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1.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-22, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107859

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a tumor-like disease, is a serious and fatal pulmonary inflammatory condition usually characterized by irreversible destruction of the lung parenchyma, excessive matrix accumulation, and decline in lung function. IPF still remains a great burden to the universe. At the moment, the available therapeutic regimens utilized for IPF such as non-pharmacological therapies (lung transplantation) and pharmacological therapies (drugs, nintedanib, pirfenidone, etc.) are normally accompanied by significant limitations, such as adverse reactions, low bioavailability, poor selectivity, low-tissue distribution, in vivo instability, systemic toxicity, inconveniency and unsafe usage. There is a need for the exploration and discovery of new novel remedies by researchers and scientists globally. Recent numerous preliminary studies have laid significant emphasis and demonstrated the antifibrotic importance, good curative actions (little or no adverse reactions), and multiple target sites of the active components from traditional herbal medicine (THM) against IPF, which could serve as a modern, alternative and potential therapeutics or drug candidates in treating IPF. This paper extensively summarizes the pharmacological actions and signaling pathways or mechanisms of active components obtained from THM for treating IPF. Moreover, the sources and modernization, markets, relevant FDA and CFDA studies (the USA and China), preclinical analysis, and various compositions of THM currently under clinical trials are also highlighted. Additionally, this present analytical data would be instrumental towards further drug progression or advancement of active components from THM for the potential therapeutics of IPF in the future.

2.
Vaccine ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To maintain acceptable response rates, the cost has grown for vaccination surveys that use traditional data collection modes, such as face-to-face and telephone interviews. Conducting a web or internet survey could be a low-cost alternative. However, because the internet is not used by everyone, we need to study how prevalence estimates in web surveys for vaccination surveillance could be affected by internet non-use. METHOD: We analyzed data from the 2013-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess undercoverage biases from internet non-use by partitioning into proportion of internet non-users and difference in prevalence of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations between internet and internet non-users, respectively. RESULTS: The proportion of internet non-users decreased monotonically from 43.3% in 2013 to 35.4% in 2017; however, the undercoverage bias from internet use for pneumococcal vaccination increased from 0.8 to 1.5 percentage points at the same time. Overall, the undercoverage bias was -1.1 and 1.5 percentage points for influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination in 2017, respectively. For both vaccinations, we found large absolute and relative biases among certain demographic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of internet non-users decreased in recent years, undercoverage bias of hybrid internet survey for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations did not decrease. Despite a small overall undercoverage bias, the bias in subpopulation groups was not negligible.

3.
Environ Technol ; : 1-11, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966616

RESUMO

Recently, the micro-nano bubble (MB) technology has attracted people's attention due to its special advantages. Here, we carried out the technology of combining MB and hydrogen peroxide (MB/H2O2) to achieve efficient degradation of tetracycline wastewater. The effect of MB/H2O2 technology on the degradation efficiency of tetracycline was deeply analysed by investigating the reaction time, H2O2 dosage, pH and MB inlet flow. The results showed that the degradation rate of tetracycline hydrochloride by MB/H2O2 technology can reach 92.43%, which is 9.44 and 3.94 times that of MB and H2O2 alone. Through electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis and free radical quenching experiments, a possible mechanism for MB/H2O2 technology to efficiently degrade TC was proposed. In the MB/H2O2 system, the high temperature and high pressure environment generated when MB ruptures can activate H2O2 to obtain a higher number of active oxygen species. •OH is the main reactive oxygen radical in the process of MB/H2O2 degradation of TC, followed by HO2•/•O2-. In addition, the possible intermediate products of the oxidation TC process were identified by HPLC-MS technology. Under the action of •OH and HO2•/•O2- free radicals, TC molecules undergo demethylation and hydroxylation, ring-opening reactions, isomerization, deethylation, deacylation, deamination and dehydration reactions to generate intermediate products and finally convert them into CO2 and H2O. The development of MB/H2O2 technology can potentially be used to efficiently remove TC substances in the water environment and provide a new method for water purification.

