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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 124909, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434789

RESUMO

To solve the problem of organic and inorganic arsenic species contamination in drinking water and/or wastewater, porous biochar-supported MnFe2O4 magnetic nanocomposite (BC-MF) was successfully fabricated and used as an excellent adsorbent for simultaneous removal of p-ASA and As(V) from water environment. This obtained BC-MF displayed remarkable adsorption performance for both p-ASA and As(V) removal at acidic and neutral pH (3-7), and di-anionic and mono-anionic species of p-ASA and As(V) facilitated the adsorption process. Specifically, BC-MF exceeded some reported adsorbents, and the adsorption capacities of p-ASA and As(V) were approximately 105 and 90 mg/g at a 10 µg/L equilibrium concentration. Satisfactory adsorption behavior including adsorption isotherms, competitive ions, humic acid (HA), and regeneration/reusability property in single and binary systems demonstrated the BC-MF can improve the potential application for arsenic-containing wastewater remediation. Proposed adsorption mechanism indicated that electrostatic interaction and surface complexation were involved the p-ASA and As(V) immobilization, whereas hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions may also contribute to the p-ASA removal. Additionally, the prominent sequestration p-ASA and As(V) performance in different water matrix and fixed-bed column studies indicated that BC-MF was a promising nanocomposite for simultaneously removal of organic and inorganic arsenic species in practical wastewater treatment.

2.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term outcomes, surgery burden, and technical performance of robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) and laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) for gastric cancer (GC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The impact of robotic systems on total gastrectomy remains obscure. METHODS: This prospective study included 50 patients with advanced proximal GC underwent RTG combined with spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy between March 2018 and February 2020. Patients who underwent LTG in the FUGES-002, http://links.lww.com/SLA/C929 study were enrolled to compare the outcomes between RTG and LTG. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 48 patients in the RTG group and 96 patients in the LTG group were included in the analysis. The RTG group had a lower volume of intraoperative blood loss than the LTG group (38.7 vs. 66.4 mL, P = 0.042). Significantly more extraperigastric lymph nodes were retrieved in the RTG group than in the LTG group (20.2 vs. 17.5, P = 0.039). The average number of errors was lower in the RTG group than in the LTG group (43.2 vs. 53.8 times/case, P < 0.001). The RTG group had a higher technical skill score (30.2 vs. 28.4, P < 0.001) and a lower surgery task load index (33.2 vs. 39.8, P < 0.001) than the LTG group. No significant difference was found in terms of postoperative morbidity between the two groups (14.6% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.748). CONCLUSIONS: In complex TG for GC, compared with traditional laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery provides a technically superior operative environment and reduces surgeon workload at high-volume specialized institutions.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467780

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is one of the most common strategies for tumor treatment but often associated with post-therapy tumor recurrence. While chemotherapeutic drugs are known to induce tumor cell senescence, the roles and mechanisms of senescence in tumor recurrence remain unclear. In this study, we used doxorubicin to induce senescence in breast cancer cells, followed by culture of breast cancer cells with conditional media of senescent breast cancer cells (indirect co-culture) or directly with senescent breast cancer cells (direct co-culture). We showed that breast cancer cells underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to a greater extent and had stronger migration and invasion ability in the direct co-culture compared with that in the indirect co-culture model. Moreover, in the direct co-culture model, non-senescent breast cancer cells facilitated senescent breast cancer cells to escape and re-enter into the cell cycle. Meanwhile, senescent breast cancer cells regained tumor cell characteristics and underwent EMT after direct co-culture. We found that the Notch signaling was activated in both senescent and non-senescent breast cancer cells in the direct co-culture group. Notably, the EMT process of senescent and adjacent breast cancer cells was blocked upon inhibition of Notch signaling with N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetyl]-l-alanyl-2-phenyl]glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl ester (DAPT) in the direct co-cultures. In addition, DAPT inhibited the lung metastasis of the co-cultured breast cancer cells in vivo. Collectively, data arising from this study suggest that both senescent and adjacent non-senescent breast cancer cells developed EMT through activating Notch signaling under conditions of intratumoral heterogeneity caused by chemotherapy, which infer the possibility that Notch inhibitors used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents may become an effective treatment strategy.

