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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822910

RESUMO

AIMS: Observational studies have suggested strong associations between sleep duration and many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but causal inferences have not been confirmed. We aimed to determine the causal associations between genetically predicted sleep duration and 12 CVDs using both linear and nonlinear Mendelian randomization (MR) designs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic variants associated with continuous, short (≤6 h) and long (≥9 h) sleep durations were used to examine the causal associations with 12 CVDs among 404 044 UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Linear MR analyses showed that genetically predicted sleep duration was negatively associated with arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, and chronic ischaemic heart disease after correcting for multiple tests (P < 0.001). Nonlinear MR analyses demonstrated nonlinearity (L-shaped associations) between genetically predicted sleep duration and four CVDs, including arterial hypertension, chronic ischaemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. Complementary analyses provided confirmative evidence of the adverse effects of genetically predicted short sleep duration on the risks of 5 out of the 12 CVDs, including arterial hypertension, pulmonary embolism, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and chronic ischaemic heart disease (P < 0.001), and suggestive evidence for atrial fibrillation (P < 0.05). However, genetically predicted long sleep duration was not associated with any CVD. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that genetically predicted short sleep duration is a potential causal risk factor of several CVDs, while genetically predicted long sleep duration is unlikely to be a causal risk factor for most CVDs.

2.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various methods have been introduced to eliminate the epicanthus; however, there are no clear guidelines to determine the optimal technique for epicanthus. We aimed to investigate the clinical effect of modified Z-plasty and modified Y-V flap on epicanthus and report our experience. METHODS: Medical records, including photographic information and scar score, of 81 eyes of 43 patients with congenital epicanthus were collected. All patients underwent epicanthus correction surgery by the modified Z-plasty or modified Y-V flap methods with a four-point design from January 2018 to December 2019 in Shanghai Ninth People's hospital and completed a follow-up of at least 6 months. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated in terms of by photographic evaluation and scar score, and the structural outcome was assessed by intercanthal distance (ICD) and palpebral fissure length, inner canthal angle, the canthal tilt angle. The results of two surgical techniques were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The cosmetic outcome of both group is good in both groups. ICD is smaller and inner canthal angle is larger in modified Z-plasty group, compared to modified Y-V flap group, respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with severe epicanthus in the modified Z-plasty group showed greater improvement in structural outcomes than in the modified Y-V flap group (P < 0.05), while those with mild epicanthus in the modified Y-V flap group showed more improvement in ICD than those in the modified Z-plasty group (P < 0.05). By 6 months, scarring in the modified Z-plasty group was more hypertrophic and obvious compared to the modified Y-V flap group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Modified Y-V flap technique caused less scarring. Conversely, the modified Z-plasty technique was more efficient in shortening the ICD and increasing inner canthal angle. While modified Z-plasty reconstruction is more suitable for patients with severe epicanthus, the modified Y-V flap is more suitable for patients with mild epicanthus. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

3.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (EAS) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, and diagnosis and management remain challenging. The aim of this study was to present the clinical spectrum of a group of EAS cases in a single center to explore better management strategies. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to identify 88 confirmed EAS cases at our hospital from 1984 to 2019. The clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathological features were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 88 eligible EAS patients, 38 (43.2%) cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and a larger number of thymic/mediastinal NETs (29 cases, 33%) were identified. The clinical and biological features of EAS and Cushing's disease (CD) overlapped but were more severe in EAS. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS, 97.4%) and computed tomography (CT, 85.4%) provided the highest positive diagnostic accuracy. CT is also a useful tool to identify tumors in chest cavity compared with non-chest lesions (91.2% vs 57.1%). Although a greater tumor size (4.54 cm vs 1.44 cm) and higher rate of unsuppressible high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (83.3% vs 51.5%) were found in thymic/mediastinum NETs than in pulmonary NETs, the level of hormone production had no difference. CONCLUSIONS: EAS had more common and severe clinical presentations than CD, and multiple imaging approaches are required for reliable diagnosis. A higher rate of thymic/mediastinal NETs were found in our study. For patients without a certain tumor source, long-term follow-up and further evaluations are needed.

