Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.093
Filtrar
1.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 30, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596982

RESUMO

Histone methylation is a key posttranslational modification of chromatin, and its dysregulation affects a wide array of nuclear activities including the maintenance of genome integrity, transcriptional regulation, and epigenetic inheritance. Variations in the pattern of histone methylation influence both physiological and pathological events. Lysine-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A, also known as JARID1A or RBP2) is a KDM5 Jumonji histone demethylase subfamily member that erases di- and tri-methyl groups from lysine 4 of histone H3. Emerging studies indicate that KDM5A is responsible for driving multiple human diseases, particularly cancers. In this review, we summarize the roles of KDM5A in human cancers, survey the field of KDM5A inhibitors including their anticancer activity and modes of action, and the current challenges and potential opportunities of this field.

2.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(1): 33-41, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Associations of variations in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 genes with susceptibility to idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) have been well documented. Association with spontaneous remission, however, is poorly defined in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A Chinese cohort of 117 IMN patients and 138 healthy controls were recruited between July 2009 and November 2019. Case-control studies for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within HLA-DQA1 (rs2187668) and PLA2R1 (rs35771982, rs4664308, rs3749117, rs3749119) genes were performed. The contributions of these polymorphisms to predict susceptibility, titre of autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R1), glomerular PLA2R1 expression, and spontaneous remission were analysed. RESULTS: We found that variations in PLA2R1 (SNPs rs35771982, rs4664308, rs3749117) were strongly associated with IMN susceptibility, while SNP (rs2187668) within HLA-DQA1 did not increase the risk of IMN. All SNPs in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 were not statistically associated with anti-PLA2R1 titre, glomerular PLA2R1 expression and spontaneous remission after Bonferroni correction (P>0.0167). Clinical and pathological parameters such as lower levels of serum albumin, higher levels of anti-PLA2R1 and glomerular PLA2R1 expression were independent risk factors for non-spontaneous remission. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that variations in PLA2R1 (SNPs rs35771982, rs4664308, rs3749117) are risk factors for IMN. We found excellent association of serum albumin level, anti-PLA2R1 titre and glomerular PLA2R1 positivity with non-spontaneous remission in IMN.

3.
Virus Genes ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606171

RESUMO

Influenza vaccines represent the most effective preventive strategy to control influenza virus infections; however, adaptive mutations frequently occur in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein during the preparation of candidate vaccine virus and production of vaccine in embryonated eggs. In our previous study, we constructed candidate vaccine virus (HA-R) to match the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 as part of a pandemic preparedness program. However, mixed amino acids (R, G, and I) were presented at position 220 (H3 numbering) in HA during passage in embryonated eggs. The residue at position 220 is located close to the receptor-binding site and the biological characteristics of this site remain to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, using reverse genetics, we constructed two viruses carrying the single substitution in position 220 of HA (HA-G and HA-I) and evaluated the biological effects of substitution (R with G/I) on receptor binding, neuraminidase (NA) activity, growth characteristics, genetic stability, and antigenicity. The results revealed both mutant viruses exhibited lower HA binding affinities to two receptor types (sialic acid in alpha2,3- and alpha2,6-linkage to galactose, P < 0.001) and significant better growth characteristics compared to HA-R in two cells. Moreover, under similar NA enzymatic activity, the two mutant viruses eluted more easily from agglutinated erythrocytes than HA-R. Collectively, these results implied the balance of HA and NA in mutant viruses was a stronger determinant of viral growth than the individual amino acid in the HA position 220 in HA-R without strong binding between HA and sialylated receptors. Importantly, both the substitutions conferred altered antigenicity to the mutant viruses. In conclusion, amino acid substitutions at position 220 can substantially influence viral biological properties.

4.
Transpl Immunol ; 65: 101372, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581286

RESUMO

Clinical trials of regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown that adoptive transfer of Tregs has great promise for the treatment of rejection. However, strategies to improve Treg function are needed in order to enhance their efficacy and reduce the number of Tregs required for adoptive transfer. Autophagy is a process for degrading intracellular components, and it mediates cell death, lymphocyte homeostasis, and Treg function. Studies have shown that the survival and function of Tregs with disrupted autophagy are defective. We found that the autophagic status of Tregs was compromised during acute rejection, allowing us to enhance Treg autophagy by regulating microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which is highly expressed in Tregs and is implicated in their function and metabolism. MiR-146a antagomir-mediated miR-146a knockdown promoted Treg autophagy, as evaluated by Western blot analysis. Further, we evaluated whether altering autophagy affects Treg function in both an in vitro cell coculture model and a heart transplantation model in mice. An increase in autophagy enhanced the inhibitory effects of Tregs on CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo and in vitro. In addition, adoptive transfer of highly autophagic Tregs treated with miR-146a antagomir significantly alleviated rejection. Collectively, these data provide a new method that uses miR-146a knockdown to increase Treg efficacy by increasing autophagy.