4.
J Biomed Inform ; 119: 103819, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029749

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and extremely harmful arrhythmia disease. Automatic detection of AF based on ECG helps accurate and timely detection of the condition. However, the existing AF detection methods are mostly based on complex signal transformation or precise waveform localization. This is a big challenge for complex, variable, and susceptible ECG signals. Therefore, we propose a simple feature extraction method based on gradient set (GDS) for AF detection. The method first calculates the GDS of the ECG segment and then calculates the statistical distribution feature and the information quantity feature of the GDS as the input of the classifier. Experiments on four databases include 146 subjects show that the feature extraction method for detecting AF proposed in this paper has the characteristics of simple calculation, noise tolerance, and high adaptability to all kinds of classifiers, and got the best performance on the DNN classifier we designed. Therefore, it is a good choice for feature extraction in AF detection.

5.
Br J Sociol ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970490

RESUMO

Various "rich lists" indicate that China now has one of the highest percentages of super rich people worldwide. However, very little is known about their sociopolitical profiles. Based on the annual Hurun China Rich Lists from 2000 to 2018, we created a new dataset of China's super rich that combines information from various sources. Using a multiple correspondent analysis, we reveal that the social spaces of China's super rich are derived from their political, cultural, and social capital. The Chinese super rich are mainly distinguished by their cultural and political capital, while their social capital is not fully independent from political capital. We also identify a division among the super-rich who first appeared on the rich list during different periods. These divisions can inform the understanding of the emergence of the super-rich in an economy that has only recently embraced capitalism and can help predict their evolution in an increasingly glocalized system.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10429, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001931

RESUMO

Fish sex identification is a basic technique of great importance for both fish genetic studies and fisheries. Due to the sexual reversal phenomenon in many fish species, a simple and rapid molecular identification method for fish genetic sex is urgently needed to suit versatile detection scenarios, such as point-of-need applications. In this study, we took Cynoglossus semilaevis as an example, established a recombinase-aided amplification (RAA)-based method for sex identification, and combined the RAA-detection with two result visualization approaches with distinct features, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Specific primers and probe were designed to specifically detect the sex chromosome W of C. semilaevis in order to distinguish the genetic sex between males, pseudo-males and females. To evaluate the performance of our methods, the genetic sex for twenty-eight males, sixty-eight pseudo-males and fifty-four females were examined with the RAA-based method and classical PCR-based genotyping method, demonstrating the consistent results of sex identification between both methods. The RAA-LFD method is operationally simple, rapid (~ 30 min) and holds great potential for point-of-need applications of fish sex identification, including fishery fields. The method presented here could be effective for identifying fish gender with the ZW karyotype.

7.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6684954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995984

RESUMO

Acquiring electrocardiographic (ECG) signals and performing arrhythmia classification in mobile device scenarios have the advantages of short response time, almost no network bandwidth consumption, and human resource savings. In recent years, deep neural networks have become a popular method to efficiently and accurately simulate nonlinear patterns of ECG data in a data-driven manner but require more resources. Therefore, it is crucial to design deep learning (DL) algorithms that are more suitable for resource-constrained mobile devices. In this paper, KecNet, a lightweight neural network construction scheme based on domain knowledge, is proposed to model ECG data by effectively leveraging signal analysis and medical knowledge. To evaluate the performance of KecNet, we use the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) protocol and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database to classify five arrhythmia categories. The result shows that the ACC, SEN, and PRE achieve 99.31%, 99.45%, and 98.78%, respectively. In addition, it also possesses high robustness to noisy environments, low memory usage, and physical interpretability advantages. Benefiting from these advantages, KecNet can be applied in practice, especially wearable and lightweight mobile devices for arrhythmia classification.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11219, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045573

