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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924767

RESUMO

Ionic substitution forms an essential pathway to manipulate the structural phase, carrier density and crystalline symmetry of materials via ion-electron-lattice coupling, leading to a rich spectrum of electronic states in strongly correlated systems. Using the ferromagnetic metal SrRuO3 as a model system, we demonstrate an efficient and reversible control of both structural and electronic phase transformations through the electric-field controlled proton evolution with ionic liquid gating. The insertion of protons results in a large structural expansion and increased carrier density, leading to an exotic ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. Importantly, we reveal a novel protonated compound of HSrRuO3 with paramagnetic metallic as ground state. We observe a topological Hall effect at the boundary of the phase transition due to the proton concentration gradient across the film-depth. We envision that electric-field controlled protonation opens up a pathway to explore novel electronic states and material functionalities in protonated material systems.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901432, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637170

RESUMO

Ionic evolution-induced phase transformation can lead to wide ranges of novel material functionalities with promising applications. Here, using the gating voltage during ionic liquid gating as a tuning knob, the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 is transformed into a series of protonated H x SrCoO2.5 phases with distinct hydrogen contents. The unexpected electron to charge-neutral doping crossover along with the increase of proton concentration from x = 1 to 2 suggests the formation of exotic charge neutral H-H dimers for higher proton concentration, which is directly visualized at the vacant tetrahedron by scanning transmission electron microscopy and then further supported by first principles calculations. Although the H-H dimers cause no change of the valency of Co2+ ions, they result in clear enhancement of electronic bandgap and suppression of magnetization through lattice expansion. These results not only reveal a hydrogen chemical state beyond anion and cation within the complex oxides, but also suggest an effective pathway to design functional materials through tunable ionic evolution.

3.
Adv Mater ; 31(16): e1900458, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811706

RESUMO

Ionic-liquid-gating- (ILG-) induced proton evolution has emerged as a novel strategy to realize electron doping and manipulate the electronic and magnetic ground states in complex oxides. While the study of a wide range of systems (e.g., SrCoO2.5 , VO2 , WO3 , etc.) has demonstrated important opportunities to incorporate protons through ILG, protonation remains a big challenge for many others. Furthermore, the mechanism of proton intercalation from the ionic liquid/solid interface to whole film has not yet been revealed. Here, with a model system of inverse spinel NiCo2 O4 , an increase in system temperature during ILG forms a single but effective method to efficiently achieve protonation. Moreover, the ILG induces a novel phase transformation in NiCo2 O4 from ferrimagnetic metallic into antiferromagnetic insulating with protonation at elevated temperatures. This study shows that environmental temperature is an efficient tuning knob to manipulate ILG-induced ionic evolution.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 580, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402883

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, Figs. 4c and 4d contained incorrectly sized error bars. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

5.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2156, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255274

RESUMO

Electric-field-driven oxygen ion evolution in the metal/oxide heterostructures emerges as an effective approach to achieve the electric-field control of ferromagnetism. However, the involved redox reaction of the metal layer typically requires extended operation time and elevated temperature condition, which greatly hinders its practical applications. Here, we achieve reversible sub-millisecond and room-temperature electric-field control of ferromagnetism in the Co layer of a Co/SrCoO2.5 system accompanied by bipolar resistance switching. In contrast to the previously reported redox reaction scenario, the oxygen ion evolution occurs only within the SrCoO2.5 layer, which serves as an oxygen ion gating layer, leading to modulation of the interfacial oxygen stoichiometry and magnetic state. This work identifies a simple and effective pathway to realize the electric-field control of ferromagnetism at room temperature, and may lead to applications that take advantage of both the resistance switching and magnetoelectric coupling.

6.
Adv Mater ; 29(46)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057574

RESUMO

Field-effect transistors with ionic-liquid gating (ILG) have been widely employed and have led to numerous intriguing phenomena in the last decade, due to the associated excellent carrier-density tunability. However, the role of the electrochemical effect during ILG has become a heavily debated topic recently. Herein, using ILG, a field-induced insulator-to-metal transition is achieved in WO3 thin films with the emergence of structural transformations of the whole films. The subsequent secondary-ion mass spectrometry study provides solid evidence that electrochemically driven hydrogen evolution dominates the discovered electrical and structural transformation through surface absorption and bulk intercalation.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(44): 443004, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745614

RESUMO

The family of transition metal oxides (TMOs) is a large class of magnetic materials that has been intensively studied due to the rich physics involved as well as the promising potential applications in next generation electronic devices. In TMOs, the spin, charge, orbital and lattice are strongly coupled, and significant advances have been achieved to engineer the magnetism by different routes that manipulate these degrees of freedom. The family of manganites is a model system of strongly correlated magnetic TMOs. In this review, using manganites thin films and the heterostructures in conjunction with other TMOs as model systems, we review the recent progress of engineering magnetism in TMOs. We first discuss the role of the lattice that includes the epitaxial strain and the interface structural coupling. Then we look into the role of charge, focusing on the interface charge modulation. Having demonstrated the static effects, we continue to review the research on dynamical control of magnetism by electric field. Next, we review recent advances in heterostructures comprised of high T c cuprate superconductors and manganites. Following that, we discuss the emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces between 3d TMOs and 5d TMOs with strong spin-orbit coupling. Finally, we provide our outlook for prospective future directions.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 104, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740076