5.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 36, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the value of radiomics parameters derived from contrast enhanced (CE) MRI in differentiation of hypovascular non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (hypo-NF-pNETs) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas (SPNs). METHODS: Fifty-seven SPN patients and twenty-two hypo-NF-pNET patients were enrolled. Radiomics features were extracted from T1WI, arterial, portal and delayed phase of MR images. The enrolled patients were divided into training cohort and validation cohort with the 7:3 ratio. We built four radiomics signatures for the four phases respectively and ROC analysis were used to select the best phase to discriminate SPNs from hypo-NF-pNETs. The chosen radiomics signature and clinical independent risk factors were integrated to construct a clinic-radiomics nomogram. RESULTS: SPNs occurred in younger age groups than hypo-NF-pNETs (P < 0.0001) and showed a clear preponderance in females (P = 0.0185). Age was a significant independent factor for the differentiation of SPNs and hypo-NF-pNETs revealed by logistic regression analysis. With AUC values above 0.900 in both training and validation cohort (0.978 [95% CI, 0.942-1.000] in the training set, 0.907 [95% CI, 0.765-1.000] in the validation set), the radiomics signature of the arterial phase was picked to build a clinic-radiomics nomogram. The nomogram, composed by age and radiomics signature of the arterial phase, showed sufficient performance for discriminating SPNs and hypo-NF-pNETs with AUC values of 0.965 (95% CI, 0.923-1.000) and 0.920 (95% CI, 0.796-1.000) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Delong Test did not demonstrate statistical significance between the AUC of the clinic-radiomics nomogram and radiomics signature of arterial phase. CONCLUSION: CE-MRI-based radiomics approach demonstrated great potential in the differentiation of hypo-NF-pNETs and SPNs.

6.
Food Chem ; 349: 129133, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561795

RESUMO

The strategy of taste-guided assisted by solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and semipreparative HPLC were applied to isolate the main nonvolatile bitter components from mechanized Huangjiu. The potential fraction was identified by amino acid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-MS/MS. Bitter pyroglutamate peptide Pyr-LFNPSTNPWHSP (PGP) was successfully identified from Huangjiu for the first time. Quantitative analysis showed that PGP contents ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 32.97 mg/L, among mechanized Huangjiu had higher contents than manual and commercial Huangjiu. The formation of PGP mainly occurred in the primary fermentation and it was stable in Huangjiu. Moreover, the PGP content of the Huangjiu brewed using raw wheat Qu was 112.6% higher than that using cooked wheat Qu, but presented subtle change with the increase of raw wheat Qu. The results revealed that PGP contributed the bitterness to Huangjiu, which may offer a possibility to reduce the bitterness of Huangjiu.

7.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(3): 727-734, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely used to screen for fetal aneuploidies, including fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). However, there is less information on the performance of NIPT in detecting SCAs. METHODS: A cohort of 47,800 pregnancies was recruited to review the high-risk NIPT results for SCAs. Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) was extracted and sequenced. All NIPT high-risk cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis for karyotyping analysis and chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). RESULTS: A total of 238 high-risk cases were detected by NIPT, including 137 cases of 45,X, 27 cases of 47,XXX, and 74 cases of 47,XYY/47,XXY. Prenatal diagnosis, including karyotyping analysis and CMA, was available in 170 cases. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 30.00% for 45,X, 70.58% for 47,XXX, and 81.13% for 47,XYY/47,XXY. In addition, 13 cases of sex chromosome mosaicism and 9 cases of sex chromosome CNVs were incidentally found in this study. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that NIPT was reliable for screening SCAs based on a large sample, and it performed better in predicting sex chromosome trisomies than monosomy X. Our study will provide an important reference for clinical genetic counseling and further processing of the results.