RESUMO

Persons living with diabetes (PLWD) with newly diagnosed tuberculosis are at greater risk of poor treatment outcomes. Identifying and prioritizing high-risk subgroups of PLWD and tuberculosis for tuberculosis programs to target has been rarely performed. We investigated risk factors for poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes among PLWD and developed a predictive risk score for tuberculosis control prioritization. Among PLWD diagnosed with tuberculosis, demographic, clinical, and tuberculosis treatment outcome data were collected. Poor treatment outcomes included treatment failure, death, default, and transfer. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to analyze risk factors of poor treatment outcomes. Risk scores were derived based on regression coefficients to classify participants at low-, intermediate-, and high-risk of poor treatment outcomes. Among 335 PLWD newly diagnosed with tuberculosis, 109 were cured and 172 completed treatment. Multivariable logistic regression found that risk factors of poor treatment outcomes included bacteriologically-positivity, low body mass index, no physical activity, and pulmonary cavitation. Rates of poor treatment outcomes in low- (0-2), intermediate- (3-4), and high-risk (5-8) groups were 4.2%, 10.5%, and 55.4% (Ptrend < 0.0001), respectively. The risk score accurately discriminated poor and successful treatment outcomes (C-statistic, 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.91). We derived a simple predictive risk score that accurately distinguished those at high- and low-risk of treatment failure. This score provides a potentially useful tool for tuberculosis control programs in settings with a double burden of both tuberculosis and diabetes.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(22): 8352-8366, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041912

RESUMO

Isolated hafnium (Hf) sites were prepared on Silicalite-1 and SiO2 and investigated for acetone conversion to isobutene. Characterization by IR, 1H MAS NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy suggests that Hf atoms are bonded to the support via three O atoms and have one hydroxyl group, i.e, (≡SiO)3Hf-OH. In the case of Hf/Silicalite-1, Hf-OH groups hydrogen bond with adjacent Si-OH to form (≡SiO)3Hf-OH···HO-Si≡ complexes. The turnover frequency for isobutene formation from acetone is 4.5 times faster over Hf/Silicalite-1 than Hf/SiO2. Lewis acidic Hf sites promote the aldol condensation of acetone to produce mesityl oxide (MO), which is the precursor to isobutene. For Hf/SiO2, both Hf sites and Si-OH groups are responsible for the decomposition of MO to isobutene and acetic acid, whereas for Hf/Silicalite-1, the (≡SiO)3Hf-OH···HO-Si≡ complex is the active site. Measured reaction kinetics show that the rate of isobutene formation over Hf/SiO2 and Hf/Silicalite-1 is nearly second order in acetone partial pressure, suggesting that the rate-limiting step involves formation of the C-C bond between two acetone molecules. The rate expression for isobutene formation predicts a second order dependence in acetone partial pressure at low partial pressures and a decrease in order with increasing acetone partial pressure, in good agreement with experimental observation. The apparent activation energy for isobutene formation from acetone over Hf/SiO2 is 116.3 kJ/mol, while that for Hf/Silicalite-1 is 79.5 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy for Hf/Silicalite-1 is attributed to enhanced adsorption of acetone and formation of a C-C bond favored by the H-bonding interaction between Hf-OH and an adjacent Si-OH group.

10.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(3): 1-26, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983910

