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2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 167: 105986, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is a vital component used to treat HIV-1 infection. Nevertheless, it shows large between-subject variability, which affects both its therapeutic response and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of gene polymorphisms and non-genetic factors on the variability of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and to propose the optimal dose regimens. METHODS: A total of 769 plasma samples from 376 HIV-infected Han Chinese outpatients were collected to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM software. The impact of patient demographics, laboratory tests, concomitant medication, and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2B6 and ABCB1 on efavirenz pharmacokinetics were explored. According to the final model, the model-informed dose optimization was conducted. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of efavirenz was characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The typical values of the estimated apparent oral clearance, volume of distribution, and absorption rate constant in the final model were 9.44 L/h, 200 L, and 0.727 h - 1, respectively. Efavirenz clearance was significantly influenced by CYP2B6 variants, including rs2099361, rs3745274, and rs2279343, along with albumin and weight. The volume of distribution was affected by albumin and weight. Based on the CYP2B6 polymorphisms of patients, the recommended daily doses of efavirenz were 100 mg for CYP2B6 slow metabolizers, 400 or 600 mg for intermediate metabolizers, and 800 or 1000 mg for extensive metabolizers. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms of CYP2B6, along with albumin and weight, resulted as the predictors of efavirenz pharmacokinetic variability, which could be used in prescribing optimal efavirenz doses.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 540-548, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study intended to investigate the dynamics of anti-spike (S) IgG and IgM antibodies in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Anti-S IgG/IgM was determined by a semi-quantitative fluorescence immunoassay in the plasma of COVID-19 patients at the manifestation and rehabilitation stages. The immunoreactivity to full-length S proteins, C-terminal domain (CTD), and N-terminal domain (NTD) of S1 fragments were determined by an ELISA assay. Clinical properties at admission and discharge were collected simultaneously. RESULTS: The positive rates of anti-S IgG/IgM in COVID-19 patients were elevated after rehabilitation compared to the in-patients. Anti-S IgG and IgM were not apparent until day 14 and day ten, respectively, according to Simple Moving Average analysis with five days' slide window deduction. More than 90% of the rehabilitation patients exhibited IgG and IgM responses targeting CTD-S1 fragments. Decreased total peripheral lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts were seen in COVID-19 patients at admission and recovered after the rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-S IgG and IgM do not appear at the onset with the decrease in T cells, making early serological screening less significant. However, the presence of high IgG and IgM to S1-CTD in the recovered patients highlights humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which might be associated with efficient immune protection in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(23): 2787-2795, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and is complicated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of first-diagnosed HIV-associated CM after 2-years of follow-up. METHODS: Data from all patients (n = 101) of HIV-associated CM hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from September 2013 to December 2016 were collected and analyzed using logistic regression to identify clinical and microbiological factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients, 86/99 (86.9%) of patients had CD4 count <50 cells/mm, 57/101 (56.4%) were diagnosed at ≥14 days from the onset to diagnosis, 42/99 (42.4%) had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts and biochemical examination, 30/101 (29.7%) had concomitant Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) on admission and 37/92 (40.2%) were complicated with cryptococcal pneumonia, 50/74 (67.6%) had abnormalities shown on intracranial imaging, amongst whom 24/50 (48.0%) had more than one lesion. The median time to negative CSF Indian ink staining was 8.50 months (interquartile range, 3.25-12.00 months). Patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) before admission had a shorter time to negative CSF Indian ink compared with ART-naïve patients (7 vs. 12 months, χ = 15.53, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 2 years was 10.1% (10/99), 18.9% (18/95), and 20.7% (19/92), respectively. Coinfection with PCP on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.933; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166-13.269, P = 0.027) and altered mental status (AOR, 9.574; 95% CI, 2.548-35.974, P = 0.001) were associated with higher mortality at 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: This study described the clinical features and outcomes of first diagnosed HIV-associated CM with 2-year follow-up data. Altered mental status and coinfection with PCP predicted mortality in HIV-associated CM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , China , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(24): 2919-2927, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albuvirtide is a once-weekly injectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 fusion inhibitor. We present interim data for a phase 3 trial assessing the safety and efficacy of albuvirtide plus lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-1-infected adults already treated with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We carried out a 48-week, randomized, controlled, open-label non-inferiority trial at 12 sites in China. Adults on the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended first-line treatment for >6 months with a plasma viral load >1000 copies/mL were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive albuvirtide (once weekly) plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ABT group) or the WHO-recommended second-line treatment (NRTI group). