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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 583, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites. The C-terminal 19-kDa region of MSP1 has long been considered one of the major candidate antigens for a malaria blood-stage vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum. However, there is limited information on the C-terminal 19-kDa region of Plasmodium ovale MSP1 (PoMSP119). This study aims to analyze the genetic diversity and immunogenicity of PoMSP119. METHODS: A total of 37 clinical Plasmodium ovale isolates including Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri imported from Africa into China and collected during the period 2012-2016 were used. Genomic DNA was used to amplify P. ovale curtisi (poc) msp119 (pocmsp119) and P. ovale wallikeri (pow) msp119 (powmsp119) genes by polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of pomsp119 was analyzed using the GeneDoc version 6 programs. Recombinant PoMSP119 (rPoMSP119)-glutathione S-transferase (GST) proteins were expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and analyzed by western blot. Immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with rPoMSP119-GST were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, antigen-specific T cell responses were assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assays. A total of 49 serum samples from healthy individuals and individuals infected with P. ovale were used for the evaluation of natural immune responses by using protein microarrays. RESULTS: Sequences of pomsp119 were found to be thoroughly conserved in all the clinical isolates. rPoMSP119 proteins were efficiently expressed and purified as ~ 37-kDa proteins. High antibody responses in mice immunized with rPoMSP119-GST were observed. rPoMSP119-GST induced high avidity indexes, with an average of 92.57% and 85.32% for rPocMSP119 and rPowMSP119, respectively. Cross-reactivity between rPocMSP119 and rPowMSP119 was observed. Cellular immune responses to rPocMSP119 (69.51%) and rPowMSP119 (52.17%) induced in rPocMSP119- and rPowMSP119-immunized mice were found in the splenocyte proliferation assays. The sensitivity and specificity of rPoMSP119-GST proteins for the detection of natural immune responses in patients infected with P. ovale were 89.96% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed highly conserved gene sequences of pomsp119. In addition, naturally acquired humoral immune responses against rPoMSP1 were observed in P. ovale infections, and high immunogenicity of rPoMSP119 in mice was also identified. These instructive findings should encourage further testing of PoMSP119 for rational vaccine design.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allostatic load comprises cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory markers, which is characterized by abdominal obesity, high blood glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and associated with an increased risk in breast cancer. METHODS: The study was a 6-month, 3-arm randomized controlled trial of two moderate-intensity exercise interventions (compared with a control group) among obese, physically inactive, postmenopausal Black women aged 45 to 65 years, who were at increased risk for breast cancer based on the CARE model. Two hundred thirteen participants were randomly assigned to (1) supervised, facility-based aerobic exercise intervention (n = 73), (2) home-based exercise intervention (n = 69), or (3) a wait-listed control group (n = 71). The intervention effects of exercise on allostatic load were examined with intent-to-treat analyses using generalized linear models. RESULTS: It was revealed that statistically significant decreases in allostatic load over the 6-month period for both exercise intervention groups (i.e., home-based and supervised arms) compared to the controls were observed among the total population, pc-h = 0.023 and pc-s = 0.035, as well as among women with a family history of breast cancer, pc-h = 0.006 and pc-s = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term aerobic activity improved allostatic load scores in metabolically unhealthy postmenopausal Black women at increased risk for cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number NCT02103140.

3.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 6(4): 272-282, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584995

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia, but its short half-life inhibits clinical application. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the treatment efforts of an engineered strain, Lactobacillus plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1 (L. plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1), that continuously expresses GLP-1 in spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) monkeys. After 7 weeks of oral supplementation with L. plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1, the fasting blood glucose (FPG) of monkeys was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to a normal level and only a small amount of weight was lost. The results of metagenomic sequencing showed that L. plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1 caused a substantial (p < 0.05) reduction in the intestinal pathogen Prevotella and marked enhancement of butyrate-producing Alistipes genera. According to the functional analysis using Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, 19 metabolism-related pathways were significantly enriched in T2DM monkeys after treatment with L. plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1. LC-MS faecal metabolomics analysis found 41 significant differential metabolites (11 higher and 30 lower) in monkeys after treatment pathways linked to the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins were the most relevant. The present study suggests that L. plantarum-pMG36e-GLP-1 had an impact on the gut microbial composition and faecal metabolomic profile in spontaneous T2DM monkeys and may be a novel candidate for diabetes treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501614