4.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e18, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to the public. However, the comprehensive profile of suicidal ideation among the general population has not been systematically investigated in a large sample in the age of COVID-19. METHODS: A national online cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 28, 2020 and March 11, 2020 in a representative sample of Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 56,679 participants (27,149 males and 29,530 females) were included. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 16.4%, including 10.9% seldom, 4.1% often, and 1.4% always suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in males (19.1%) and individuals aged 18-24 years (24.7%) than in females (14.0%) and those aged 45 years and older (11.9%). Suicidal ideation was more prevalent in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection (63.0%), frontline workers (19.2%), and people with pre-existing mental disorders (41.6%). Experience of quarantine, unemployed, and increased psychological stress during the pandemic were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and its severity. However, paying more attention to and gaining a better understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, especially information about psychological interventions, could reduce the risk. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of suicidal ideation among the general population in China during COVID-19 was significant. The findings will be important for improving suicide prevention strategies during COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The undergraduate program of psychiatry has been widely established in recent years to improve the education and recruitment of psychiatrists in China. We aim to investigate the career choice of medical students majoring in psychiatry in China and the influential factors. METHOD: This multicenter study was conducted in 26 medical schools in China from May to October of 2019. Participants included 4610 medical students majoring in psychiatry and 3857 medical students majoring in clinical medicine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the influential factors of students' choices of psychiatry at matriculation and as a career. RESULTS: 44.08% of psychiatry majored students gave psychiatry as a first choice at matriculation, and 56.67% of them would choose psychiatry as a career, which was in sharp contrast to the proportion of clinical medicine majored students who would choose psychiatry as a career (0.69%). Personal interest (59.61%), suggestions from family members (27.96%), and experiencing mental problems (23.19%) were main reasons for choosing psychiatry major at matriculation. Personal interest (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-2.40), experiencing a psychiatry clerkship (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.28-3.08), being female (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.68), experiencing mental problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.28-1.56), and suggestions from family members (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46) correlated positively with students' choice of psychiatry as career. Students who lacked psychiatry knowledge (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) or chose psychiatry because of lower admission scores (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) were less likely to choose psychiatry as a career. CONCLUSION: More than half of psychiatry majored medical school students planned to choose psychiatry as their career, whereas very few students in the clinic medicine major would make this choice. Increasing students' interest in psychiatry, strengthening psychiatry clerkships, and popularizing psychiatric knowledge are modifiable factors to increase the psychiatry career intention. The extent to which medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry can be changed through medical school education and greater exposure to psychiatry will need further investigation.

6.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 204: 173156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675839

RESUMO

The relationship between circadian rhythms and mood disorders has been established. Circadian dysregulations are believed to exacerbate the severity of mood disorders and vice versa. Although many studies on diurnal changes of clock genes in animal model of depression have been performed from the RNA level, only a few studies have been carried out from the protein level. In this study, we investigated the diurnal changes induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) using free-running wheel test and Western Blotting (WB). Besides, we examined the depression-like behaviors of rats by sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swim test (FST). We found that CUS induced significant reductions in the quantity of free-running wheel activity and rhythmic disruptions of clock proteins in hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that the amplitude of PER1 in CA1 was positively related to the severity of depression-like behaviors. These results suggest that CUS results in both changes in diurnal rhythms and in depression-like behaviors and that it is suggested that these changes are related.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 931-941, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754559

RESUMO

To clarify the effects of combined applications of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and nitrogen fertilizer (CN) on nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen use efficiency of summer maize, we conducted a field experiment in Xinxiang experimental station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2018 and 2019, with four nitrogen application rates (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg·hm-2), and two maize varieties of Jingnongke 728 (JNK728) and Zhongdan 909 (ZD909). The results showed that across the two years CN-CCC increased maize yield by 7.7% and 5.0% under the nitrogen application rates of 62.5 kg·hm-2 and 125 kg·hm-2, respectively. CN-CCC increased the contents of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase and soluble protein, and finally promoted nitrogen metabolism. Under the low and middle nitrogen application conditions (62.5 kg·hm-2 and 125 kg·hm-2), plant nitrogen content of JNK728 and ZD909 increased by 17.6% and 30.3%, grain nitrogen content increased by 10.3% and 17.4%, nitrogen partial productivity, agronomic efficiency of applied nitrogen, recovery efficiency of applied nitrogen, nitrogen use efficiency increased by 10.0%, 15.7%, 23.3%, 24.8% and 5.7%, 15.0%, 49.9%, 71.7%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate basic application of CN-CCC could enhance nitrogen metabolism, increase nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of summer maize. Our results showed that CCC combined basic nitrogen application of 125 kg·hm-2 had the best effect.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , China , Clormequat , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Zea mays
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768729