RESUMO

Oxygen ion transport is the key issue in redox processes. Visualizing the process of oxygen ion migration with atomic resolution is highly desirable for designing novel devices such as oxidation catalysts, oxygen permeation membranes, and solid oxide fuel cells. Here we show the process of electrically induced oxygen migration and subsequent reconstructive structural transformation in a SrCoO2.5-σ film by scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find that the extraction of oxygen from every second SrO layer occurs gradually under an electrical bias; beyond a critical voltage, the brownmillerite units collapse abruptly and evolve into a periodic nano-twined phase with a high c/a ratio and distorted tetrahedra. Our results show that oxygen vacancy rows are not only natural oxygen diffusion channels, but also preferred sites for the induced oxygen vacancies. These direct experimental results of oxygen migration may provide a common mechanism for the electrically induced structural evolution of oxides.Information on how oxygen ions transport is crucial to understanding field-induced phase transformations in materials. Here, Zhang et al. directly image atomic-scale oxygen migration and the subsequent structural reconstruction in a SrCoO2.5-σ film in the presence of an electric field.

9.
Nature ; 546(7656): 124-128, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569818

RESUMO

Materials can be transformed from one crystalline phase to another by using an electric field to control ion transfer, in a process that can be harnessed in applications such as batteries, smart windows and fuel cells. Increasing the number of transferrable ion species and of accessible crystalline phases could in principle greatly enrich material functionality. However, studies have so far focused mainly on the evolution and control of single ionic species (for example, oxygen, hydrogen or lithium ions). Here we describe the reversible and non-volatile electric-field control of dual-ion (oxygen and hydrogen) phase transformations, with associated electrochromic and magnetoelectric effects. We show that controlling the insertion and extraction of oxygen and hydrogen ions independently of each other can direct reversible phase transformations among three different material phases: the perovskite SrCoO3-δ (ref. 12), the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 (ref. 13), and a hitherto-unexplored phase, HSrCoO2.5. By analysing the distinct optical absorption properties of these phases, we demonstrate selective manipulation of spectral transparency in the visible-light and infrared regions, revealing a dual-band electrochromic effect that could see application in smart windows. Moreover, the starkly different magnetic and electric properties of the three phases-HSrCoO2.5 is a weakly ferromagnetic insulator, SrCoO3-δ is a ferromagnetic metal, and SrCoO2.5 is an antiferromagnetic insulator-enable an unusual form of magnetoelectric coupling, allowing electric-field control of three different magnetic ground states. These findings open up opportunities for the electric-field control of multistate phase transformations with rich functionalities.

10.
Sci Rep ; 3: 3090, 2013 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24169599

RESUMO

Electrical resistance is a material property that usually varies enormously with temperature. Constant electrical resistivity over large temperature range has been rarely measured in a single solid. Here we report the growth of Cu3NMx (M = Cu, Ag, Au) compound films by magnetron sputtering, aiming at obtaining single solids of nearly constant electrical resistance in some temperature ranges. The increasing interstitial doping of cubic Cu3N lattice by extra metal atoms induces the semiconductor-to-metal transition in all the three systems. Nearly constant electrical resistance over 200 K, from room temperature downward, was measured in some semimetallic Cu3NMx samples, resulting from opposite temperature dependence of carrier density and carrier mobility, as revealed by Hall measurement. Cu3NAgx samples have the best performance with regard to the range of both temperature and doping level wherein a nearly constant electrical resistance can be realized. This work can inspire the search of other materials of such a quality.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 21(24): 245602, 2010 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20484792

RESUMO

Ag@SiO(2)@Ag sandwich nanostructures were prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis method. The Ag core, SiO(2) shell and Ag nanoparticle shell were all synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, catalysed by ammonia, in the one-pot reaction. The polyvinylpyrrolidone, acting as a smart reducing agent, reduced the Ag(+) to Ag cores and Ag shells separately. Furthermore, the polyvinylpyrrolidone served as a protective agent to prevent the silver cores from aggregating. The SiO(2) shell and outer layer Ag nanoparticles were obtained when tetraethyl orthosilicate and ammonia were added to the silver core solution. Ammonia, acting as the catalyst, accelerated the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate to SiO(2), which coated the silver cores. Furthermore, Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) ions were formed when aqueous ammonia was added to the solution, which increased the reduction capability. Then the polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) ions to small Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the Ag@SiO(2) and formed Ag@SiO(2)@Ag sandwich structures with a standard deviation of less than 4%. This structure effectively prevented the Ag nanoparticles on the silica surface from aggregating. Furthermore, the Ag@SiO(2)@Ag sandwich structures showed good catalysis properties due to the large surface area/volume value and activity of surface atoms of Ag particles.

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