8.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616873

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum in an anaerobic environment. BoNT is the most toxic protein among bacteria, animals, plants, and chemical substances reported to date. BoNTs are 150 kDa proteins composed of three major functional domains: catalytic (L domain, 50 kDa), translocation (HN domain, 50 kDa), and receptor-binding (Hc domain, 50 kDa) domains. Most studies have focused on the use of the Hc domain as an antigen because it is capable of generating robust protective immunity and contains some functional neutralizing epitopes. In the present study, we produced and characterized a recombinant L-HN fusion fragment of the parent BoNT/B (BL-HN) composed of L and HN domains with a deletion in the Hc domain (BHc). When the BL-HN protein was expressed in E. coli, it retained its stable structure and antigenicity. As a vaccine antigen, the recombinant BL-HN protein was found to induce sufficient protection against native BoNT/B in a mouse model. The BL-HN subunit vaccine could also induce a strong humoral immune response and generate sufficient neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice. Therefore, BL-HN may retain the native neurotoxin structure and critical epitopes responsible for inducing serum neutralizing antibodies. Studies of the dose-dependent immunoprotective effects further confirmed that the BL-HN antigen could provide potent protective immunity. This finding suggests that BL-HN can play an important role in immune protection against BoNT/B. Therefore, the BL-HN fusion fragment provides an excellent platform for the design of recombinant botulinum vaccines and neutralizing antibodies.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 49(2): 300060521993642, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe 2 unusual haemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops cases that could not be explained by traditional factors.Case presentation: Two families with a diagnosis or history of foetal hydrops were enrolled. A suspension-array system was used to detect the 23 most frequent mutations in southern China. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to screen for possible deletions. Precise characterisation of the breakpoints of the novel variants and uniparental disomy analysis were performed using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Quantitative fluorescence PCR was used to eliminate maternal cell contamination and nonpaternity. In case 1, the suspension-array system indicated a maternal heterozygous (-SEA/) deletion, and the paternal sample was negative. The foetal hydrops was caused by the maternal (-SEA/) deletion and a de novo α-globin gene deletion (-193). In case 2, the paternal sample had a heterozygous (-SEA/) deletion, and MLPA and SNP array analysis revealed a large maternal deletion (-227) that encompassed the α-globin gene, which explained the history of Hb Bart's foetal hydrops. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases describe 2 new α0-thalassaemia deletions and illustrate the importance of using a combination of methods to detect rare types of α-thalassaemia.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1076, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597535

RESUMO

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) play widespread regulatory functions in modulating mRNA translation in eukaryotes, but the principles underlying the genomic distribution and evolution of uORFs remain poorly understood. Here, we analyze ~17 million putative canonical uORFs in 478 eukaryotic species that span most of the extant taxa of eukaryotes. We demonstrate how positive and purifying selection, coupled with differences in effective population size (Ne), has shaped the contents of uORFs in eukaryotes. Besides, gene expression level is important in influencing uORF occurrences across genes in a species. Our analyses suggest that most uORFs might play regulatory roles rather than encode functional peptides. We also show that the Kozak sequence context of uORFs has evolved across eukaryotic clades, and that noncanonical uORFs tend to have weaker suppressive effects than canonical uORFs in translation regulation. This study provides insights into the driving forces underlying uORF evolution in eukaryotes.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1930706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575321

RESUMO

Background: The tumor-infiltrating immune cells are closely associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). This article is aimed at determining the composition change of immune cells and immune regulatory factors in GC and normal tissues, depicting their prognosis value in GC, and revealing the relationship between them and GC clinical parameters. Methods: We used CIBERSORT to calculate the proportion of 22 immune cells in the GC or normal tissues; a t-test was applied to assess the expression difference of immune cells and immune regulatory factors in normal and GC tissues. The relationship of the immune cells, immune regulatory factors, and GC patients' clinical characteristics was assessed by univariate analysis. Results: In this study, we found that the proportion of macrophages increased, while plasma cells and monocytes decreased in GC tissues. In these immune fractions, Tregs and naïve B cells were found to be correlated with GC patients' prognosis. Interestingly, the expression of immune regulatory factors was ambiguous with their classical function in GC tissues. For example, TIM-3, FOXP3, and CMTM6 were overexpressed, while CD27 and PD-1 were underexpressed in GC tissues. We also found that IDO1, PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 were highly expressed in high-grade GC tissues, the HERC2 expression level was related to patients' gender, and the TIGIT expression level was sensitive to targeted therapy. Furthermore, our results suggested that the infiltration of Tregs and naive B cells was strongly correlated with the T stage, radiation therapy, targeted molecular therapy, and the expression levels of TIM-3 and FOXP3 in GC. Conclusion: The expression pattern of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune regulatory factors was systematically depicted in the GC tumor microenvironment, indicating that individualized treatment based on the tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune regulatory factors may be beneficial to GC patients.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 591: 106-114, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592522