4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 26, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic (HI)-induced brain injury. Activation of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in several neurological diseases. In the present study, we have explored the role of MC1R activation on neuroinflammation and the potential underlying mechanisms after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats. METHODS: A total of 169 post-natal day 10 unsexed rat pups were used. HI was induced by right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia. BMS-470539, a specific selective MC1R agonist, was administered intranasally at 1 h after HI induction. To elucidate the potential underlying mechanism, MC1R CRISPR KO plasmid or Nurr1 CRISPR KO plasmid was administered via intracerebroventricular injection at 48 h before HI induction. Percent brain infarct area, short- and long-term neurobehavioral tests, Nissl staining, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot were conducted. RESULTS: The expression levels of MC1R and Nurr1 increased over time post-HI. MC1R and Nurr1 were expressed on microglia at 48 h post-HI. Activation of MC1R with BMS-470539 significantly reduced the percent infarct area, brain atrophy, and inflammation, and improved short- and long-term neurological deficits at 48 h and 28 days post-HI. MC1R activation increased the expression of CD206 (a microglial M2 marker) and reduced the expression of MPO. Moreover, activation of MC1R with BMS-470539 significantly increased the expression levels of MC1R, cAMP, p-PKA, and Nurr1, while downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1ß) at 48 h post-HI. However, knockout of MC1R or Nurr1 by specific CRISPR reversed the neuroprotective effects of MC1R activation post-HI. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that activation of MC1R with BMS-470539 attenuated neuroinflammation, and improved neurological deficits after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats. Such anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects were mediated, at least in part, via the cAMP/PKA/Nurr1 signaling pathway. Therefore, MC1R activation might be a promising therapeutic target for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

5.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476275

RESUMO

Topology identification of complex networks is an important and meaningful research direction. In recent years, the topology identification method based on adaptive synchronization has been developed rapidly. However, a critical shortcoming of this method is that inner synchronization of a network breaks the precondition of linear independence and leads to the failure of topology identification. Hence, how to identify the network topology when possible inner synchronization occurs within the network has been a challenging research issue. To solve this problem, this article proposes improved topology identification methods by regulating the original network to synchronize with an auxiliary network composed of isolated chaotic exosystems. The proposed methods do not require the sophisticated assumption of linear independence. The topology identification observers incorporating a series of isolated chaotic exosignals can accurately identify the network structure. Finally, numerical simulations show that the proposed methods are effective to identify the structure of a network even with large weights of edges and abundant connections between nodes.

6.
Water Res ; 191: 116811, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482588

RESUMO

Physiography and land use patterns influence streams water quality by affecting non-point source (NPS) pollution process. However, each landscape factor may affect the NPS pollution process differently with the variations of the spatial scale and season. Thus, quantitative analysis of each landscape metrics scale effect and determination of the abrupt change-point in the relationship between stream water quality and the metrics is very helpful for landscape planning of water quality protection. Based on water quality monitoring data for four years in 12 sub-watersheds of a typical headwater watershed in Eastern China, we adopted regular and partial redundancy methods to quantify the spatial scale effects and seasonal dependence of various landscape metrics impact on stream water quality, and then to identify the abrupt change-point of the water quality along the gradient of landscape metrics. Results revealed that the pure effects of different categories of landscape metrics on stream water quality were in the following order: landscape configuration metrics (20.5-31.6%) > physiographic metrics (4.0-15.9%) >landscape composition metrics (3.2-7.5%). The spatial scale effect of physiography impact on stream water quality was the most significant, while the impact of landscape configuration on water quality had the highest seasonal sensitivity. The overall water quality variation was better explained by buffer zone scale than by catchment scale landscape characteristics, and this phenomenon was more obvious during the wet season than during the dry season. In the studied watershed, we identified the largest patch index of farmland (LPIfar) and the landscape shape index of forest (LSIfor) as the key landscape metrics at sub-watershed scale and buffer zone scale, respectively. The LPIfar > 7.0% at the sub-watershed scale and LSIfor < 5.5 at the buffer zone scale were suggested as the preferred landscape planning parameters to protect the stream water quality efficiently. Results indicated that, to protect water quality, landscape regulation should follow the scale-adaptability measures and consider the landscape thresholds, which cause abrupt changes in water quality.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish an effective nomogram to predict primary distant metastasis (DM) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to guide the application of PET/CT. METHODS: In total, 3591 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC were consecutively enrolled. The nomogram was constructed based on 1922 patients treated between 2007 and 2014. Multivariate logistical regression was applied to identify the independent risk factors of DM. The predictive value of the nomogram was evaluated using the concordance index (C-index), calibration curve, probability density functions (PDFs), and clinical utility curve (CUC). The results were validated in 1669 patients enrolled from 2015 to 2016. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was applied to compare performances of the nomogram with other clinical factors. The best cut-off value of the nomogram chosen for clinical application was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 355 patients showed primary DM among 3591 patients, yielding an incidence rate of 9.9%. Sex, N stage, EBV DNA level, lactate dehydrogenase level, and hemoglobin level were independent predictive factors for primary DM. C-indices in the training and validation cohort were 0.796 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.74-0.81), respectively. The NRI indices demonstrated that this model had better predictive performance than plasma EBV DNA level and N stage. We advocate for a threshold probability of 3.5% for guiding the application of PET/CT depending on the clinical utility analyses. CONCLUSION: This nomogram is a useful tool to predict primary DM of NPC and guide the clinical application of PET/CT individually at the initial staging.