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults remains low. REPORTING PERIOD: August 2017-June 2018 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2018 (for pneumococcal, herpes zoster, tetanus and diphtheria [Td]/tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. NHIS's objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Adult receipt of influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, Td/Tdap, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and at least 1 dose of HPV vaccines was assessed. Estimates were derived for a new composite adult vaccination quality measure and by selected demographic and access-to-care characteristics (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, indication for vaccination, travel history [travel to countries where hepatitis infections are endemic], health insurance status, contacts with physicians, nativity, and citizenship). Trends in adult vaccination were assessed during 2010-2018. RESULTS: Coverage for the adult age-appropriate composite measure was low in all age groups. Racial and ethnic differences in coverage persisted for all vaccinations, with lower coverage for most vaccinations among non-White compared with non-Hispanic White adults. Linear trend tests indicated coverage increased from 2010 to 2018 for most vaccines in this report. Few adults aged ≥19 years had received all age-appropriate vaccines, including influenza vaccination, regardless of whether inclusion of Tdap (13.5%) or inclusion of any tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine (20.2%) receipt was measured. Coverage among adults for influenza vaccination during the 2017-18 season (46.1%) was similar to the estimate for the 2016-17 season (45.4%), and coverage for pneumococcal (adults aged ≥65 years [69.0%]), herpes zoster (adults aged ≥50 years and aged ≥60 years [24.1% and 34.5%, respectively]), tetanus (adults aged ≥19 years [62.9%]), Tdap (adults aged ≥19 years [31.2%]), hepatitis A (adults aged ≥19 years [11.9%]), and HPV (females aged 19-26 years [52.8%]) vaccination in 2018 were similar to the estimates for 2017. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years and health care personnel (HCP) aged ≥19 years increased 4.2 and 6.7 percentage points to 30.0% and 67.2%, respectively, from 2017. HPV vaccination coverage among males aged 19-26 years increased 5.2 percentage points to 26.3% from the 2017 estimate. Overall, HPV vaccination coverage among females aged 19-26 years did not increase, but coverage among Hispanic females aged 19-26 years increased 10.8 percentage points to 49.6% from the 2017 estimate. Coverage for the following vaccines was lower among adults without health insurance compared with those with health insurance: influenza vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years, 19-49 years, and 50-64 years), pneumococcal vaccine (among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk), Td vaccine (among all age groups), Tdap vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years and 19-64 years), hepatitis A vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years overall and among travelers aged ≥19 years), hepatitis B vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years and 19-49 years and among travelers aged ≥19 years), herpes zoster vaccine (among adults aged ≥60 years), and HPV vaccine (among males and females aged 19-26 years). Adults who reported having a usual place for health care generally reported receipt of recommended vaccinations more often than those who did not have such a place, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Vaccination coverage was higher among adults reporting ≥1 physician contact during the preceding year compared with those who had not visited a physician during the preceding year, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Even among adults who had health insurance and ≥10 physician contacts during the preceding year, depending on the vaccine, 20.1%-87.5% reported not having received vaccinations that were recommended either for all persons or for those with specific indications. Overall, vaccination coverage among U.S.-born adults was significantly higher than that of foreign-born adults, including influenza vaccination (aged ≥19 years), pneumococcal vaccination (all ages), tetanus vaccination (all ages), Tdap vaccination (all ages), hepatitis B vaccination (aged ≥19 years and 19-49 years and travelers aged ≥19 years), herpes zoster vaccination (all ages), and HPV vaccination among females aged 19-26 years. Vaccination coverage also varied by citizenship status and years living in the United States. INTERPRETATION: NHIS data indicate that many adults remain unprotected against vaccine-preventable diseases. Coverage for the adult age-appropriate composite measures was low in all age groups. Individual adult vaccination coverage remained low as well, but modest gains occurred in vaccination coverage for hepatitis B (among adults aged ≥19 years and HCP aged ≥19 years), and HPV (among males aged 19-26 years and Hispanic females aged 19-26 years). Coverage for other vaccines and groups with Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices vaccination indications did not improve from 2017. Although HPV vaccination coverage among males aged 19-26 years and Hispanic females aged 19-26 years increased, approximately 50% of females aged 19-26 years and 70% of males aged 19-26 years remained unvaccinated. Racial/ethnic vaccination differences persisted for routinely recommended adult vaccines. Having health insurance coverage, having a usual place for health care, and having ≥1 physician contacts during the preceding 12 months were associated with higher vaccination coverage; however, these factors alone were not associated with optimal adult vaccination coverage, and findings indicate missed opportunities to vaccinate remained. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: Substantial improvement in adult vaccination uptake is needed to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Following the Standards for Adult Immunization Practice (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/adults/for-practice/standards/index.html), all providers should routinely assess adults' vaccination status at every clinical encounter, strongly recommend appropriate vaccines, either offer needed vaccines or refer their patients to another provider who can administer the needed vaccines, and document vaccinations received by their patients in an immunization information system.

11.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States has been recommended for girls since 2006 and for boys since 2011. However, settings of receiving HPV vaccination have not been assessed. The purpose of this study is to assess settings of receiving HPV vaccination among adolescents in order to understand what strategies are needed to improve vaccination uptake. METHODS: Data from the 2018 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) were analyzed to assess place of HPV vaccination overall, and by gender, quarter, and other selected variables among adolescents in the United States. The 2016-2018 NIS-Teen data were combined to assess state-specific place of HPV vaccination. RESULTS: Among vaccinated adolescents aged 13-17 years, a doctor's office was the most common place where HPV vaccination was received (79.2%), followed by clinics, health centers, or other medical facilities (13.5%), health department (4.1%), hospital or emergency room (2.3%), schools (.5%), and pharmacies or stores (.4%). Overall, 99.1% of adolescents aged 13-17 years received HPV vaccination at medical settings and only .9% at nonmedical settings. Reported vaccination in nonmedical settings by state ranged from less than .1% in Delaware, Florida, and New Hampshire to 4.1% in North Dakota, with a median of 1.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Doctor's offices were the most common medical setting for adolescents to receive HPV vaccination. Less than 1% of adolescents received vaccination at nonmedical settings. Continuing work with medical and nonmedical settings to identify and implement appropriate strategies are needed to improve HPV vaccination coverage among adolescents.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792187