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: l-carnitine plays a crucial role in the cellular production of energy by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria. Acylated l-carnitines are amphiphilic and if appropriate physical properties were demonstrated, they could replace many currently used surfactants with improved biocompatibility and health benefits. EXPERIMENTS: This work evaluated the surface adsorption of lauroyl-l-carnitine (C12LC) and its aggregation behavior. The size and shape of the aggregates of C12LC surfactant were studied at different temperatures, concentrations, pH and ionic strength by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Surface tension measurements were carried out to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of C12LC. Combining with the Gibbs equation, the surface excess at different concentrations could be determined. Neutron reflection (NR) was used to determine the structure of the adsorbed layer at the air/water interface with the help of isotopic contrast variations. FINDINGS: At pH 7, the limiting area per molecule (ACMC) of the zwitterionic C12LC adsorbed layer at the air/water interface was found to be 46 Å2 from surface tension and neutron reflection, smaller than the values of C12PC, C12E5, DTAB, C12C4betaine and C12C8betaine but close to that of SDS. A pronounced surface tension minimum at pH 2 at the low ionic strength was linked to a minimum value of area per molecule of about 30 Å2, indicating the competitive adsorption from traces of lauric acid produced by hydrolysis of C12LC. As the concentration increased, area per molecule reached a plateau of 37-39 Å2, indicating the dissolution of the more surface-active lauric acid into the micelles of C12LC. DLS and SANS showed that the size and shape of micelles had little response to temperature, concentration, ionic strength or pH. The SANS profiles measured under 3 isotopic contrasts could be well fitted by the core-shell model, giving a spherical core radius of 15.7 Å and a shell thickness of 10.5 Å. The decrease of pH led to more protonated carboxyl groups and more positively charged micelles, but the micellar structures remained unchanged, in spite of their stronger interaction. These features make C12LC potentially attractive as a solubilizing agent.

13.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 254: 110575, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609806

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses and is important in controlling a variety of processes in monocytes and macrophages. However, the role of HIF-1α in the teleost immune system remains less known. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequence of HIF-1α from the ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis, PaHIF-1α). Sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaHIF-1α clustered within the fish HIF-1α tree and was closely related to that of Northern pike (Esox lucius). PaHIF-1α was expressed in all tested tissues and expression increased in liver, head kidney, and body kidney upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. PaHIF-1α was found to regulate the expression of cytokines in ayu monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ). PaHIF-1α mediated hypoxia-induced enhancement of MO/MФ phagocytic and bactericidal activities to enhance host defenses. Compared with the control, intermittent hypoxia further increased the expression of PaHIF-1α mRNA, improved the survival rate, and reduced the bacterial load of V. anguillarum-infected ayu. Therefore, PaHIF-1α may play a predominant role in the modulation of ayu MO/MФ function.

14.
Mol Immunol ; 133: 1-13, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610121

RESUMO

Transcription factor PU.1 is a regulator of macrophage function, however, the specific function of PU.1 in teleost monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ) remains unknown. We determined the cDNA sequence of two PU.1 genes from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis; PaPU.1a and PaPU.1b). Sequence comparisons showed that PaPU.1 were most closely related to the PU.1 of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). The PU.1 transcripts were mainly expressed in the spleen, and their expression was altered in various tissues upon infection with Vibrio anguillarum. PaPU.1a and PaPU.1b proteins were upregulated in MO/MФ, after infection. RNA interference was employed to knockdown PaPU.1a and PaPU.1b to investigate their function in MO/MФ. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was regulated by PaPU.1a, but not PaPU.1b, in ayu MO/MФ upon V. anguillarum infection. Both PaPU.1a and PaPU.1b knockdown lowered the phagocytic activity of MO/MФ. Furthermore, PaPU.1b knockdown attenuated MO/MФ bacterial killing capability. Our results indicate that two PaPU.1 genes differentially modulate the immune response in ayu MO/MФ against bacterial infection.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124871, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631454