9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 56, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart transplantation, donor hearts inevitably suffer from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which leads to primary graft dysfunction and affects patients' survival rate. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been reported to attenuate myocardial I/R injury via their paracrine effects, which can be enhanced by hypoxic preconditioning. We hypothesized that the donor heart preservation with hypoxic conditioned medium (CdM) derived from BMSCs would improve post-transplant graft function. METHODS: Normoxic or hypoxic CdM were isolated from rat BMSCs cultured under normoxic (20% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) condition. Donor hearts were explanted; stored in cardioplegic solution supplemented with either a medium (vehicle), normoxic CdM (N-CdM), or hypoxic CdM (H-CdM); and then heterotopically transplanted. Antibody arrays were performed to compare the differences between hypoxic and normoxic CdM. RESULTS: After heart transplantation, the donor heart preservation with normoxic CdM was associated with a shorter time to return of spontaneous contraction and left ventricular systolic diameter, lower histopathological scores, higher ejection fraction, and fractional shortening of the transplanted hearts. The cardioprotective effects may be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation, as reflected by less TUNEL-positive cells and lower levels of plasma proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) and cardiac troponin I in the N-CdM group compared with the vehicle group. These therapeutic effects can be further enhanced by hypoxic preconditioning. Antibody arrays revealed that nine proteins were significantly increased in hypoxic CdM compared with normoxic CdM. Furthermore, compared with vehicle and N-CdM groups, the protein levels of PI3K and p-Akt/Akt ratio in the transplanted hearts significantly increased in the H-CdM group. However, no significant difference was found in the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 for the donor hearts among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the cardioplegic solution-enriched with hypoxic CdM can be a novel and promising preservation solution for donor hearts.

10.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the relative expression of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Subunit B (EIF3B) in pancreatic cancer and elucidate its contribution to this disease. METHODS: Relative expression of EIF3B in pancreatic cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and cell proliferation was measured by direct cell counting. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V staining followed by flow cytometry analysis, and cell cycle was analyzed by PI staining. The differential expression gene analysis was performed by microarray. Tumor progression in response to EIF3B deficiency in vivo was investigated using the xenograft tumor model. RESULTS: We found aberrantly high expression of EIF3B in pancreatic cancer, which associated with unfavorable prognosis. Knockdown of EIF3B greatly compromised cell viability and proliferation in both SW1990 and PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, EIF3B deficiency induced cell cycle arrest and spontaneous apoptosis. In vivo tumor progression was significantly suppressed by EIF3B silencing in the xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, we characterized down-regulation of CDH1 and IRS1 and up-regulation of DDIT3, PTEN and CDKN1B, in response to EIF3B knockdown, which might mediate the oncogenic effect of EIF3B in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our data uncovered the oncogenic role of EIF3B in pancreatic cancer.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415973