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma viral load below 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Non-inferiority was prespecified with a margin of 12%. RESULTS: At the time of analysis, week 24 data were available for 83 and 92 patients, and week 48 data were available for 46 and 50 patients in the albuvirtide and NRTI groups, respectively. At 48 weeks, 80.4% of patients in the ABT group and 66.0% of those in the NRTI group had HIV-1 RNA levels below 50 copies/mL, meeting the criteria for non-inferiority. For the per-protocol population, the superiority of albuvirtide over NRTI was demonstrated. The frequency of grade 3 to 4 adverse events was similar in the two groups; the most common adverse events were diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infections, and grade 3 to 4 increases in triglyceride concentration. Renal function was significantly more impaired at 12 weeks in the patients of the NRTI group who received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate than in those of the ABT group. CONCLUSIONS: The TALENT study is the first phase 3 trial of an injectable long-acting HIV drug. This interim analysis indicates that once-weekly albuvirtide in combination with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is well tolerated and non-inferior to the WHO-recommended second-line regimen in patients with first-line treatment failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02369965; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry No. ChiCTR-TRC-14004276; http://www.chictr.org.cn/enindex.aspx.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Maleimidas , Peptídeos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
6.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(6): 656-661, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-33 (IL-33), along with its receptor suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), is capable of regulating immune responses. Immunologically mediated events play a critical role in the acute phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The present study primarily aimed to determine whether the IL-33/ST2 axis could be used as a reliable biomarker to predict disease progression and prognosis. METHODS: The study included 130 cases of CHB, with 48 cases in stable condition, 50 cases of progression to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), and 32 cases of progression to HBV related pre-ACLF. The demographic data and laboratory test results were recorded and compared among the groups. The blood samples for the measurement of serum IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) levels were collected at admission and evaluated twice using the ELISA method. RESULTS: The patients in which the disease progressed to HBV-ACLF had the highest serum IL-33 and sST2 levels among the three groups (p<0.001). The correlation analysis showed that the serum IL-33 levels were associated with the levels of ALT (r = 0.367, p<0.001), AST (r = 0.456, p<0.001) and the MELD score (r = 0.377, p = 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of IL-33 and sST2 levels for differentiation of disease progression were 0.861 (95% CI: 0.787-0.934, p<0.001) and 0.788 (95% CI: 0.692-0.884, p<0.001), respectively. The serum IL-33 levels combined with the MELD score had the highest 90-day mortality prediction efficiency, with an AUC of 0.918 (95% CI: 0.859-0.977, p<0.001), a sensitivity of 92.3%, and a specificity of 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The IL-33/sST2 axis could be used to evaluate the progression and mortality in CHB patients with hepatic flare. The combinatorial use of multiple indicators could achieve the highest diagnostic and predictive accuracy.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-33/sangue , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 75, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not completely clear whether a very high pre-therapy viral load (≥ 500 000 copies/ml) can impair the virological response. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of very high baseline HIV-RNA levels on long-term virological responses under one type of regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on data from two multicenter cohorts in China from January to November 2009, and from May 2013 to December 2015. Untreated HIV infected adults between 18 and 65 years old were recruited before receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. All patients had baseline HIV-RNA levels over 500 copies/ml, good adherence, and were followed for at least 24 weeks. Virological suppression was defined as the first HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml. Virological failure was defined as any of incomplete viral suppression (HIV-RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml without virological suppression within 24 weeks of treatment) and viral rebound (confirmed HIV-RNA level ≥ 50 copies/ml after virological suppression). Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards model and Logistic regression were used to compare virological response between each pretreated viral load stratum. RESULTS: A total of 758 treatment-naïve HIV patients in China were enlisted. Median follow-up time (IQR) was 144 (108-276) weeks. By week 48, rates of virological suppression in three groups (< 100 000, 100 000-500 000 and ≥ 500 000 copies/ml) were 94.1, 85.0, and 63.8%, respectively (P < 0.001). Very high baseline HIV viremia over 500 000 copies/ml were found to be associated with delayed virological suppression (≥ 500 000 vs <  100 000, adjusted relative hazard = 0.455, 95% CI: 0.32-0.65; P < 0.001) as well as incomplete viral suppression (≥ 500 000 vs < 100 000, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.084, 95% CI: 2.761-13.407; P < 0.001) and viral rebound (≥ 50 000 vs < 100 000, aOR = 3.671, 95% CI: 1.009-13.355, P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Very high levels of pre-treatment HIV-RNA were related with delayed efficacy of NNRTI-based ART and increased risk of treatment failure. More potent initial regimens should be considered for those with this clinical character.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/virologia
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e323-e330, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501440

