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1.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(9): 1805-1815, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722376

RESUMO

Background: Vibrio cholerae is an important bacterium causing profuse watery diarrhea. Cholera had swept the whole Shandong province from 1975 to 2013. Methods: From epidemiological data and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data, we selected 86 V. cholerae isolates appearing in Shandong Province in China from 1975 to 2013 and characterized them by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)/multi-virulence locus sequence typing (MVLST), antibiogram and analysis of genes related to antibiotic resistance. Results: Combined MLST/MVLST data revealed 33 sequence types and a major group. Within the group, 3 subgroups (ST1, ST24 and ST29) were revealed, prevalent in the strains isolated during the 1980s, 1990s and 21st century, respectively. All the O1 isolates after 1990 were found to be El Tor variants harboring the classical ctxB gene. The tcpA gene of O139 strains had a mutation at amino acid position 62 (N→D). Antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae increased over time. Most El Tor variants between 1998 and 1999 were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The O139 strain, since its appearance in 1997, had significantly broader spectrum of antibiotic resistance than O1 variants. The presence of the SXT element corresponds to the trend of growing drug resistance. Conclusion: The analysis of genotypic polymorphism and enhanced resistance of V. cholerae indicated continuous variation and evolution of this pathogenic agent in Shandong Province.

2.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 768289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722482

RESUMO

Advances in robotic system-assisted genome editing techniques and computer-aided design tools have significantly facilitated the development of microbial cell factories. Although multiple separate software solutions are available for vector DNA assembly, genome editing, and verification, by far there is still a lack of complete tool which can provide a one-stop service for the entire genome modification process. This makes the design of numerous genetic modifications, especially the construction of mutations that require strictly precise genetic manipulation, a laborious, time-consuming and error-prone process. Here, we developed a free online tool called GEDpm-cg for the design of genomic point mutations in C. glutamicum. The suicide plasmid-mediated counter-selection point mutation editing method and the overlap-based DNA assembly method were selected to ensure the editability of any single nucleotide at any locus in the C. glutamicum chromosome. Primers required for both DNA assembly of the vector for genetic modification and sequencing verification were provided as design results to meet all the experimental needs. An in-silico design task of over 10,000 single point mutations can be completed in 5 min. Finally, three independent point mutations were successfully constructed in C. glutamicum guided by GEDpm-cg, which confirms that the in-silico design results could accurately and seamlessly be bridged with in vivo or in vitro experiments. We believe this platform will provide a user-friendly, powerful and flexible tool for large-scale mutation analysis in the industrial workhorse C. glutamicum via robotic/software-assisted systems.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722595

RESUMO

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, the prevalence of GI symptoms and their association with outcomes remain controversial in COVID-19 patients. Methods: All COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were collected. Disease severity and outcomes were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without GI symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of GI symptoms with the composite endpoint and death in COVID-19 patients. A composite endpoint was defined as transfer to intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and death. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 2,552 COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of GI symptoms was 21.0% (537/2,552). Diarrhea (8.9%, 226/2,552) was the most common GI symptom. Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher proportions of severe COVID-19 and worse outcomes than those without. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that GI symptoms were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.426, 95% CI = 1.608-3.661; P < 0.001) and death (OR = 2.137, 95% CI = 1.209-3.778; P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, sex, and severe/critical COVID-19, GI symptoms were still independently associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.029, 95% CI = 1.294-3.182; P = 0.002), but not death (OR = 1.726, 95% CI = 0.946-3.150; P = 0.075). According to the type of GI symptoms, GI bleeding was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (OR = 8.416, 95% CI = 3.465-20.438, P < 0.001) and death (OR = 6.640, 95% CI = 2.567-17.179, P < 0.001), but not other GI symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, acid reflux and/or heartburn, or abdominal pain). Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and may be associated with their worse outcomes. Notably, such a negative impact of GI symptoms on the outcomes should be attributed to GI bleeding.