RESUMO

Little is known about the effect of carbon-based conductive material (CM) addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of fat, oil and grease (FOG) and waste activated sludge (WAS). In this study, three types of carbon-based CMs (nano-graphite (NG), granular activated carbon (GAC), and carbon cloth (CC)) and nine dosages were evaluated for their influences on co-digestion performance. The best dosage was achieved at 0.2 g/L NG, 10 g/L GAC, and 1 cm × 5 cm CC with 13-22% incremental methane production, 25-55% increased VS removal and 28-32% enhanced COD conversion efficiency compared to the control. The highest total amount of bacteria/archaea was found in CC (1 cm × 5 cm), followed by GAC at 10 g/L and NG at 0.2 g/L, which were all higher than those of the control. Microbial community analysis revealed that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET)-mediated syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) enabling faster acetate conversion might be responsible for the enhancement of methane production.

16.
Water Res ; 194: 116936, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640753

RESUMO

Endevours on the enhancement of nitrate removal efficiency during methane oxidation coupled with denitrification (AME-D) has always overlooked the role of membrane employed. It would be highly beneficial to enrich the biomass content and to manage biofilm on the membrane, in the utilization of methane and denitrification. In this study, an innovative and scalable double-layer membrane (DLM) was designed and prepared for a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), to simultaneously enhance nitrate removal flux and methane utilization efficiency during aerobic methane oxidation coupled with the denitrification (AME-D) process. The DLM allowed quick bacterial attachment and biomass accumulation for biofilm growth, which would be then self-regulated for well distribution of functional microbes on/within the DLM. Upon a high biofilm density of over 70 g-VSS m-2 achieved on the DLM, the methane utilization efficiency of the MBfR was enhanced significantly to over 1.3 times than the control MBfR with conventional polypropylene membrane. The MBfR employed DLM also demonstrated the maximum nitrate removal flux of 740 mg-NO3--N m-2 d-1 that was approximately 1.64 times of that in control MBfR at continuous-mode operation. This DLM indeed favored the enrichment of Type II aerobic methanotrophs of Methylocystaceae, and methanol-utilization denitrifiers of Rhodocyclaceae that preferentially utilize methanol as the cross-feeding intermediates to promote the methane utilization efficiency, and thus to enhance the nitrate removal flux. These results raised from new designed DLM confirmed the importance of membrane surface properties on the effectiveness of MBfR, and offered great potential to address challenging problems of MBfRs during engineering application.

17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 70, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on risperidone plasma concentrations in patients with schizophrenia. Based on pharmacogenomics, we examined whether plasma concentration of risperidone is associated with clinical response and adverse side-effects. METHODS: We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia who were then treated with risperidone. The CYP2D6 genotypes were determined using targeted sequencing. All high-frequency mutation sites of the nine exons of the gene were assayed in the present study. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Psychiatric symptoms were monitored using The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Adverse effects were evaluated using the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Follow-up visits were scheduled at weeks 2,4, and 8 after treatment initiation. RESULTS: Among the 76 patients, 100 C > T (rs1065852), 1038 C > T (rs1081003), 1662 G > C (rs1058164), 2851 C > T (rs16947), and 4181G > C (rs1135840) variants were detected. The most common allele was CYP2D6*10 (81.6%), whereas CYP2D6*2 (9.2%) and CYP2D6*5 (17.1%) were relatively rare. Plasma levels of risperidone and the risperidone/9-OH risperidone ratio (R/9-OH) were significantly increased in individuals with CYP2D6*10 (P < 0.05). The change in PANSS score, weight, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, prolactin (PRL) level, and ESRS were significantly different from baseline, between the different genotypes (P < 0.01). Moreover, individuals with CYP2D6*10 homozygous (TT) mutations were associated with higher risperidone concentration and R/9-OH ratio than those with heterozygous mutations (CT) (P < 0.01). A change from baseline in BPRS scores was observed only during week 8 and was different between heterozygous and homozygous mutations. As for the C2851T polymorphism, the incidence of adverse metabolic effects was significantly different between the C/C and C/T genotypes (P < 0.01). Regarding the G4181C polymorphisms, the changes from baseline in GLU and TG, were different between the C/C and C/G genotypes (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype of CYP2D6 significantly influences the plasma concentration of risperidone and may subsequently influence the adverse side-effects following risperidone treatment, while also exerting a slight influence on clinical outcomes.