RESUMO

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to international concern. We aimed to establish an effective screening strategy in Shanghai, China, to aid early identification of patients with COVID-19. Methods: We did a multicentre, observational cohort study in fever clinics of 25 hospitals in 16 districts of Shanghai. All patients visiting the clinics within the study period were included. A strategy for COVID-19 screening was presented and then suspected cases were monitored and analysed until they were confirmed as cases or excluded. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Findings: We enrolled patients visiting fever clinics from Jan 17 to Feb 16, 2020. Among 53 617 patients visiting fever clinics, 1004 (1·9%) were considered as suspected cases, with 188 (0·4% of all patients, 18·7% of suspected cases) eventually diagnosed as confirmed cases. 154 patients with missing data were excluded from the analysis. Exposure history (odds ratio [OR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·74-6·33; p<0·0001), fatigue (OR 1·56, 1·01-2·41; p=0·043), white blood cell count less than 4 × 109 per L (OR 2·44, 1·28-4·64; p=0·0066), lymphocyte count less than 0·8 × 109 per L (OR 1·82, 1·00-3·31; p=0·049), ground glass opacity (OR 1·95, 1·32-2·89; p=0·0009), and having both lungs affected (OR 1·54, 1·04-2·28; p=0·032) were independent risk factors for confirmed COVID-19. Interpretation: The screening strategy was effective for confirming or excluding COVID-19 during the spread of this contagious disease. Relevant independent risk factors identified in this study might be helpful for early recognition of the disease. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(13): e14961, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921198

RESUMO

Not only alcoholic cirrhosis related to cardiac dysfunction, cirrhosis caused by nonalcoholic etiology including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection also related to impaired cardiac health. The aims of present study were to perform a noninvasive evaluation of cardiac function and to evaluate exercise performance in HBV related cirrhotic patients without typical symptoms of cardiac disease.Seventy-nine HBV related cirrhotic patients and 103 matched subjects without a previous history of cardiac involvement were recruited. Clinical examination and cardiac health evaluation were performed. The incidence, risk factors of cardiac dysfunction and exercise tolerance were investigated.A correlation between QTc interval and model for end-stage liver disease score (R = 0.239, P = .018) was detected, however, the connection between QTc prolongation and the severity of liver disease was uncertain. Patients with HBV related cirrhosis had a tendency toward left ventricular wall thickening (P = .007). Forty-one patients (51.90%) were in accordance with the definition of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and a significant increase in the incidence of cardiac diastolic dysfunction (CDD) could be found with increasing Child-Pugh grade (P = .004). HBV related cirrhotic patients with CDD had a higher level of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P = .025), international normalized ratio (P = .010) Child-Pugh score (P = .020), and a higher proportion of ascites (P < .001). The higher Child-Pugh score (odds ratio = 1.662, P = .010) was an independent diagnostic predictor of CDD. The cardiac depression and exercise tolerance also got worse with increasing Child-Pugh score (P < .001).Impaired cardiac health was common in HBV related cirrhotic patients. Cardiogenic factors must be carefully considered in the integral therapy of cirrhosis. Hepatology physicians should lay emphasis on exercise training in daily life.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 124(4): 456-465, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346663