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the ability of CD146+ subset of ADSCs to repair cartilage defects. In this study, we prepared CD146+ liposome magnetic beads (CD146+ LMB) to isolate CD146+ ADSCs. The cells were induced for chondrogenic differentiation and verified by cartilage-specific mRNA and protein expression. Then a mouse model of cartilage defect was constructed and treated by filling the induced cartilage cells into the damaged joint, to evaluate the function of such cells in the cartilage microenvironment. Our results demonstrated that the CD146+ LMBs we prepared were uniform, small and highly stable, and cell experiments showed that the CD146+ LMB has low cytotoxicity to the ADSCs. ADSCs isolated with CD146+ LMB were all CD146+ , CD105+ , CD166+ and CD73+ . After chondrogenic induction, the cells showed significantly increased expression of cartilage markers Sox9, collagen Ⅱ and aggrecan at protein level and significantly increased Sox9, collagen Ⅱ and aggrecan at mRNA level, and the protein expression and mRNA expression of CD146+ ADSCs group were higher than those of ADSCs group. The CD146+ ADSCs group showed superior tissue repair ability than the ADSCs group and blank control group in the animal experiment, as judged by gross observation, histological observation and histological scoring. The above results proved that CD146+ LMB can successfully isolate the CD146+ ADSCs, and after chondrogenic induction, these cells successfully promoted repair of articular cartilage defects, which may be a new direction of tissue engineering.

9.
Aesthet Surg J ; 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transconjunctival technique is a preferable and beneficial approach in mild to moderate blepharoptosis repair as without skin incision. However, accurate surgical manipulation of this method is greatly restricted by the poor intraoperative evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To introduce a modified transconjunctival approach with flexible intraoperative adjustments in order to achieve more accurate ptosis correction. METHODS: By transconjunctival approach, the levator aponeurosis and the Müller's muscle were folded using a square-like mattress suture for flexible adjustment and accurate correction. RESULTS: In 18 mild ptosis eyelids, 94.5% (17 eyelids) achieved adequate or normal correction. In 9 eyelids with moderate ptosis, 88.9% (8 eyelids) achieved adequate or normal correction. Amongst 24 ptosis patients, 23 (95.8%) achieved good or fair symmetry result. CONCLUSION: We presented a modified transconjunctival technique for repair of mild to moderate ptosis, which is characterized by flexible intraoperative adjustments achieving both satisfying functional and aesthetic outcomes.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 146-154, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645064

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess whether chrysin(ChR) can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell and produce anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect by regulating the NF-κB/Twist 1 signaling pathway. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the control group, the bleomycin(BLC) group, BLC+ChR(50 mg·kg~(-1)) group and BLC+ChR(100 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with 15 rats in each group. The pulmonary fibrosis model was induced by intratracheal injection of BLC(7 500 U·kg~(-1)). Rats were orally administered with different doses of ChR after BLC injection for 28 days. The cells were divided into control group, TGF-ß1 group(5 ng·mL~(-1)), and TGF-ß1+ChR(1, 10, 100 µmol·L~(-1)) groups. The type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells were treated with TGF-ß1 for 24 h, and then treated with TGF-ß1 for 48 h in the presence or absence of different doses of ChR(1, 10 and 100 µmol·L~(-1)). The morphological changes and collagen deposition in lung tissues were analyzed by HE staining, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen Ⅰ, E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha(IκBα), nuclear factor-kappa B p65(NF-κB p65), phospho-NF-κB p65(p-p65) and Twist 1 in lung tissues and cells were detected by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The animal experiment results showed that as compared with the BLC group, after administration of ChR for 28 days, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats was significantly relieved, collagen Ⅰ expression in lung tissues was significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and EMT of alveolar epithelial cells was obviously inhibited [the expression levels of E-cadherin and ZO-1 were increased and the expression levels of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01)], concomitantly with significantly reduced IκBα and p65 phosphorylation level in cytoplasm and decreased NF-κB p65 and Twist 1 expression in nucleus(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The cell experiment results showed that different doses of ChR(1, 10 and 100 µmol·L~(-1)) significantly reduced TGF-ß1-induced collagen Ⅰ expression(P<0.05 or P<0.01), significantly inhibited EMT of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells[the expression levels of E-cadherin and ZO-1 were increased and the expression levels of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01)], and inhibited IκBα and p65 phosphorylation in cytoplasm and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and Twist 1 expression in nucleus induced by TGF-ß1(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results suggest that ChR can reverse EMT of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell and alleviate pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its mechanism may be associated with reducing IκBα phosphorylation and inhibiting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear transfer, thus down-regulating Twist 1 expression.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , NF-kappa B , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Flavonoides , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
11.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 8895723, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680217