5.
Evol Psychol Sci ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777951

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise and raised many questions. One of the questions is whether infectious diseases indeed drive fast life history (LH) as the extent research suggests. This paper challenges this assumption and raises a different perspective. We argue that infectious diseases enact either slower or faster LH strategies and the related disease control behavior depending on disease severity. We tested and supported the theorization based on a sample of 662 adult residents drawn from all 32 provinces and administrative regions of mainland China. The findings help to broaden LH perspectives and to better understand unusual social phenomena arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1468, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734020

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, immunotherapy has achieved notable success in cancer treatment. Indeed, the novel immune checkpoint lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) has shown promising therapeutic efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer. However, it is unclear about the role of LAG3 in immunotherapy and survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: The expression of LAG3 in SCLC was evaluated in four public datasets. The association of LAG3 with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and overall survival (OS) was investigated. The LAG3-related biological processes and pathways were identified by functional analyses. Results: LAG3 expression was detected in SCLC tumor tissues. In the cBioPortal dataset with 81 clinical SCLC samples, LAG3 expression was markedly associated with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression (both P<0.050). In addition, Patients with high LAG3 expression had a trend toward a better OS (P=0.073). A similar survival trend was also observed in the GSE60052 dataset. Significantly, LAG3 expression was related to immune-related biological processes, such as immune response, antigen processing and presentation, and T cell co-stimulation (all P<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that LAG3 is an important immune checkpoint that is closely associated with PD-1/PD-L1. LAG3 may be a promising novel immunotherapy target for SCLC.

8.
PeerJ ; 9: e12365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760380

RESUMO

In China, historical documents have recorded large quantities of information related to natural disasters, and these disasters have had long-lasting effects on economic and social activities. Understanding the occurrence of the natural disasters and their spatio-temporal variation characters is crucial for sustainable of our society. Therefore, based on the collection and collation of historical documents, and adopting mathematical statistics, Kriging interpolation, correlation analysis and other methods, we systematically explored the meteorological disasters in Henan Province during the past two millennia in analyzing their spatio-temporal distribution characters and driving forces. The results demonstrate that there were five major types of meteorological disasters in Henan Province, including drought, flood, hails, low temperature and frost and insect pests, which presented obvious spatio-temporal variations and have occurred frequently during the past two millennia. According to the historical documents, the major meteorological disasters occurred 1,929 times in Henan from 221 BCE to 2000 CE. On the whole, the disaster frequency show that the occurrence cycle of the meteorological disasters has obvious changes, which mainly occurred in the middle and late stages during the past two millennia, especially after 1300 CE. Furthermore, we also find that the variation of meteorological disaster events is consistent with the variation of temperature in eastern China and the frequency of meteorological disaster increases in the cold period, but decreases in the warm period. In addition, there are obvious differences in the spatial distribution of the major meteorological disaster, which were mainly distributed in the northwest and southern part region of the Henan Province before 1911 CE. While after 1911 CE, the northern and southeastern parts were the meteorological disaster-prone areas in this region during this period. Spatial correlation analysis of each meteorological disaster before and after 1911 CE points out the droughts disaster frequency-occurring district has transferred in different periods, while the hail and low temperature and frost disasters just have a smaller transferred during these two periods. Conversely, the frequency-occurring districts of floods and insect pest disasters have no obviously transferred in different periods. These results can provide an important scientific basis for governmental decision makers and local people to prevent and mitigate meteorological disaster in the future.

9.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762536

RESUMO

Two new prenylated xanthones, mangoxanthones A-B (1-2), together with four known compounds 3-6, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis. The analysis results of chiral HPLC revealed compounds 1 and 2 were scalemic mixtures respectively. All isolated compounds were biologically evaluated for their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects using in-vitro assays. Compound 1 showed moderate inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC50 of 29.06 ± 1.86 and 22.74 ± 2.07 µM, respectively. Molecular docking predicted the binding sites of compound 1 to α-glucosidase and α-amylase. A preliminary structure-activity relationship was discussed.