RESUMO

Lopinavir (LPV) is a protease inhibitor (PI) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Current studies on LPV are mainly focused on Caucasians, and none have investigated the population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of LPV in Chinese population. The present study aimed to develop a PPK model for oral LPV in Chinese adults who are HIV-infected. A total of 460 LPV concentrations from 174 Chinese patients who received LPV/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg orally every 12 hours (q12h) were analysed using the non-linear mixed-effects modelling approach. Simulations of the LPV concentration profile were performed with different dosing regimens. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination process described the data. The estimated apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) (% relative standard error [RSE]) for oral LPV were 5.9 L/h (3%) and 117 L (8%), respectively. Body-weight was identified as a covariate on CL/F. In patients who weighed between 45 and 115 kg and received the standard 400/100 mg q12h regimen, the probability of achieving target trough concentration (Ctrough ) of 1 mg/L was >98% for PI-naïve patients and the probability of achieving target Ctrough of 4 mg/L was <80% for PI-pretreated patients. This is the first population pharmacokinetic study to characterise the PK of LPV in Chinese patients with HIV infection. There were no obvious ethnic differences in the PK of LPV between the Chinese population and Caucasian population. The simulations demonstrated that the standard dosing regimen of 400/100 mg q12h (LPV/r tablets) appears to be sufficient for PI-naïve patients but suboptimal for PI-pretreated patients. Therefore, the regimen of 800/200 mg q12h was recommended for PI-pretreated patients. Further investigation of dosage recommendation could be helpful in optimising LPV therapy for HIV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lopinavir/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 25, 2018 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection still places a great burden on HIV-infected individuals in China and other developing countries. Knowledge of the survival of HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) would provide important insights for the clinical management of this population, which remains to be well described in current China. METHODS: HIV-infected patients with PTB admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January 2011 to December 2015 were retrospectively enrolled. In this cohort, the survival prognosis was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, while univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: After reviewing 4914 admitted patients with HIV infection, 359 PTB cases were identified. At the time of PTB diagnosis, the patients' median CD4+ T cell count was 51 /mm3 (IQR: 23-116), and 27.30% of patients (98/359) were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). For the 333 cases included in the survival analysis, the overall mortality was 15.92% (53/333) during a median 27-month follow-up. The risk factors, including age older than 60 years (HR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.66-6.10), complication with bacterial pneumonia (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.30-5.35), diagnosis delay (HR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.42-4.78), CD4+ T cell count less than 50/mm3 (HR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.27-4.43) and pulmonary atelectasis (HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.05-4.60), might independently contribute to poor survival. Among patients without cART before anti-TB treatment, the later initiation of cART (more than 8 weeks after starting anti-TB treatment) was found to increase the mortality rate (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 1.22-15.36), while the initiation of cART within 4-8 weeks after starting anti-TB treatment was associated with the fewest deaths (0/14). CONCLUSIONS: The subjects in this study conducted in the cART era were still characterized by depressed immunological competence and low rates of cART administration, revealing possible intervention targets for preventing TB reactivation in HIV-infected individuals under current circumstances. Furthermore, our study indicated that the timely diagnosis of PTB, prevention of secondary bacterial pneumonia by prophylactic management and optimization of the timing of cART initiation could have significant impacts on decreasing mortality among HIV/PTB co-infected populations. These findings deserve further prospective investigations to optimize the management of HIV/PTB-co-infected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01344148 , Registered September 14, 2010.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sobrevida , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 5(4): 315-321, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406842

RESUMO

Objective: The overarching objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of HIV symptom management guidelines in China in reducing the incidence and severity of symptoms and improving patients' quality of life. Methods: We conducted a controlled, pre- and post-implementation design in the HIV/AIDS inpatient unit in Shanghai. Patients recruited from November 2014 to February 2015 were in the intervention group and those from October 2013 to February 2014 were in the control group. There were 74 patients in each group. Participants in the intervention group received interventions based on the HIV symptom management guidelines. Overall symptom severity, depression, and quality of life were measured in two groups at baseline, week 4, and week 8. Results: Totally 126 patients completed the research, 65 in the intervention group and 61 in the control group. The total symptom severity scores showed a statistically significant difference between groups across time (P < 0.05). It showed that frequencies of fatigue (36.9% vs. 44.3%), fever (6.2% vs. 11.5%), loss in weight (9.2% vs. 16.4%), mouth ulcers (12.3% vs. 16.4%), headaches (9.2% vs. 19.7%) and depression (F = 1.09, P > 0.05) in the intervention group were lower than those in the control group in week 8 without statistical significance. The multilevel growth mixture model indicated a greater increase in the total score of quality of life for the group treated according to the symptom management guidelines (P = 0.04). Conclusion: The evidence-based HIV symptom management guidelines can improve a patient's quality of life and relieve negative symptoms. The guidelines can be applied in a similar context to other HIV/AIDS units or clinics.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 162, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169380