RESUMO

Background: Long noncoding RNA-based prognostic biomarkers have demonstrated great potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. However, systematic assessment of a multiple lncRNA-composed prognostic risk model is lacking in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). This study is aimed at constructing a lncRNA-based prognostic risk model for STAD patients. Methods: RNA sequencing data and clinical information of STAD patients were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) were identified using the R software. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to construct a prognostic risk model. The survival analysis, C-index, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were employed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the model. The results were verified using the GEPIA online tool and our clinical samples. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were performed to indicate the potential biological functions of the selected lncRNA. Results: A total of 1917 DElncRNAs were identified from 343 cases of STAD tissues and 30 cases of noncancerous tissues. According to univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses, four DElncRNAs (AC129507.1, LINC02407, AL022316.1, and AP000695.2) were selected to establish a prognostic risk model. There was a significant difference in the overall survival between high-risk patients and low-risk patients based on this risk model. The C-index of the model was 0.652. The area under the curve (AUC) for the ROC curve was 0.769. GEPIA results confirmed the expression and prognostic significance of AP000695.2 in STAD. Our clinical data confirmed that upregulated expression of AP000695.2 was correlated with the T stage, distant metastasis, and TNM stage in STAD. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that AP000695.2 was closely related to the tumorigenesis process. Conclusions: In this study, we constructed a lncRNA-based prognostic risk model for STAD patients. Our study will provide novel insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of STAD patients.

12.
Tomography ; 7(1): 55-64, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681463

RESUMO

We propose a novel framework for determining radiomics feature robustness by considering the effects of both biological and noise signals. This framework is preliminarily tested in a study predicting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Pairs of CT images (baseline, 3-week post therapy) of 46 NSCLC patients with known EGFR mutation status were collected and a FDA-customized anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was scanned on two vendors' scanners at four different tube currents. Delta radiomics features were extracted from the NSCLC patient CTs and reproducible, non-redundant, and informative features were identified. The feature value differences between EGFR mutant and EGFR wildtype patients were quantitatively measured as the biological signal. Similarly, radiomics features were extracted from the phantom CTs. A pairwise comparison between settings resulted in a feature value difference that was quantitatively measured as the noise signal. Biological signals were compared to noise signals at each setting to determine if the distributions were significantly different by two-sample t-test, and thus robust. Four optimal features were selected to predict EGFR mutation status, Tumor-Mass, Sigmoid-Offset-Mean, Gabor-Energy and DWT-Energy, which quantified tumor mass, tumor-parenchyma density transition at boundary, line-like pattern inside tumor and intratumoral heterogeneity, respectively. The first three variables showed robustness across the majority of studied CT acquisition parameters. The textual feature DWT-Energy was less robust. The proposed framework was able to determine robustness of radiomics features at specific settings by comparing biological signal to noise signal. Identification of robust radiomics features may improve the generalizability of radiomics models in future studies.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125537, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676243

RESUMO

Microplastics are ubiquitous in marine environments and may cause unexpected ecological effects. This study adopted a whole life-cycle exposure to illuminate the impact of polystyrene microplastics on life-history strategies of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), including the hatching of embryos, growth and reproduction of F0 generation, and embryonic and larval development of F1 offspring. Microplastics accumulated on the eggshell and reduced embryonic hatching rate and larval body length and weight. Similarly, 150 days of microplastic exposure decreased body mass and gonadosomatic index of adult fish, but accelerated sexual maturity of female fish, showing a trade-off between growth and reproduction. Microplastic exposure also caused obvious histopathological damages to gonads and decreased egg productions and fertilization rates. Moreover, parental microplastic exposure induced elevated heartbeats, premature hatching, and slow growth in F1 offspring. Anti-oxidative stress response, sex hormone disruption, and disturbed transcription of steroidogenic genes in the reproductive axis could partially explain the reproduction impairment and transgenerational trade-offs. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that the steroid hormone biosynthesis and cytochrome P450 pathways in the testes of male fish were significantly affected after 20 µg/L microplastic exposure. These findings suggest that microplastic pollution may be an emerging threat to the sustainability of marine fish population.

14.
Am J Addict ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19-related quarantine and stress have likely escalated the crisis of Internet addiction. This study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Internet use and related risk factors among the general public in China. METHODS: A large-sample cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March 24 to April 30, 2020, in China, and 20,472 participants completed the survey. We investigated the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction based on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and explored the risk factors related to increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction, as well as severe Internet addiction. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Internet addiction was 36.7% among the general population during the pandemic, and that of severe Internet addiction was 2.8%, according to IAT scores. Time spent on recreational Internet use had significantly increased during the pandemic, and almost half of participants reported increases in the severity of Internet addiction. Risk factors for increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction and severe Internet addiction included having fewer social supporters, perceiving pressure and impact on mental health status due to COVID-19, and being over-engaged in playing videogames. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted Internet use and increased the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction among the general population in China, especially in vulnerable populations. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for policymakers to refine public health policies to control the pandemic and make efforts to provide population-specific prevention and interventions for people at risk of developing Internet addiction. (Am J Addict 2021;00:00-00).

15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether glycemic control affects the relation between endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In 102 type 2 diabetic patients with stable angina, endothelial function was evaluated using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) with high-resolution ultrasound, and significant stenosis of major epicardial coronary arteries (≥ 50% diameter narrowing) and degree of coronary atherosclerosis (Gensini score and SYNTAX score) were determined. The status of glycemic control was assessed by blood concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: The prevalence of significant coronary artery stenosis (67.9% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.002) and degree of coronary atherosclerosis (Gensini score: 48.99 ± 48.88 vs. 15.07 ± 21.03, P < 0.001; SYNTAX score: 15.88 ± 16.36 vs. 7.28 ± 10.54, P = 0.003) were higher and FMD was lower (6.03 ± 2.08% vs. 6.94 ± 2.20%, P = 0.036) in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%; n = 56) compared to those with good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%; n = 46). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that tertile of FMD was an independent determinant of presence of significant coronary artery stenosis (OR = 0.227 95% CI 0.056-0.915, P = 0.037), Gensini score (ß = - 0.470, P < 0.001) and SYNTAX score (ß = - 0.349, P = 0.004) in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control but not for those with good glycemic control (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Poor glycemic control negatively influences the association of endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease in T2DM patients.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 220-227, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still spreading worldwide and posing a threat to individuals' physical and mental health including problematic internet use (PIU). A potentially high-risk group for PIU are those with symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms), because of restrictions in their physical activity levels and engagement in computer diversions requiring only short attention spans. METHODS: We used convenience sampling in a cross-sectional survey of university students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We assessed PIU using the Internet Addiction Test and ADHD symptoms using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale. Using logistic regression and linear regression analyses we adjusted for demographic, epidemic-related and psychological covariates in models of the association between ADHD symptoms and PIU. RESULTS: Among 11,254 participants, we found a 28.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-29.2%) prevalence of PIU, relatively higher than before the pandemic. In our final logistic regression model, participants with ADHD symptoms had approximately two times the risk for PIU (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83). Similarly, individuals with depression, anxiety, insomnia, PTSD symptoms and feeling stress during the pandemic had a higher risk of PIU, while those exercising regularly during the pandemic had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and reliance on internet based self-reports for ADHD symptoms and PIU assessments, without direct structured interviews for validation, are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIU was high during COVID-19, and those people with ADHD symptoms and other mental illness symptoms appear to be at higher risk of PIU. Regular exercise may reduce that PIU risk and hence should be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116823, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735793

RESUMO

Chinese children have been exposed to high level of lead due to polluted air, dust, contaminated foods and water, etc. In this research, we investigated published blood lead levels (BLLs) reflecting 1,057,832 Chinese children aged at 0-12 and teenagers aged at 13-18 in the past 30 years (1991-2020). The data mining and estimation were performed innovatively by Monte Carlo simulation to remedy the skewed distribution-induced bias. The temporal trend of Chinese children's BLLs showed an obvious decrease in the past decades from 88.74 µg/L (Geometric SD = 4.09) during 1991-1995 to 27.32 µg/L (Geometric SD = 4.18) during 2016-2020. This study also indicated that children's BLLs of Yunnan, Guizhou, Shanxi were at relatively high levels and most provinces showed a downward trend. Chinese boys aged at 1-18 years old had higher BLLs (GM: 44.03 µg/L) compared to girls (GM: 41.32 µg/L) (p < 0.001). At different age groups, Chinese children's BLLs were 42.04 µg/L (1-3 years old), 52.88 µg/L (4-6 years old), 50.49 µg/L (7 and above years old), respectively. Although the BLLs of Chinese children exhibited a continuous declined trend in the past 30 years, it was still higher than that in developed countries, which indicated that more efforts are needed in children's BLLs control.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of macular buckling (MB) surgery between myopic foveal detachment (FD) eyes with and without ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption. METHODS: A retrospective, case-control study. Forty-four consecutive eyes from 44 patients received MB surgery for myopic FD between November 2017 and January 2019 were included. The eyes were divided into two groups according to the integrity of EZ on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT): 28 eyes with disrupted EZ band and 16 eyes with intact EZ band. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and the duration of subfoveal fluid (SFF) after MB. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 17.64 ± 6.61 and 16.06 ± 5.78 months in the disrupted EZ and intact EZ group, respectively (P = 0.430). The logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly, from 1.13 ± 0.46 and 1.12 ± 0.39 at baseline to 0.85 ± 0.65 (P = 0.002) and 0.53 ± 0.33 (P = 0.000) for the disrupted EZ group and intact EZ group, respectively. The mean visual improvement was 15.00 ± 14.14 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters for the disrupted EZ group and 26.88 ± 19.48 ETDRS letters for the intact EZ group. Significant difference was found on both final postoperative BCVA (P = 0.035) and visual improvement (P = 0.025). At 6 months, SFF remained in 53.57% (15/28) of the eyes in the disrupted EZ group and in only 12.50% (2/16) of the eyes in the intact EZ group (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: The intact EZ group showed better functional and anatomical outcomes than the disrupted EZ group after MB surgery.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789071

RESUMO

In a new born pig cystic fibrosis (CF) model, the ability of gland-containing airways to fight infection was affected by at least two major host-defense defects: impaired mucociliary transport and a lower airway-surface liquid (ASL) pH. In the gland-containing airways, ASL pH is balanced by CFTR and ATP12A, which respectively control HCO3- transport and proton secretion. We found that, although porcine small airway tissue expressed little ATP12A, the ASL of epithelial cultures from CF distal small airways (diameter <200 µm) were nevertheless more acidic (compared to non-CF). Therefore, we hypothesized that gland-containing airways vs. small airways control acidification using distinct mechanisms. Our microarray data suggested that small airway epithelia mediate proton secretion via ATP6V0D2, an isoform of the V0d subunit of the H+-translocating plasma membrane V-type ATPase. Immunofluorescence of small airways verified the expression of the V0d2 subunit isoform at the apical surface of Muc5B+ secretory cells, but not ciliated cells. Inhibiting the V-type ATPase with bafilomycin A1 elevated the ASL pH of small airway cultures, in the presence or absence of HCO3-, and decreased ASL viscosity. These data suggest that, unlike large airways, which are acidified by ATP12A activity, small airways are acidified by V-type ATPase, thus identifying V-type ATPase as a novel therapeutic target for small airways diseases.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542468

RESUMO

Pandemics have become more frequent and more complex during the twenty-first century. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following pandemics is a significant public health concern. We sought to provide a reliable estimate of the worldwide prevalence of PTSD after large-scale pandemics as well as associated risk factors, by a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched the MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, medRxiv, and bioRxiv databases to identify studies that were published from the inception up to August 23, 2020, and reported the prevalence of PTSD after pandemics including sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1, Poliomyelitis, Ebola, Zika, Nipah, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), H5N1, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 88 studies were included in the analysis, with 77 having prevalence information and 70 having risk factors information. The overall pooled prevalence of post-pandemic PTSD across all populations was 22.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.9-25.4%, I2: 99.7%). Healthcare workers had the highest prevalence of PTSD (26.9%; 95% CI: 20.3-33.6%), followed by infected cases (23.8%: 16.6-31.0%), and the general public (19.3%: 15.3-23.2%). However, the heterogeneity of study findings indicates that results should be interpreted cautiously. Risk factors including individual, family, and societal factors, pandemic-related factors, and specific factors in healthcare workers and patients for post-pandemic PTSD were summarized and discussed in this systematic review. Long-term monitoring and early interventions should be implemented to improve post-pandemic mental health and long-term recovery.

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