RESUMO

The class of two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides known as MXenes offer a distinct manner of property tailoring for a wide range of applications. The ability to tune the surface chemistry for expanding the property space of MXenes is thus an important topic, although experimental exploration of surface terminals remains a challenge. Here, we synthesized Ti3C2 MXene with unitary, binary, and ternary halogen terminals, e.g., -Cl, -Br, -I, -BrI, and -ClBrI, to investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the properties of MXenes. The electrochemical activity of Br and I elements results in the extraordinary electrochemical performance of the MXenes as cathodes for aqueous zinc ion batteries. The -Br- and -I-containing MXenes, e.g., Ti3C2Br2 and Ti3C2I2, exhibit distinct discharge platforms with considerable capacities of 97.6 and 135 mAh·g-1. Ti3C2(BrI) and Ti3C2(ClBrI) exhibit dual discharge platforms with capacities of 117.2 and 106.7 mAh·g-1. In contrast, the previously discovered MXenes Ti3C2Cl2 and Ti3C2(OF) exhibit no discharge platforms and only ∼50% of capacities and energy densities of Ti3C2Br2. These results emphasize the effectiveness of the Lewis-acidic-melt etching route for tuning the surface chemistry of MXenes and also show promise for expanding the MXene family toward various applications.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The value of using PET/CT for staging of stage I-II NPC remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to investigate the survival benefit of PET/CT for staging of early-stage NPC before radical therapy. METHODS: A total of 1003 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC of stages I-II were consecutively enrolled. Among them, 218 patients underwent both PET/CT and conventional workup ([CWU], head-and-neck MRI, chest radiograph, liver ultrasound, bone scintigraphy) before treatment. The remaining 785 patients only underwent CWU. The standard of truth (SOT) for lymph node metastasis was defined by the change of size according to follow-up MRI. The diagnostic efficacies were compared in 218 patients who underwent both PET/CT and CWU. After covariate adjustment using propensity scoring, a cohort of 872 patients (218 with and 654 without pre-treatment PET/CT) was included. The primary outcome was overall survival based on intention to treat. RESULTS: Retropharyngeal lymph nodes were metastatic based on follow-up MRI in 79 cases. PET/CT was significantly less sensitive than MRI in detecting retropharyngeal lymph node lesions (72.2% [62.3-82.1] vs. 91.1% [84.8-97.4], p = 0.004). Neck lymph nodes were metastatic in 89 cases and PET/CT was more sensitive than MRI (96.6% [92.8-100.0] vs. 76.4% [67.6-85.2], p < 0.001). In the survival analyses, there was no association between pre-treatment PET/CT use and improved overall survival, progression-free survival, local relapse-free survival, regional relapse-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed PET/CT is of little value for staging of stage I-II NPC patients at initial imaging. KEY POINTS: • PET/CT was more sensitive than MRI in detecting neck lymph node lesions whereas it was significantly less sensitive than MRI in detecting retropharyngeal lymph node lesions. • No association existed between pre-treatment PET/CT use and improved survival in stage I-II NPC patients.

13.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data from retrospective studies on whether therapeutic outcomes after regular pancreatectomy are superior to those after enucleation in patients with small, peripheral and well-differentiated non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. This study aimed to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of regular pancreatectomy and enucleation in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS: Between January 2007 and July 2020, 227 patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who underwent either enucleation (n = 89) or regular pancreatectomy (n = 138) were included. Perioperative complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival probabilities were compared. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the baseline differences between the two groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 60.76 months in the enucleation group and 43.29 months in the regular pancreatectomy group. In total, 34 paired patients were identified after propensity score matching. The average operative duration in the enucleation group was significantly shorter than that in the regular pancreatectomy group (147.94 ± 42.39 min versus 217.94 ± 74.60 min, P < 0.001), and the estimated blood loss was also significantly lesser (P < 0.001). The matched patients who underwent enucleation displayed a similar overall incidence of postoperative complications (P = 0.765), and a comparable length of hospital stay (11.12 ± 3.90 days versus 9.94 ± 2.62 days, P = 0.084) compared with those who underwent regular pancreatectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in disease-free survival and overall survival after propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: Enucleation in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was associated with shorter operative time, lesser intraoperative bleeding, similar overall morbidity of postoperative complications, and comparable 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival when compared with regular pancreatectomy.

14.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105377, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484817

RESUMO

Triptolide (TP) possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities involved in the treatment of various diseases. However, widespread usages of TP raise the urgent issues of the severe toxicity, which hugely limits its further clinical application. The novel functional nanostructured delivery system, which is of great significance in enhancing the efficacy, reducing side effects and improving bioavailability, could improve the enrichment, penetration and controlled release of drugs in the lesion location. Over the past decades, considerable efforts have been dedicated to designing and developing a variety of TP delivery systems with the intention of alleviating the adverse toxicity effects and enhancing the bioavailability. In this review, we briefly summarized and discussed the recent functionalized nano-TP delivery systems for the momentous purpose of guiding further development of novel TP delivery systems and providing perspectives for future clinical applications.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113794, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422654

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chaihu-Longgu-Muli Decoction (CLMD) is a classic prescription created by Zhong-jing Zhang, a famous ancient Chinese medical scientist, to harmonize uncontrollable body activities and calm the minds. Now Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) physicians often apply it to treat psychiatric diseases such as epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the mechanism of the effect of Chaihu-Longgu-Muli Decoction (CLMD) on hippocampal neurons pyroptosis in rats with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced TLE rat model was established. The behavioral testing was performed and, the expression of IL-1ß and TNF-α in serum was detected by ELISA, qRT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1ß and TNF-α in hippocampus. The expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in hippocampal dentate gyrus was detected by immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: CLMD could significantly suppress the frequency and duration time of epileptic seizures, reduce the expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1 TNF-α and IL-1ß. CONCLUSIONS: CLMD exerted an obvious antiepileptic effect by improving pyroptosis in hippocampal neurons of TLE rats.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450885