RESUMO

CORRECTION: After publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that the affiliation of Jun Chen and Hong-zhou Lu were incorrectly shown.Jun Chen's affiliation should have been given as Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.Hong-zhou Lu should have been given as Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.The original article has been updated to reflect this change.

17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 132, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to quickly distinguish non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection from tuberculosis (TB) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients because of many similarities between these diseases. A simple and effective way to determine the differences using routine blood tests is necessary in developing countries. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to recruit HIV-infected patients with either NTM infection or TB infection diagnosed for the first time according to mycobacterial culture and microscopic identification from May 2010 to March 2016. These data included the analysis of blood cells, liver function, renal function, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and were compared between the HIV/TB and HIV/NTM groups. RESULTS: A total of 240 patients were enrolled. The number of HIV/TB and HIV/NTM patients was 113 and 127, respectively. There were no significant differences in the CD4 T-cell count, age, sex, percentage of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the explicit diagnosis of TB or NTM infection. NTM infection was more likely to be restricted in the pulmonary while TB infection also involves extra-pulmonary sites. Both the leukocyte count(5.60 × 109/L) and the proportion of neutrophils in the leukocyte count (76.70%) in the HIV/TB group were significantly higher than those in the HIV/NTM group (4.40 × 109/L [P = 0.0014] and 69.30% [P < 0.001]. The analysis of liver function markers indicated that the concentration of albumin but not ALT and AST was significantly lower in the HIV/TB group than in the HIV/NTM group (P < 0.001). The creatinine and urea levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The ESR (84.00 mm/h) and the concentration of CRP (59.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in the HIV/TB group than in the HIV/NTM group (52.00 mm/h and 19.60 mg/L, respectively) (P < 0.001). To distinguish TB infection from NTM infection, the best cut-off value was 69.5 mm/h for ESR, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.740 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.721, and 48.8 mg/L for CRP, with a PPV of 0.676 and NPV of 0.697. CONCLUSION: The dissemination character as well as stronger immune response characterized by higher inflammation markers (e.g. WBC, ESR, CRP) can help distinguish TB from NTM infection in HIV-infected patients who need empirical therapy or diagnostic therapy immediately in low-income areas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/sangue , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/sangue
18.
Am J Med Sci ; 353(5): 452-458, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 150 patients with HBV-ACLF was performed. The occurrence, risk factors and functional recovery of AKI among patients with HBV-ACLF were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients (60%) with HBV-ACLF developed AKI. Patients with AKI had higher creatine kinase (P = 0.004), total bilirubin (P = 0.039), HBV viral load (P = 0.044), serum creatine (P < 0.001) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (P < 0.001) values and a higher proportion of hepatic encephalopathy (P = 0.032) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (P = 0.042) than patients without AKI. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that SBP (odds ratio = 6.214, P = 0.012) and MELD score (odds ratio = 1.097, P = 0.006) were risk factors for the development of AKI. A subgroup analysis of recovery patterns in renal function showed that patients with a severe AKI stage had worse outcomes (P = 0.007). The proportion of patients who experienced a complete recovery was higher in survivors than in the overall AKI populations (P = 0.004). Follow-up studies showed that the no-AKI group had a higher transplant-free survival rate than the AKI group at day 90 (80.0% versus 26.7%, respectively, P < 0.001). The survival rate among patients with AKI Stage 1 was higher than that of patients with AKI Stage 2 and patients with AKI Stage 3 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in patients with HBV-ACLF. The SBP and MELD score have some prognosis value for patients with AKI. AKI and its stages affect the 90-day transplant-free mortality rate. It is important to focus on exploring the early recognition of AKI and early intervention of those risk factors in individuals with HBV-ACLF.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 5(1): 74, 2016 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease spread rapidly in West Africa in 2014, leading to the loss of thousands of lives. Community engagement was one of the key strategies to interrupt Ebola transmission, and practical community level measures needed to be explored in the field and tailored to the specific context of communities. METHODS: First, community-level education on Ebola virus disease (EVD) prevention was launched for the community's social mobilizers in six districts in Sierra Leone beginning in November 2014. Then, from January to May of 2015, in three pilot communities, local trained community members were organized to engage in implementation of EVD prevention and transmission interruption measures, by involving them in alert case report, contact tracing, and social mobilization. The epidemiological indicators of transmission interruption in three study communities were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 6 016 community social mobilizers from 185 wards were trained by holding 279 workshops in the six districts, and EVD message reached an estimated 631 680 residents. In three pilot communities, 72 EVD alert cases were reported, with 70.8 % of them detected by trained local community members, and 14 EVD cases were finally identified. Contact tracing detected 64.3 % of EVD cases. The median duration of community infectivity for the cases was 1 day. The secondary attack rate was 4.2 %, and no third generation of infection was triggered. No health worker was infected, and no unsafe burial and noncompliance to EVD control measures were recorded. The community-based measures were modeled to reduce 77 EVD cases, and the EVD-free goal was achieved four months earlier in study communities than whole country of Sierra Leone. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based strategy of social mobilization and community engagement was effective in case detection and reducing the extent of Ebola transmission in a country with weak health system. The successfully practical experience to reduce the risk of Ebola transmission in the community with poor resources would potentially be helpful for the global community to fight against the EVD and the other diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(45): e2023, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26559304

