 10.6, p = 0.002] and a significant group × SOA interaction [F(2.75,118) = 4.98, p = 0.004], suggesting different temporal processing between the two groups. The ePTM fitted the data well (χ 2 test, all ps > 0.50). Compared to the normal eye, the amblyopic eye had a lower template gain (p = 0.046), and a temporal window with lower peak and broader width (all ps < 0.05). No significant correlation was found between the observed temporal deficits and visual acuity in amblyopia (ps > 0.50). Similar results were found in the anisometropic amblyopia subgroup. No significant difference was found between the fellow eyes of the monocular amblyopia and the normal eyes. Conclusion: Amblyopia is less efficient in processing dynamic visual stimuli. The temporal deficits in amblyopia, represented by a flattened temporal window, are likely independent of spatial vision deficits.

20.
J Biophotonics ; 14(9): e202100116, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051066

RESUMO

Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris can offer valuable insights into the pathophysiology of primary angle closure glaucoma. However, current techniques for iris elastography remain ex vivo with limited clinical applications. This article describes a proposition for a non-contact and non-invasive air-puff optical coherence elastography (OCE) system that can evaluate iris elasticity in vivo. Ten eyes recruited from seven subjects underwent OCE imaging acquisition under three different illumination conditions. The Young's modulus of each eye was detected and shown to be inversely proportional to the iris length, indicating a relationship between mechanical properties and morphology of the iris. With its noninvasive and high-resolution features, this air-puff system shows great potential for applications in clinical ophthalmology.

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