RESUMO

Although a large number of studies have indicated that self-control was an important predictive factor for adolescent internet addiction, the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. To address this research gap, the present study, according to social learning theory and the organism-environment interaction theory, tested whether consideration of future consequences mediated the relation between self-control and adolescent internet addiction and whether deviant peer affiliation moderated the relationship between consideration of future consequences and internet addiction. Using longitudinal tracking (two-time points and the interval is 6 months). Three middle schools in Guangzhou were randomly selected. The participants were 1182 students ranging in age from 12 to 15 years (average age: 14.16, SD = 1.29) from three middle schools in Guangzhou (651 boys and 531 girls) in Guangdong Province. Results showed that consideration of future consequences mediated the relationship between self-control and internet addiction. Furthermore, the relationship between future consequence consideration and internet addiction was moderated by deviant peer affiliation. These findings highlighted the potential mediating role of consideration of future consequences in linking self-control to adolescent internet addiction. We also found high deviant peer affiliation weakens the protective effect of future consequence consideration on Internet addiction. This study may provide support for adolescent Internet addiction prevention and have some educational implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Grupo Associado
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14210, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244571

RESUMO

Previous research indicates that excessive fear is a critical feature in anxiety disorders; however, recent studies suggest that disgust may also contribute to the etiology and maintenance of some anxiety disorders. It remains unclear if differences exist between these two threat-related emotions in conditioning and generalization. Evaluating different patterns of fear and disgust learning would facilitate a deeper understanding of how anxiety disorders develop. In this study, 32 college students completed threat conditioning tasks, including conditioned stimuli paired with frightening or disgusting images. Fear and disgust were divided into two randomly ordered blocks to examine differences by recording subjective US expectancy ratings and eye movements in the conditioning and generalization process. During conditioning, differing US expectancy ratings (fear vs. disgust) were found only on CS-, which may demonstrated that fear is associated with inferior discrimination learning. During the generalization test, participants exhibited greater US expectancy ratings to fear-related GS1 (generalized stimulus) and GS2 relative to disgust GS1 and GS2. Fear led to longer reaction times than disgust in both phases, and the pupil size and fixation duration for fear stimuli were larger than for disgust stimuli, suggesting that disgust generalization has a steeper gradient than fear generalization. These findings provide preliminary evidence for differences between fear- and disgust-related stimuli in conditioning and generalization, and suggest insights into treatment for anxiety and other fear- or disgust-related disorders.


Assuntos
Asco , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11754, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083660

RESUMO

Recent researches have provided evidence that stimulus-driven attentional bias for threats can be modulated by top-down goals. However, it is highlight essential to indicate whether and to what extent the top-down goals can affect the early stage of attention processing and its early neural mechanism. In this study, we collected electroencephalographic data from 28 healthy volunteers with a modified spatial cueing task. The results revealed that in the irrelevant task, there was no significant difference between the reaction time (RT) of the fearful and neutral faces. In the relevant task, we found that RT of fearful faces was faster than that of neutral faces in the valid cue condition, whereas the RT of fearful faces was slower than that of neutral faces in the invalid cue condition. The N170 component in our study showed a similar result compared with RT. Specifically, we noted that in the relevant task, fearful faces in the cue position of the target evoked a larger N170 amplitude than neutral faces, whereas this effect was suppressed in the irrelevant task. These results suggest that the irrelevant task may inhibit the early attention allocation to the fearful faces. Furthermore, the top-down goals can modulate the early attentional bias for threatening facial expressions.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9494, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947874