RESUMO

Investigating the predictors for lumbar puncture to diagnose the asymptomatic neurosyphilis among HIV and syphilis co-infected patients in Shanghai, China. Respectively, screening the medical records from August 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015. Those HIV-infected patients with concurrent syphilis who had received lumbar puncture were selected and their clinical and demographic data were recorded. Participants comprised symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The latter ones could be further divided into 3 groups: late syphilis, early syphilis with anti-syphilis treatment failure, and early syphilis with serum toludine red unheated serum test (TRUST) ≥1:32. Both syphilis stage and anti-syphilis treatment effect were defined by common criteria, and syphilis of unknown duration was considered as late syphilis. Asymptomatic neurosyphilis was defined as neurosyphilis without neurological symptoms such as headache, cognitive dysfunction, motor deficits, auditory or ophthalmic abnormalities, and stroke. Neurosyphilis was defined as reactive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TRUST and/or CSF white blood cell >20 cells/µL without other reasons. Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test were used for analyzing the difference between neurosyphilis and non-neurosyphilis group. Logistic regression test was performed to analyze the risk factors for neurosyphilis. In total, 170 participants were collected, and the rate of neurosyphilis was 32.35%. Among all the 105 participants without neurological symptoms, 80 patients were with late syphilis and 25 were with early syphilis. Among the early syphilis patients, 23 had a TRUST ≥1:32 and the other 2 experienced an anti-syphilis treatment failure. The differences of clinical and demographic variables between neurosyphilis and non-neurosyphilis group were not statistically significant except the serum TRUST titer (P < 0.01). From HIV/syphilis co-infected patients with or without neurological symptom, those who had neurological symptoms, CD4 <350 per µL and serological TRUST titer ≥1:16 were 4.9-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.37-10.31), 4.3-fold (95% CI: 1.17-15.78), and 4.1-fold (95% CI: 1.58-10.76), respectively, more likely to be diagnosed with neurosyphilis. Asymptomatic patients whose serum TRUST titer ≥1:16 were 8.48-fold (95% CI: 1.08-66.63) more likely to have asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with late syphilis or early syphilis experienced an anti-syphilis treatment failure, those who have a serum TRUST titer ≥1:16 are suggested to perform lumbar puncture in order to avoid delayed diagnosis and the occurrence of severe sequelae of syphilis.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Neurossífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Cardiolipinas , China/epidemiologia , Colesterol , Coinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurossífilis/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fatores de Risco , Punção Espinal/métodos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia
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