11.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0080221, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787462

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although dysbiosis of the lung and gut microbiota have been associated with NSCLC, their relative contributions are unclear; in addition, their roles in distant metastasis (DM) are still illusive. We recruited in total 121 participants, including 87 newly diagnosed treatment-naive NSCLC patients of various stages and 34 healthy volunteers, and surveyed their fecal and sputum microbiota. We compared the microbial profiles between groups, identified microbial biomarkers, and generated machine learning models for distinguishing healthy individuals from patients with NSCLC and patients of various stages. We found significant perturbations of gut and sputum microbiota in patients with NSCLC and DM. A machine learning model combining both microbiota (combined model) performed better than an individual data set in patient stratification, with the highest area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.896. Sputum and gut microbiota both contributed to the combined model; in most cases, sputum-only models performed similar to the combined models. Several microbial biomarkers were shared by both microbiotas, indicating their similar roles at distinct body sites. Microbial biomarkers of distinct disease stages were mostly shared, suggesting biomarkers for DM could be acquired early. Furthermore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a species previously associated with wound infections, was significantly more abundant in brain metastasis, indicating that distinct types of DMs could have different microbes. Our results indicate that alterations of the sputum microbiota have stronger relationships with NSCLC and DM than the gut and strongly support the feasibility of metagenome-based noninvasive disease diagnosis and risk evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT03454685). IMPORTANCE Our survey on gut and sputum microbiota revealed that both were significantly disturbed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with distant metastasis (DM) while only the sputum microbiota was associated with non-DM NSCLC. The lung microbiota could therefore have a stronger association with (and thus may contribute more to) disease development than the gut microbiota. Mathematic models using both microbiotas performed better in patient stratification than using individual microbiota. Sputum models, however, performed similar to the combined models, suggesting a convenient, noninvasive diagnostic for NSCLC. Microbial biomarkers of distinct disease stages were mostly shared, suggesting that the same set of microbes were underlying disease progression, and the signals for distant metastasis could be acquired at early stages of the disease. Our results strongly support the feasibility of noninvasive diagnosis of NSCLC, including distant metastasis, are of clinical importance, and should warrant further research on the underlying molecular mechanisms.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 768682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745143

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have suggested essential roles of growth factors on the risk of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but it remains undefined whether the effects are causal. Objective: We applied Mendelian randomization (MR) approaches to disentangle the causal relationship between genetically predicted circulating levels of growth factors and the risk of MS. Methods: Genetic instrumental variables for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 (IGFBP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were obtained from up-to-date genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Summary-level statistics of MS were obtained from the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium, incorporating 14,802 subjects with MS and 26,703 healthy controls of European ancestry. Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR was used as the primary method and multiple sensitivity analyses were employed in this study. Results: Genetically predicted circulating levels of FGF23 were associated with risk of MS. The odds ratio (OR) of IVW was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.82; p < 0.001) per one standard deviation increase in circulating FGF23 levels. Weighted median estimators also suggested FGF23 associated with lower MS risk (OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87; p = 0.003). While MR-Egger approach provided no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (intercept = -0.003, p = 0.95). Results of IVW methods provided no evidence for causal roles of GDF1, IGF1, IGFBP3 and VEGF on MS risks, and additional sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these null findings. Conclusion: Our results implied a causal relationship between FGF23 and the risk of MS. Further studies are warranted to confirm FGF23 as a genetically valid target for MS.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 720804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746171

RESUMO

Purpose: To observe the clinical efficacy of conbercept in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia. Methods: We used retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 20 patients (24 eyes) with pathologic myopia choroidal neovascularization (PM-CNV). All patients were treated with intravitreal injection of conbercept 0.5 mg (0.05 ml), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor fusion protein, and all patients completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Fundus, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) were assessed before and after treatment. Primary outcome was the functional change in amplitude by mfERG and secondary outcome was the structural change in central macular thickness (CRT) by OCT. The CNV area, leakage of CNV lesions, ocular and systemic adverse events were observed before and after treatment. Results: The BCVA were 64.33 ± 10.83 letters, 65.42 ± 11.24 letters, 67.67 ± 7.07 letters after treatment 1, 3, 6 month, respectively, which showed improvement compared with the baseline (P < 0.05). The CRT decreased significantly from 308.50 ± 45.48 µm to 219.63 ± 30.27 µm, 221.33 ± 40.65 µm, 220.96 ± 33.09 µm after treatment 1, 3, 6 month, respectively (P < 0.05). The P1 response of mfERG amplitude improved from 40.71 ± 9.69 nv/deg2 to 50.67 ± 9.48 nv/deg2, 54.92 ± 8.45 nv/deg2, 55.67 ± 6.74 nv/deg2 after treatment 1, 3, 6 month, respectively (P < 0.05). After 6 months of treatment, the leakage of CNV lesions disappeared in 20 (83.3%) eyes, and the leakage area of CNV lesions was significantly reduced in 4 (16.7%) eyes. Conclusion: The intravitreal injection of conbercept significantly reduced CRT and the CNV area, inhibited the leakage of CNV, improved the BCVA, increased the response of mfERG amplitude, and restored the retinal function. The intravitreal injection of conbercept can change the morphology and function of the macular in PM-CNV, which is safe and effective for the treatment of PM-CNV.

14.
World J Diabetes ; 12(10): 1750-1764, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antagonists of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) have been shown to promote body weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. Cannabinoids decrease adiponectin, and CB1 blocker increase adiponectin. However, the mediators of CB1 actions are not well defined. AIM: To investigate whether the beneficial effects of CB1 inhibition are, at least in part, mediated by adiponectin. METHODS: We compared metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes of wild-type (WT) mice, CB1-null (CB1 -/-) and CB1/adiponectin double-knockout (DKO) mice. We assessed the insulin sensitivity using insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test, and inflammation using flow cytometry analysis of macrophages. RESULTS: CB1 -/- mice exhibited significantly reduced body weight and fat mass when compared to WT mice. While no significance was found in total daily food intake and locomotor activity, CB1 -/- mice showed increased energy expenditure, enhanced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and improved insulin sensitivity compared to WT mice. DKO showed no difference in body weight, adiposity, nor insulin sensitivity; only showed a modestly elevated thermogenesis in BAT compared to CB1 -/- mice. The metabolic phenotype of DKO is largely similar to CB1 -/- mice, suggesting that adiponectin is not a key mediator of the metabolic effects of CB1. Interestingly, CB1 -/- mice showed reduced pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization in both peritoneal macrophages and adipose tissue macrophages compared to WT mice; in contrast, DKO mice exhibited increased pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization in these macrophages compared to CB1 -/- mice, suggesting that adiponectin is an important mediator of the inflammatory effect of CB1. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that CB1 functions through both adiponectin-dependent and adiponectin-independent mechanisms: CB1 regulates energy metabolism in an adiponectin-independent manner, and inflammation in an adiponectin-dependent manner. The differential effects of adiponectin on CB1-mediated metabolic and inflammatory functions should be taken into consideration in CB1 antagonist utilization.

15.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 13(10): 1258-1266, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may cause pulmonary embolus, leading to late deaths. The systemic inflammatory and hypercoagulable state of moderate and severe acute pancreatitis (non-mild acute pancreatitis, NMAP) patients may contribute to the development of venous thromboembolism. Accurate prediction of DVT is conducive to clinical decisions. AIM: To develop and validate a potential new prediction nomogram model for the occurrence of DVT in NMAP. METHODS: NMAP patient admission between 2013.1.1 and 2018.12.31 at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University was collected. A total of 220 patients formed the training set for nomogram development, and a validation set was constructed using bootstrapping with 100 resamplings. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate independent risk factors associated with DVT. The independent risk factors were included in the nomogram. The accuracy and utility of the nomogram were evaluated by calibration curve and decision curve analysis, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 220 NMAP patients over 60 years old were enrolled for this analysis. DVT was detected in 80 (36.4%) patients. The final nomogram included age, sex, surgery times, D-dimer, neutrophils, any organ failure, blood culture, and classification. This model achieved good concordance indexes of 0.827 (95%CI: 0.769-0.885) and 0.803 (95%CI: 0.743-0.860) in the training and validation sets, respectively. CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a prediction nomogram model for DVT in older patients with NMAP. This may help guide doctors in making sound decisions regarding the administration of DVT prophylaxis.

16.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(28): 8388-8403, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. AIM: To develop and validate a risk stratification tool for the early prediction of intensive care unit (ICU) admission among COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHODS: The training cohort included COVID-19 patients admitted to the Wuhan Third Hospital. We selected 13 of 65 baseline laboratory results to assess ICU admission risk, which were used to develop a risk prediction model with the random forest (RF) algorithm. A nomogram for the logistic regression model was built based on six selected variables. The predicted models were carefully calibrated, and the predictive performance was evaluated and compared with two previously published models. RESULTS: There were 681 and 296 patients in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The patients in the training cohort were older than those in the validation cohort (median age: 63.0 vs 49.0 years, P < 0.001), and the percentages of male gender were similar (49.6% vs 49.3%, P = 0.958). The top predictors selected in the RF model were neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, age, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatinine, D-dimer, albumin, procalcitonin, glucose, platelet, total bilirubin, lactate and creatine kinase. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the RF model were 91%, 88% and 93%, respectively, higher than those for the logistic regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of our model was much better than those of two other published methods (0.90 vs 0.82 and 0.75). Model A underestimated risk of ICU admission in patients with a predicted risk less than 30%, whereas the RF risk score demonstrated excellent ability to categorize patients into different risk strata. Our predictive model provided a larger standardized net benefit across the major high-risk range compared with model A. CONCLUSION: Our model can identify ICU admission risk in COVID-19 patients at admission, who can then receive prompt care, thus improving medical resource allocation.

17.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 710133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594183

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common brain diseases among children. The current criteria of ADHD diagnosis mainly depend on behavior analysis, which is subjective and inconsistent, especially for children. The development of neuroimaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drives the discovery of brain abnormalities in structure and function by analyzing multimodal neuroimages for computer-aided diagnosis of brain diseases. This paper proposes a multimodal machine learning framework that combines the Boruta based feature selection and Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) to integrate the multimodal features of structural and functional MRIs and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) for the diagnosis of early adolescent ADHD. The rich and complementary information of the macrostructural features, microstructural properties, and functional connectivities are integrated at the kernel level, followed by a support vector machine classifier for discriminating ADHD from healthy children. Our experiments were conducted on the comorbidity-free ADHD subjects and covariable-matched healthy children aged 9-10 chosen from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. This paper is the first work to combine structural and functional MRIs with DTI for early adolescents of the ABCD study. The results indicate that the kernel-level fusion of multimodal features achieves 0.698 of AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and 64.3% of classification accuracy for ADHD diagnosis, showing a significant improvement over the early feature fusion and unimodal features. The abnormal functional connectivity predictors, involving default mode network, attention network, auditory network, and sensorimotor mouth network, thalamus, and cerebellum, as well as the anatomical regions in basal ganglia, are found to encode the most discriminative information, which collaborates with macrostructure and diffusion alterations to boost the performances of disorder diagnosis.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 747076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603334

RESUMO

Objectives: To elucidate heterogeneity of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) based on B cell immunophenotyping. Methods: Immunophenotyping of 4 B-cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with active IgG4-RD (aIgG4-RD, n=105) was performed using flow cytometry to get preliminary B-cell heterogeneity spectrum. Then 10 B-cell subsets were characterized in aIgG4-RD (n = 49), remissive IgG4-RD (rIgG4-RD, n = 49), and healthy controls (HCs, n = 47), followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis to distinguish B-cell immunophenotypes and classify IgG4-RD patients into subgroups. Results: Cluster analysis identified two endotypes in 105 aIgG4-RD patients based on 4 B-cell subsets: Group1 with higher Breg and naive B cells (n = 48), and Group2 with higher plasmablasts and memory B cells (MBCs) (n = 57). PCA indicated that aIgG4-RD consisted of plasmablast-naive B cell and MBCs-Breg axes abnormalities. There was a negative relationship between naive B cells and disease activity. Both plasmablasts and MBCs were positively associated with serological biomarkers. Cluster analysis stratified aIgG4-RD patients into 3 subgroups based on 10 B-cell subsets: subgroup1 with low MBCs and normal Breg, subgroup2 with high MBCs and low Breg, and subgroup3 with high plasmablasts and low naive B cells. Patients in subroup2 and subgroup3 were more likely to be resistant to treatment. Conclusion: Patients with aIgG4-RD can be divided into 3 subgroups based on B cell heterogeneity. The B cell immunophenotyping could help elucidate the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD, identify patients with potential refractory IgG4-RD, and provide important information for the development of new therapies.

19.
Front Oncol ; 11: 708294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604048

RESUMO

DNA damage response and repair (DDR) gene alterations increase tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, genomic instability, and tumor mutational burden (TMB). Whether DDR-related alterations relate to therapeutic response and prognosis in lung cancer lacking oncogenic drivers remains unknown. Pretherapeutic cancer samples of 122 patients [86 non-small cell lung cancer and 36 small cell lung cancer (SCLC)] harboring no EGFR/ALK alterations were collected. Through whole-exome sequencing, we outlined DDR mutational landscape and determined relationships between DDR gene alterations and TMB or intratumoral heterogeneity. Then, we evaluated the impacts of DDR gene alterations on therapeutic response and prognosis and established a DDR-based model for prognosis prediction. In addition, we investigated somatic interactions of DDR genes and immunomodulatory genes, immune expression patterns, immune microenvironment, and immune infiltration characteristics between DDR-deficient and DDR-proficient samples. Samples from cBioportal datasets were utilized for verification. We found that deleterious DDR gene alterations were closely associated with higher TMB than proficient-types (p < 0.001). DDR mechanisms attach great importance to the determination of patients' prognosis after chemotherapy, and alterations of base excision repair pathway in adenocarcinoma, nucleotide excision repair in squamous carcinoma, and homologous recombination pathway in SCLC tend to associate with worse progression-free survival to first-line chemotherapy (all p < 0.05). A predictive nomogram model was constructed incorporating DDR-related alterations, clinical stage, and smoking status, with the area under curve values of 0.692-0.789 for 1- and 2-year receiver operating characteristic curves in training and testing cohorts. Furthermore, DDR-altered tumors contained enhanced frequencies of alterations in various genes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I pathway including TAP1 and TAP2 than DDR-proficient samples. DDR-deficient types had lower expressions of STING1 (p = 0.01), CD28 (p = 0.020), HLA-DRB6 (p = 0.014) in adenocarcinoma, lower TNFRSF4 (p = 0.017), and TGFB1 expressions (p = 0.033) in squamous carcinoma, and higher CD40 (p = 0.012) and TNFRSF14 expressions (p = 0.022) in SCLC. DDR alteration enhanced activated mast cells in adenocarcinoma (p = 0.044) and M2 macrophage in squamous carcinoma (p = 0.004) than DDR-proficient types. Collectively, DDR gene alterations in lung cancer without oncogenic drivers are positively associated with high TMB. Specific DDR gene alterations tend to associate with worse progression-free survival to initial chemotherapy.

20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 854, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high signal of paravertebral muscle (PVM) on T2-weighted image (T2WI) is usually considered to be fatty degeneration. However, it is difficult to distinguish inflammatory edema from fatty degeneration on T2WI. The purpose of this study was to identify different types of PVM high signal in patients with low back pain (LBP) through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. METHODS: Seventy patients with LBP underwent MRI. The signal change of multifidus both on T2WI and fat suppression image (FSI) was quantified by Image J. Furthermore, 25 of the 70 patients underwent surgery for degenerative lumbar disease and their multifidus were obtained during the operation. Histological analysis of the samples was performed by HE staining. RESULT: Three types of PVM signal changes were identified from the MRI. Type 1 (n = 36) indicated fatty degeneration characterized by a high signal on T2WI and low signal on FSI. High signal on both T2WI and FSI, signifying type 2 meant inflammatory edema (n = 9). Type 3 (n = 25) showed high signal on T2WI and partial signal suppression on FSI, which meant a combination of fatty degeneration and inflammatory edema. Histological results were consistent with MRI. Among the 25 patients who underwent surgery, type 1 (n = 14) showed adipocytes infiltration, type 2 (n = 3) showed inflammatory cells infiltration and type 3 (n = 8) showed adipocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. CONCLUSION: From our results, there are three types of pathological changes in patients with PVM degeneration, which may help to decide on targeted treatments for LBP.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Atrofia Muscular , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Músculos Paraespinais/patologia
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