18.
Small ; : e2006373, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522133

RESUMO

Up to now, the silicon-graphite anode materials with commercial prospect for lithium batteries (LIBs) still face three dilemmas of the huge volume effect, the poor interface compatibility, and the high resistance. To address the above challenges, micro-nano structured composites of graphite coating by ZnO-incorporated and carbon-coated silicon (marked as Gr@ZnO-Si-C) are reasonably synthesized via an efficient and convenient method of liquid phase self-assembly synthesis combined with annealing treatment. The designed composites of Gr@ZnO-Si-C deliver excellent lithium battery performance with good rate performance and stable long-cycling life of 1000 cycles with reversible capacities of 1150 and 780 mAh g-1 tested at 600 and 1200 mA g-1 , respectively. The obtained results reveal that the incorporated ZnO effectively improve the interface compatibility between electrolyte and active materials, and boost the formation of compact and stable surface solid electrolyte interphase layer for electrodes. Furthermore, the pyrolytic carbon layer formed from polyacrylamide can directly improve electrical conductivity, decrease polarization, and thus promote their electrochemical performance. Finally, based on the scalable preparation of Gr@ZnO-Si-C composites, the pouch full cells of Gr@ZnO-Si-C||NCM523 are assembled and used to evaluate the commercial prospects of Si-graphite composites, offering highly useful information for researchers working in the battery industry.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 124, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ablating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by irreversible electroporation (IRE). METHODS: Fifteen patients (19 lesions) with RCC who underwent IRE were retrospectively reviewed. Seven patients had solitary kidneys. Two lesions were located in the renal hilus. One patient had chronic renal insufficiency. Percutaneous biopsy for histopathology was performed. The best puncture path plan was evaluated before CT-guided IRE. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was compared vs baseline at 1-2 months after the ablation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging changes were evaluated immediately after IRE. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance was performed 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and every year thereafter. The complications after treatment were also reviewed. RESULTS: The success rate of the procedure was 100%. The median tumor size was 2.4 (IQR 1.3-2.9) cm, with an median score of 6 (IQR 5.5-8) per R.E.N.A.L. criteria (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, and location relative to polar lines). Two cases (3 lesions) were punctured through the liver. In other cases, puncture was performed through the perirenal space. There were no severecomplications in interventional therapy. Transient gross hematuria occurred in 2 patients (centrally located). Self-limiting perinephric hematomas occurred in 1 patient. Needle puncture path metastasis was found in 1 patient 2.5 years after IRE. The subcutaneous metastasis was surgically removed, and there was no evidence of recurrence. There was no significant change in eGFR levels in terms of short- term clinical outcomes (t = 0.348, P = 0.733). At 6 months, all 15 patients with imaging studies available had no evidence of recurrence. At 1 year, 1 patient (1 of 15) was noted to have experienced needle tract metastasis and accepted salvage radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy. CONCLUSIONS: IRE appears to be a safe and effective treatment for RCC that may offer a tissue-sparing method and complete ablation as an alternative therapy for RCC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560983

RESUMO

Among tracking techniques applied in the 3D freehand ultrasound, the camera-based tracking method is relatively mature and reliable. However, constrained by manufactured marker rigid bodies, the ultrasound probe is usually limited to operate within a narrow rotational range before occlusion issues affect accurate and robust tracking performance. Thus, this study proposed a hemispherical marker rigid body to hold passive non-coplanar markers so that the markers could be identified by the camera, mitigating self-occlusion. The enlarged rotational range provides greater freedom for sonographers while performing examinations. The single-axis rotational and translational tracking performance of the system, equipped with the newly designed marker rigid body, were investigated and evaluated. Tracking with the designed marker rigid body achieved high tracking accuracy with 0.57° for the single-axis rotation and 0.01 mm for the single-axis translation for sensor distance between 1.5-2 m. In addition to maintaining high accuracy, the system also possessed an enhanced ability to capture over 99.76% of the motion data in the experiments. The results demonstrated that with the designed marker rigid body, the missing data was remarkably reduced from over 15% to less than 0.5%, which enables interpolation in the data post-processing. An imaging test was further conducted, and the volume reconstruction of a 4-month fetal phantom was demonstrated using the motion data obtained from the tracking system.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA