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2.
Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaaz7086, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494619

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrated an essential function of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP)-associated O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling in influenza A virus (IAV)-induced cytokine storm. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), a key enzyme for protein O-GlcNAcylation, mediated IAV-induced cytokine production. Upon investigating the mechanisms driving this event, we determined that IAV induced OGT to bind to interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5), leading to O-GlcNAcylation of IRF5 on serine-430. O-GlcNAcylation of IRF5 is required for K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 and subsequent cytokine production. Analysis of clinical samples revealed that IRF5 is O-GlcNAcylated, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines correlated with higher levels of blood glucose in IAV-infected patients. We identified a molecular mechanism by which HBP-mediated O-GlcNAcylation regulates IRF5 function during IAV infection, highlighting the importance of glucose metabolism in IAV-induced cytokine storm.

4.
Virol Sin ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430872

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality (12%-30%). The mechanism by which the SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) causes severe illness remains unclear. To evaluate the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the NK cell subsets in SFTS patients, twenty-nine SFTS patients were sequentially sampled from admission until recovery. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK cell subsets in circulating blood were analysed via flow cytometry. Then, correlations between NK cell subset frequencies and the SFTS index (SFTSI) were evaluated in all SFTS patients (15 mild, 14 severe) upon admission. The frequencies of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells were greatly decreased in early SFTSV infection and were negatively correlated with disease severity. Additionally, higher Ki-67 and granzyme B expression and relatively lower NKG2A expression in CD56dimCD16+ NK cells were observed in acute infection. Moreover, the effector function of CD56dim NK cells was increased in the acute phase compared with the recovery phase in nine severe SFTS patients. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-15, interferon (IFN)-α, IL-18 and IFN-γ secretion was markedly increased during early infection. Collectively, despite depletion of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells, activation and functional enhancement of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells were still observed, suggesting their involvement in defence against early SFTSV infection.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102763, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines profiles of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their correlation with the disease severity remain unclear. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were longitudinally collected from 40 confirmed COVID-19 patients and examined for lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry and cytokine profiles by specific immunoassays. FINDINGS: Of the 40 COVID-19 patients enrolled, 13 severe cases showed significant and sustained decreases in lymphocyte counts [0·6 (0·6-0·8)] but increases in neutrophil counts [4·7 (3·6-5·8)] than 27 mild cases [1.1 (0·8-1·4); 2·0 (1·5-2·9)]. Further analysis demonstrated significant decreases in the counts of T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, as well as increases in IL-6, IL-10, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in the peripheral blood in the severe cases compared to those in the mild cases. T cell counts and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 patients who survived the disease gradually recovered at later time points to levels that were comparable to those of the mild cases. Moreover, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (AUC=0·93) and neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio (N8R) (AUC =0·94) were identified as powerful prognostic factors affecting the prognosis for severe COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The degree of lymphopenia and a proinflammatory cytokine storm is higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in mild cases, and is associated with the disease severity. N8R and NLR may serve as a useful prognostic factor for early identification of severe COVID-19 cases. FUNDING: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Science and Technology Major Project, the Health Commission of Hubei Province, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and the Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen and Stiftung Universitaetsmedizin, Hospital Essen, Germany.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Hepatology ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333814

RESUMO

Interferon-α (IFN-α), composed of numerous subtypes, plays a crucial role in immune defense. As the most-studied subtype, IFN-α2 has been used for treating chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with advantages of finite treatment duration and sustained virological response, but its efficacy remains relatively low. Here, we aimed to screen for IFN-α subtype with the highest anti-HBV potency and to characterize new mechanism of IFN-α-mediated HBV restriction. Using cell culture-based HBV infection systems and a human liver chimeric mouse model, IFN-α subtypes-mediated antiviral response and signaling activation were comprehensively analyzed. IFN-α14 was identified as the most effective subtype in suppression of HBV cccDNA transcription and HBeAg/HBsAg production, with IC50 values approximately 100-fold lower than the conventional IFN-α2. IFN-α14 alone elicited IFN-α and -γ signaling crosstalk similarly to the combined use of IFN-α2 and IFN-γ, inducing multiple potent antiviral effectors, which synergistically restricted HBV replication. GBP5, one of the most differentially-expressed genes between IFN-α14- and -α2-treated liver cells, was identified as a new HBV restriction factor. A strong IFN-α-IFNAR1 receptor subunit interaction determines the anti-HBV activity of IFN-α. The in vivo anti-HBV activity of IFN-α14 and treatment-related transcriptional patterns were further confirmed, and little adverse effect was observed. CONCLUSION: A concerted IFN-α and -γ response in liver, which could be efficiently elicited by IFN-α subtype 14, is associated with potent HBV suppression. These data deepen our understanding of the divergent activities of IFN-α subtypes and the mechanism underlying the synergism between IFN-α and -γ signaling, with implications for improved IFN therapy and HBV cure strategies.

7.
Acta Biomater ; 110: 254-265, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344172

RESUMO

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles were loaded with plasmid DNA and toll-like receptor ligands (TLR), i.e. CpG or flagellin, to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells (DCs). The functionalized nanoparticles were studied in vitro on HeLa, C2C12 and BHK-21 cell lines, focusing on the expression of two specific proteins. EGFP-DNA, encoding for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used as a model plasmid to optimize the transfection efficiency in vitro by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with TLR ligands and plasmid DNA encoding for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (pHBsAg) were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo immunization experiments to identify a possible candidate for a prophylactic hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. The nanoparticles induced a strong expression of HBsAg in the three cell lines. In splenocytes, the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was enhanced. After intramuscular injection in mice, the nanoparticles induced the expression of HBsAg, the antigen-specific T cell response, and the antigen-specific antibody response (IgG1). STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Hepatitis B is one of the most frequent viral infections worldwide. For preventive immunization, nanoparticles can be used which carry both an adjuvant (a stimulatory molecule) and DNA encoding for a viral antigen. After administration of such nanoparticles to cells, they are taken up by cells where the DNA is transcribed into the viral antigen (a protein). This viral antigen is inducing a virus-specific immune response. This was shown both by in vitro cell culture as well as by an extensive in vivo study in mice.

8.
Liver Int ; 40(5): 998-1004, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170806

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to global public health. The WHO has declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection an international public health emergency. Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, liver injury has also been reported to occur during the course of the disease in severe cases. Similarly, previous studies have shown that liver damage was common in the patients infected by the other two highly pathogenic coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and associated with the severity of diseases. In this review, the characteristics and mechanism of liver injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection were summarized, which may provide help for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Vírus da SARS
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 491-494, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056249

RESUMO

First reported from Wuhan, The People's Republic of China, on 31 December 2019, the ongoing outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causes great global concerns. Based on the advice of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee and the fact that to date 24 other countries also reported cases, the WHO Director-General declared that the outbreak of 2019-nCoV constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. Together with the other two highly pathogenic coronaviruses, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), 2019-nCov and other yet to be identified coronaviruses pose a global threat to public health. In this mini-review, we provide a brief introduction to the pathology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and extrapolate this knowledge to the newly identified 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos
10.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925967

RESUMO

To date conflicting data exist, whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) has the ability to induce innate immune responses. Here, we investigated cellular changes after the first-contact between HBV and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in vitro and in vivo. The exposure of PHH to HBV particles resulted in nuclear translocation of NFκB, followed by the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, IL6 and TNF). UV irradiation of viral particles suppressed HBV infectivity but not the induction of cytokines in PHH, suggesting that the inoculum contains the immune inducing agent. Purified HBV particles on the whole, that were prepared from HBV DNA-positive and protein rich fractions after heparin column separation, still had immune-inducing capacity in PHH. The HBV-induced gene expression profile was similar to that induced by TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys, but different from those induced by the viral sensors TLR3 or TLR7-9. Treatment of PHH with both, HBV particles and Pam3Cys led to phosphorylation of ERK1, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases as well as NFκB. Finally, HBV-induced gene expression could be neutralized by TLR2-specific antibodies. Of note, pre-treatment with an HBV entry inhibitor attenuated the TLR2-mediated response to HBV, suggesting a receptor binding-related mechanism. In liver-humanized uPA/SCID/beige mice challenged with HBV in vivo immune induction could only marginally be seen. Conclusions: Primary human hepatocytes are able to sense HBV particles via TLR2 leading to an activation of anti-HBV immune responses in vitro. These findings challenge the previously described stealth properties of HBV.

11.
Autophagy ; 16(3): 548-561, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204557

RESUMO

Glucosamine (GlcN), a dietary supplement widely utilized to promote joint health and effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, is an effective macroautophagy/autophagy activator in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that autophagy is required for hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and envelopment. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how GlcN affects HBV replication, using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our data demonstrated that HBsAg production and HBV replication were significantly increased by GlcN treatment. Confocal microscopy and western blot analysis showed that the amount of autophagosomes and the levels of autophagic markers MAP1LC3/LC3-II and SQSTM1 were clearly elevated by GlcN treatment. GlcN strongly blocked autophagic degradation of HBV virions and proteins by inhibiting lysosomal acidification through its amino group. Moreover, GlcN further promoted HBV replication by inducing autophagosome formation via feedback inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling in an RRAGA (Ras related GTP binding A) GTPase-dependent manner. In vivo, GlcN application promoted HBV replication and blocked autophagic degradation in an HBV hydrodynamic injection mouse model. In addition, GlcN promoted influenza A virus, enterovirus 71, and vesicular stomatitis virus replication in vitro. In conclusion, GlcN efficiently promotes virus replication by inducing autophagic stress through its dual effects in suppressing autophagic degradation and inhibiting MTORC1 signaling. Thus, there is a potential risk of enhanced viral replication by oral GlcN intake in chronically virally infected patients.Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ATG: autophagy-related; CMIA: chemiluminescence immunoassay; ConA: concanavalin A; CQ: chloroquine; CTSD: cathepsin D; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EV71: enterovirus 71; GalN: galactosamine; GFP: green fluorescence protein; GlcN: glucosamine; GNPNAT1: glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1; HBP: hexosamine biosynthesis pathway; HBV: hepatitis B virus; HBcAg: hepatitis B core antigen; HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen; HBeAg: hepatitis B e antigen; HBV RI: hepatitis B replicative intermediate; IAV: influenza A virus; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LAMTOR: late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and MTOR activator; ManN: mannosamine; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PHH: primary human hepatocyte; RAB7: RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; RRAGA: Ras related GTP binding A; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; SEM: standard error of the mean; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; UAP1: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1; VSV: vesicular stomatitis virus.

12.
Cell Microbiol ; 22(2): e13131, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746509

RESUMO

A growing consensus indicates that host metabolism plays a vital role in viral infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in hepatocytes with active glucose metabolism and may be regulated by cellular metabolism. We addressed the question whether and how glucose regulates HBV replication in hepatocytes. The low glucose concentration at 5 mM significantly promoted HBV replication via enhanced transcription and autophagy when compared with higher glucose concentrations (10 and 25 mM). At low glucose concentration, AMPK activity was increased and led to ULK1 phosphorylation at Ser 555 and LC3-II accumulation. By contrast, the mTOR pathway was activated by high glucose concentrations, resulting in reduced HBV replication. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin reversed negative effects of high glucose concentrations on HBV replication, suggesting that low glucose concentration promotes HBV replication by stimulating the AMPK/mTOR-ULK1-autophagy axis. Consistently, we found that glucose transporters inhibition using phloretin also enhanced HBV replication via increased AMPK/mTOR-ULK1-induced autophagy. Surprisingly, the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduced HBV replication through activating the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway also at the low glucose concentrations. Our study reveals that glucose is an important factor for the HBV life cycle by regulating HBV transcription and posttranscriptional steps of HBV replication via cellular autophagy.

13.
Hepatology ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Major vault protein (MVP) is up-regulated during infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we found that MVP deficiency inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development induced by diethylnitrosamine, hepatitis B X protein, and HCV core. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Forced MVP expression was sufficient to induce HCC in mice. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase human double minute 2 (HDM2) forms mutual exclusive complexes either with interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) or with p53. In the presence of MVP, HDM2 is liberated from IRF2, leading to the ubiquitination of the tumor suppressor p53. Mouse xenograft models showed that HBV and HCV promote carcinogenesis through MVP induction, resulting in a loss of p53 mediated by HDM2. Analyses of clinical samples from chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, and HCC revealed that MVP up-regulation correlates with several hallmarks of malignancy and associates with poor overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, through the sequestration of IRF2, MVP promotes an HDM2-dependent loss of p53 that promotes HCC development.

14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632965

RESUMO

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a critical regulator of the induction of T cell activation, immune tolerance, and inflammatory responses during continuous immune surveillance, homeostasis, and development. Migration of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)-expressing cells to secondary lymphoid organs is a crucial step in the onset of adaptive immunity, which is initiated by a complex interaction between CCR7 and its cognate ligands. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the response of the CCL19-CCR7 axis to viral infections have elucidated the complex network of interplay among the invading virus, target cells and host immune responses. Viruses use various strategies to evade or delay the cytokine response, gaining additional time to replicate in the host. In this review, we summarize the impacts of CCL19 and CCR7 expression on the regulation of viral pathogenesis with an emphasis on the corresponding signaling pathways and adjuvant mechanisms. We present and discuss the expression, signaling adaptor proteins and effects of CCL19 and CCR7 as these molecules differentially impact different viral infections and viral life cycles in host homeostatic strategies. The underlying mechanisms discussed in this review may assist in the design of novel agents to modulate chemokine activity for viral prevention.

15.
J Immunol ; 203(11): 2872-2886, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636238

RESUMO

TLR2 serves as a costimulatory molecule on activated T cells. However, it is unknown how the functionality and antiviral activity of CD8+ T cells are modulated by direct TLR2 signaling. In this study, we looked at the TLR2-mediated enhancement of TCR-driven CD8+ T cell activation in vitro and in woodchuck hepatitis virus transgenic mice. In vitro stimulation of CD8+ T cells purified from C57BL/6 mice showed that TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 directly enhanced the TCR-dependent CD8+ T cell activation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that TLR2 signaling increased expression of bioenergy metabolism-related genes in CD8+ T cells, such as IRF4, leading to improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis. This was associated with the upregulation of genes related to immune regulation and functions such as T-bet and IFN-γ. Glycolysis and glutaminolysis were in turn essential for the TLR2-mediated enhancement of T cell activation. Administration of TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 promoted the expansion and functionality of vaccine-primed, Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in both wild type and transgenic mice and improved viral suppression. Thus, TLR2 could promote CD8+ T cell immunity through regulating the energy metabolism.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608073

RESUMO

The central role of the cellular immune response in the control and clearance of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well-established. The contribution of humoral immunity, including B cell and antibody responses against HBV, has been investigated for a long time but has attracted increasing attention again in recent years. The anti-HBs antibody was first recognized as a marker of protective immunity after the acute resolution of the HBV infection (or vaccination) and is now defined as a biomarker for the functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In this way, therapies targeting HBV-specific B cells and the induction of an anti-HBs antibody response are essential elements of a rational strategy to terminate chronic HBV infection. However, a high load of HBsAg in the blood, which has been proposed to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance, represents a major obstacle to curing CHB. Long-term antiviral treatment by nucleoside analogs, by targeting viral translation by siRNA, by inhibiting HBsAg release via nucleic acid polymers, or by neutralizing HBsAg via specific antibodies could potentially reduce the HBsAg load in CHB patients. A combined strategy including a reduction of the HBsAg load via the above treatments and the therapeutic targeting of B cells by vaccination may induce the appearance of anti-HBs antibodies and lead to a functional cure of CHB.

17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572396

RESUMO

The activation of TLR7 signaling in T cells accelerates antigen-specific responses. Such responses play an essential role in eliminating viral infections and can be anti-tumorigenic. However, the underlying mechanisms of how TLR7 can promote the optimal function of CD8+ T cells remain unclear. To investigate how TLR signaling directly contributes to CD8+ T cell functions, we examine the activation of cellular TLR7-related pathways and functional and metabolic alterations in TLR7-stimulated T cells during T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the activation of CD8+ T cells in response to direct stimulation by TLR7 ligands. TLR7 stimulation could promote the effector functions of purified CD8+ T cells in vitro. The TLR7-induced activation of CD8+ T cells occurs if CD8+ T cells were primed by αCD3 activation and increasingly expressed TLR7. MyD88 and AKT-mTOR signaling plays a critical role in TLR7-induced T cell activation. In addition to the upregulation of immune-related genes, metabolic alterations in CD8+ T cells, including the upregulation of glucose uptake and glycolysis, occurred by TLR7 stimulation. Glycolysis was found to be regulated by the AKT-mTOR pathway and a downstream transcription factor IRF4. Blocking glycolysis by either direct glucose deprivation or modulating the mTOR pathway and IRF4 expression was found to impair T cell activation and functions. Taken together, the activation of TLR7 signaling promotes the effector functions of CD8+ T cells by enhancing cellular glycolysis.

18.
Front Genet ; 10: 696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475028

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major health problem worldwide. Recently, a great number of genetic studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association studies have been performed to search for host determinants of the development of chronic HBV infection, clinical outcomes, therapeutic efficacy, and responses to hepatitis B vaccines, with a focus on human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokine genes, and toll-like receptors. In addition to SNPs, gene insertions/deletions and copy number variants are associated with infection. However, conflicting results have been obtained. In the present review, we summarize the current state of research on host genetic factors and chronic HBV infection, its clinical type, therapies, and hepatitis B vaccine responses and classify published results according to their reliability. The potential roles of host genetic determinants of chronic HBV infection identified in these studies and their clinical significance are discussed. In particular, HLAs were relevant for HBV infection and pathogenesis. Finally, we highlight the need for additional studies with large sample sizes, well-matched study designs, appropriate statistical methods, and validation in multiple populations to improve the treatment of HBV infection.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1008002, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404116

RESUMO

The galectin 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP, also known as 90K) is a ubiquitous multifunctional secreted glycoprotein originally identified in cancer progression. It remains unclear how 90K functions in innate immunity during viral infections. In this study, we found that viral infections resulted in elevated levels of 90K. Further studies demonstrated that 90K expression suppressed virus replication by inducing IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Upon investigating the mechanisms behind this event, we found that 90K functions as a scaffold/adaptor protein to interact with TRAF6, TRAF3, TAK1 and TBK1. Furthermore, 90K enhanced TRAF6 and TRAF3 ubiquitination and served as a specific ubiquitination substrate of TRAF6, leading to transcription factor NF-κB, IRF3 and IRF7 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Conclusions: 90K is a virus-induced protein capable of binding with the TRAF6 and TRAF3 complex, leading to IFN and pro-inflammatory production.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas/fisiologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/antagonistas & inibidores , Viroses/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Vírus/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
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