RESUMO

We have previously shown that probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) led to a reduced incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here we investigate whether HN001 supplementation resulted in alterations in fasting lipids, insulin resistance, or bile acids (BAs) during pregnancy. Fasting plasma samples collected at 24-30 weeks' gestation, from 348 women randomised at 14-16 weeks' gestation to consume daily probiotic HN001 (n = 172) or a placebo (n = 176) were analysed for lipids, insulin, glucose and BAs. Women supplemented with HN001 had lower fasting glucose compared with placebo (p = 0.040), and lower GDM. Significant differences were found in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and BAs by GDM status. Lower fasting conjugated BAs were seen in women receiving HN001. A significant decrease of glycocholic acid (GCA) was found in older (age ≥ 35) women who received HN001 (p = 0.005), while GDM women showed significant reduced taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (p = 0.018). Fasting conjugated BA was positively correlated with fasting glucose (r = 0.136, p = 0.020) and fasting insulin (r = 0.113, p = 0.036). Probiotic HN001 supplementation decreases conjugated BAs and might play a role in the improvement of glucose metabolism in women with pregnancy.

17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117124, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142656

RESUMO

Unsaturated mannuronate oligosaccharide (MOS) is an enzymatic depolymerization product from alginate-derived polymannuronate (PM). In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential therapeutic effect of MOS on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its molecular mechanism in N2a-sw cells and 3×Tg-AD primary cortex neurons. Our results showed that MOS ranges from mannuronate dimer to mannuronate undecamer (M2-M11) with an unsaturated nonreducing terminal structure and with a double bond and 1,4-glycosidic linkages. It significantly inhibited the aggregation of amyloid-ß (Aß)1-42 oligomer, decreased expression of Aß1-42 and reduced levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and BACE1. It promoted the autophagy, which involves the inactivation of mTOR signaling pathway and the facilitation of the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Finally, autophagy inhibitors blocked MOS' anti-AD actions, confirming the involvement of autophagy. In conclusion, MOS from seaweed alginate might be a promising nutraceutical or natural medicine for AD therapy.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111042, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378950

RESUMO

The application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of skin diseases has been receiving much attention. Here, we examined the anti-tumor effect of a novel porphyrin-based photosensitizer TBPoS-2OH in the malignant melanoma A375 and B16 cells. TBPoS-2OH has obvious cell photo-cytotoxicity, but it has low cell dark-cytotoxicity. Further research showed that TBPoS-2OH is enriched in lysosomes after being taken up by cells. Subsequently, the apoptotic rates were significantly increased in TBPoS-2OH-treated A375 and B16 cells. The specific mechanism may be that after receiving light stimulation, TBPoS-2OH could effectively increase the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby activating mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins in A375 and B16 cells. We found an increase in the content of cytochrome C in the cytoplasm, and the levels of related proteins, such as cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP1, were significantly increased in TBPoS-2OH-treated cells. These results indicated that the new compound TBPoS-2OH could be developed and become an alternative drug for the treatment of melanoma. Some reference ideas for the development of new photosensitizers are also provided.

20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 553733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304897

RESUMO

Background: Radioresistance is a major challenge in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer while microRNAs (miRs) have been reported to participate in multiple essential cellular processes including radiosensitization. This study was conducted with the main objective of investigating the potential role of miR-320a in radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via the possible mechanism related to HIF1α, KDM5B, and PTEN. Methods: Firstly, NSCLC radiosensitivity-related microarray dataset GSE112374 was obtained. Then, the expression of miR-320a, HIF1α, KDM5B, and PTEN was detected in the collected clinical NSCLC samples, followed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Subsequently, ChIP assay was conducted to determine the content of the PTEN promoter fragment enriched by the IgG antibody and H3K4me3 antibody. Finally, a series of in vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to evaluate the effects of miR-320a on radioresistance of NSCLC with the involvement of HIF1α, KDM5B, and PTEN. Results: The microarray dataset GSE112374 presented with a high expression of miR-320a in NSCLC radiosensitivity samples, which was further confirmed in our clinical samples with the use of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, miR-320a negatively targeted HIF1α, inhibiting radioresistance of NSCLC. Interestingly, miR-320a suppressed the expression of KDM5B, and KDM5B was found to enhance the radioresistance of NSCLC through the downregulation of PTEN expression. The inhibition of miR-320a in radioresistance of NSCLC was also reproduced by in vivo assay. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings were suggestive of the inhibitory effect of miR-320a on radioresistance of NSCLC through HIF1α-suppression mediated methylation of PTEN.

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