RESUMO

Previous studies in humans have shown that brain regions activating social exclusion overlap with those related to attention. However, in the context of social exclusion, how does behavioral monitoring affect individual behavior? In this study, we used the Cyberball game to induce the social exclusion effect in a group of participants. To explore the influence of social exclusion on the attention network, we administered the Attention Network Test (ANT) and compared results for the three subsystems of the attention network (orienting, alerting, and executive control) between exclusion (N = 60) and inclusion (N = 60) groups. Compared with the inclusion group, the exclusion group showed shorter overall response time and better executive control performance, but no significant differences in orienting or alerting. The excluded individuals showed a stronger ability to detect and control conflicts. It appears that social exclusion does not always exert a negative influence on individuals. In future research, attention to network can be used as indicators of social exclusion. This may further reveal how social exclusion affects individuals' psychosomatic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Distância Psicológica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Food Funct ; 12(14): 6294-6308, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052844

RESUMO

Gastrectomy is the main treatment for gastric cancer (GC) at present. Surgery improves the survival rate of patients, but the complications seriously affect the recovery and lack effective treatment measures. In the present study, probiotic compounds (4 strains; Lactobacillus plantarum MH-301 (CGMCC NO. 18618), L. rhamnosus LGG-18 (CGMCC NO. 14007), L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.lactis LPL-RH (CGMCC NO. 4599)), through clinical and animal model verification, were studied to try to find the auxiliary treatment measures after gastrectomy, and explore its potential mechanism. Clinical research results showed that probiotic compounds treatment could significantly lower postoperative inflammation, enhance immunity, resume gut microbiota composition and promote postoperative recovery. The results in rat models indicated that gastrostomy led to the aggravation of inflammation, the impairment of immunity and intestinal barrier, and the disorder of gut microbiota in vivo. Furthermore, probiotic compounds' administration could downregulate the inflammatory and permeability signaling pathways in the intestinal tissue, reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, maintain the intestinal mucosal barrier and immune function, and recover the disorder of gut microbiota after gastrectomy in rats. Therefore, we conclude that probiotic compounds can restore gut microbiota homeostasis, reduce inflammation, maintain intestinal mucosal barrier and immunity, finally promote recovery after gastrectomy, and is expected to improve the prognosis of patients.

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(4): 1448-1456, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is recommended as an integral part of cancer survivorship care. We compared the rates of CRC screening among breast and prostate cancer survivors by primary cancer type, patient, and geographic characteristics in a community-based health-care system with a mix of large and small metro urban areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for this retrospective study were abstracted from medical records of a multi-specialty practice serving about 250,000 individuals in southern Maryland. Breast (N = 1056) and prostate (N = 891) cancer patients diagnosed prior to 2015 were followed up till June 2018. Screening colonoscopy within the last 10 years was considered to be guideline concordant. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence odds ratios of being concordant on CRC screening by age, gender, race, metro area type, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. RESULTS: Overall 51% of survivors had undergone a screening colonoscopy. However, there was a difference in CRC screening rate between prostate (54%) and breast (44%) cancer survivors. Older age (≥65 years), being a breast cancer survivor compared to prostate cancer, and living in a large compared to small metropolitan area were associated with a lower probability of receiving CRC screening. Having hypertension was associated with higher likelihood of being current on colonoscopy screening guidelines among survivors; but diabetes and obesity were not associated with CRC screening. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of CRC screening utilization were found among breast and prostate cancer survivors in a single center in Southern Maryland. Gender, comorbidities, and residential factors were associated with receipt of CRC screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2020: 8867548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354266

RESUMO

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disorder in the oral mucosa that affects the daily quality of life of patients, and there is currently no specific treatment. In the present study, we developed aloe vera fermentation gel under the action of probiotics on aloe vera. In total, 35 patients with the history of aphthous stomatitis were enrolled to explore the potential benefits of aloe vera fermentation gel to treat RAS, and the healing-promotion effects were recorded and compared; microbial compositions in different groups were tested by high-throughput sequencing. Our results indicated that the duration of healing time of the aloe group showed potentially better effects because of the higher proportion of 4-6 day healing time (35% vs. 20%) and lower proportion of 7-10 day healing time (65% vs. 80%) compared with that of the chitosan group. Also, the use of aloe vera fermentation gel could return oral bacteria to normal levels and reduce the abundance of harmful oral bacteria including Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Peptostreptococcus. These results suggest that aloe vera fermentation gel has the ability to treat patients with RAS and has positive prospects in clinical applications.

11.
Cancer Med ; 9(18): 6791-6801, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies show that intestinal microbiota affect the therapeutic effects of antineoplastic agents. Disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulfide, DSF) is an old alcohol-aversion drug that has been shown to be effective against various types of cancers in preclinical studies, while few studies are carried out to explore its mechanism. METHODS: A mice model of melanoma xenograft was generated and treated with antibiotics (Abx), disulfiram/copper (DSF/Cu2+ ), Abx + DSF/Cu2+ , and the tumor volume and survival curve were observed. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and western blotting (WB) were used to observe the protein changes related to cell morphology, inflammation, and apoptosis in tumor tissues. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumors. High-throughput sequencing was used to detect the effects of Abx and DSF/Cu2+ on intestinal microbiota. RESULTS: The DSF/Cu2+ and Abx + DSF/Cu2+ markedly delayed tumor progression and prolonged mice survival, of which the combination of Abx and DSF/Cu2+ possessed the best anti-tumor effect. Abx + DSF/Cu2+ significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in tumors, and significantly reduced the expression of phosphorylated-protein kinase B (p-AKT)/protein kinase B (AKT), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR-4), and phosphorylated- nuclear factor kappa-B (p-NFκB)/NFκB in tumors. Moreover our high-throughput sequencing first indicated that the sound anti-cancer effect of Abx + DSF/Cu2+ had a strong connection with the increased abundance of intestinal beneficial bacteria Akkermansia, as well as the reduced abundance of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria Campylobacterales, Helicobacteraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae. CONCLUSIONS: The disturbed intestinal microbiota (increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens Campylobacterales, Helicobacteraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae) and the over-activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in tumor tissues deteriorated the cancer development, and the using of antibiotics is benefit to enhance the therapeutic effect of DSF on tumors via inhibiting the growth of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconatos/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Melanoma/microbiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Cutâneas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 291-302, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence for the association of anthropometrics with colorectal neoplasms is limited for African Americans. METHODS: We examined anthropometric measures with both colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the ongoing Black Women's Health Study. In a nested case-control analysis, 954 cases of colorectal adenoma were compared with 3,816 polyp-free controls, matched on age and follow-up time. For the CRC analyses, 413 incident CRC cases were identified over a 16-year follow-up (802,783 person-years). Adenoma cases and CRC were verified by medical record review. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses (for adenoma) and Cox proportional hazards analyses (for CRC) that included anthropometric exposures and selected confounders. RESULTS: Overall body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric factors were not associated with colorectal adenoma or cancer risk in Black women. However, increased risk of adenoma (but not CRC) was observed among especially related to adenomas in the proximal colon. Among women ≥ 50 years of age, risk of proximal adenoma increased 14% (95% CI 1.00, 1.31), 35% (95% CI 1.12, 1.63), and 25% (0.93, 1.68) with each standard deviation increase in BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. None of the anthropometric factors were associated with young onset CRC or adenoma risk. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity might be an initiator for colon adenomas but not a promoter for colorectal cancer among Black women.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adenoma/etnologia , Adenoma/etiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(8): 3517-3528, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095863

RESUMO

VNP20009, an attenuated mutant of Salmonella, is potentially applied for tumor therapy due to its specific accumulation and proliferation in the hypoxic zone of tumor. However, studies have shown that human immunity system and the associated toxicities of attenuated Salmonella evidently alleviated the anti-tumor effect when tumor is reduced. As apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) can directly induce nuclear apoptosis in the absence of caspases to avoid unwished apoptosis in normal cells, therefore, a eukaryotic expressing VNP20009-AbVec-Igκ-AIF (V-A-AIF) strain was constructed in the present study, and its anti-melanoma effects were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that AIF expressed by the V-A-AIF strain significantly enhanced the apoptosis of B16F10 cells in vitro, seen as remarkable decrease of tumor volume, formation of larger necrotic areas, and prolongation of the lifespan in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. Furthermore, we observed that the colonization of the V-A-AIF strain and the massive expression of AIF in tumors significantly promoted apoptosis of tumor cells by upregulating the expression ratio of Bcl-2-associated X protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), suppressed the inflammatory response by downregulating toll-like receptor-4/nuclear factor kappa-B (TLR-4/NFκB) signaling pathway, seen as reduction of the expressions of phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT), and decrease of the production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our study demonstrated that the colonization of the V-A-AIF strain in tumor triggers a decent anti-tumor effect in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that the engineered strain may provide a potential reagent for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/genética , Apoptose , Melanoma Experimental/microbiologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella/fisiologia
14.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(1): 115-127, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823210

RESUMO

Previous research has revealed that interpersonal relationships and social comparisons play important roles in evaluating outcomes. To our knowledge, how interpersonal relationships influence the process of outcome evaluations in a social comparison context remains largely unclear. In the current study, participants engaged in a simple gambling task with an acquaintance or a stranger and received outcome feedback. Behavioral results showed that participants' satisfaction level was sensitive to the outcome of their fellow players when participants won. In this condition, the satisfaction level was greater when their fellow players won rather than lost. Moreover, the satisfaction level was greater when their friends won compared with when a stranger won. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that when participants won, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was more negative going for other's losses than for other's gains. Moreover, the FRN was also more negative going for a stranger's gains than a friend's gains. In contrast, in the self-loss condition, the FRN was more negative going for other's gains than for other's losses regardless of the type of interpersonal relationship. These FRN findings indicate that the experience of other's outcomes is sensitive to participants' own outcomes. Importantly, the interpersonal relationship only showed its influence when both the self and others received monetary gains. Finally, the P300 registered participants' attention resource allocation toward monetary gains for themselves and for others, which was unaffected by the interpersonal relationship. This work reveals that outcome evaluation in various social comparison contexts is sensitive to the difference in interpersonal relationship in its early stage, labeled by the FRN.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Dor/fisiopatologia , Comparação Social , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 135: 107214, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689426

RESUMO

Effort is valuable, but researchers have different opinions on whether effort can reduce or increase the valuation of rewards. The effect of cooperation on reward valuation also remains unclear. In this study, we conducted two experiments to examine the effect of effort on reward valuation (Experiment 1) and whether this effect can be influenced by cooperation (Experiment 2), using electroencephalogram (EEG) technology. We found that when participants worked alone, they generated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude for losing rewards than for gaining rewards, with more effort resulting in larger FRN amplitudes for losing rewards. However, when participants worked together with a partner, there was no significant difference between the amplitude for gaining rewards and that for losing rewards during low-effort tasks. Nevertheless, for high-effort tasks, the FRN amplitude for losing rewards was significantly larger than that for gaining rewards. Moreover, in both experiments, we found larger N1 amplitudes for gaining rewards than for losing rewards. Our ERP results suggest that in the early stage of processing, people pay extra attention to rewards, after that the effort level influences their reward valuation. In addition, cooperation regulates the reduced valuation of losing rewards only when people invest low effort.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16314, 2017 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176675

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding effect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue. Consistent with previous behavioral studies, the results showed that the inhibitory effect occurred only in the high-probability condition, while the guiding effect emerged in the low-probability condition. More importantly, the eye-movement results indicated that in the high-probability condition, once few (even one) distractors with VWM contents were captured at first, all the remaining distractors with VWM contents would be rejected as a whole. However, in the low-probability condition, attention could be captured by the majority of distractors with VWM contents. These results suggested that the guiding effect of VWM contents on attention is involuntary in the early stage of visual search. After the completion of this involuntary stage, the guiding effect of task-irrelevant VWM contents on attention could be strategically controlled.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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