RESUMO

Facing considerable challenges associated with aging and dementia, China urgently needs an evidence-based health-care system for prevention and management of dementia. The Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) is a community-based cohort study initiated in 2008 that focuses on asymptomatic stages of dementia, aims to develop community-based prevention strategies for cognitive impairment, and provides a platform for scientific research and clinical trials. Thus far, BABRI has recruited 10,255 participants (aged 50 and over, 60.3% female), 2021 of whom have been followed up at least once at a 2- or 3-year interval. This article presents aims and study design of BABRI; summarizes preliminary behavioral and neuroimaging findings on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and results of clinical trials on MCI; and discusses issues concerning early prevention in community, MCI diagnosis methods, and applications of database of aging and dementia. BABRI is proposed to build a systematic framework on brain health in old age.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2324-2333, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884802

RESUMO

In view of the significant differences in phosphorus removal processes by different steel slags, electric furnace slag was taken as the research object to discuss the effects of environmental factors, including the adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phosphorus removal and to verify the phosphorus removal performances of steel slag for phosphate, pyrophosphate, and actual water bodies. With the help of spectral techniques including scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy(XRF), and an X-ray diffractometer(XRD), the phosphorus removal mechanisms of steel slag were explored. Moreover, the phosphorus removal abilities of different absorptive media of steel slag, ceramsite, and zeolite were compared, and the safety performances of phosphorus removal by steel slag were evaluated. The results showed that the adsorption time significantly affected the phosphorus removal efficiency of steel slag. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of phosphate solutions with a concentration range of 1-20 mg·L-1 using steel slag could reach over 97% when the adsorption time was 30 min. The effect of temperature on phosphorus removal by steel slag was not significant. The pyrophosphate adsorption capacity of steel slag was weaker than that of orthophosphate, and the removal rate of pyrophosphate with an initial concentration of 3 mg·L-1 was 82.45%. Spectral analysis showed that the mechanisms of phosphorus removal by steel slag were chemical adsorption assisted by physical adsorption, and calcium-phosphorus was the main precipitate component. CaHPO4·2H2O was the main precipitate. Steel slag exhibited excellent phosphorus removal properties for removing phosphorus in the biological pond effluent and wetland system, achieving total phosphorus removal rates of 98.36% and 93.33%, respectively. In comparison, the phosphate removal performance of steel slag was better than that of ceramsite and zeolite, and the removal efficiencies of PO43- were 96%, 40%, and 10%, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the leaching solution of steel slag met the requirements of the Class I standard of surface water; thus, the steel slag was safe and reliable.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803032

RESUMO

Saturation effects limit the application of vegetation indices (VIs) in dense vegetation areas. The possibility to mitigate them by adopting a negative soil adjustment factor X is addressed. Two leaf area index (LAI) data sets are analyzed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) for validation. The first one is derived from observations of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 16 April 2013, to 21 October 2020, in the Apiacás area. Its corresponding VIs are calculated from a combination of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 surface reflectance products. The second one is a global LAI dataset with VIs calculated from Landsat-5 surface reflectance products. A linear regression model is applied to both datasets to evaluate four VIs that are commonly used to estimate LAI: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), transformed SAVI (TSAVI), and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). The optimal soil adjustment factor of SAVI for LAI estimation is determined using an exhaustive search. The Dickey-Fuller test indicates that the time series of LAI data are stable with a confidence level of 99%. The linear regression results stress significant saturation effects in all VIs. Finally, the exhaustive searching results show that a negative soil adjustment factor of SAVI can mitigate the SAVIs' saturation in the Apiacás area (i.e., X = -0.148 for mean LAI = 5.35), and more generally in areas with large LAI values (e.g., X = -0.183 for mean LAI = 6.72). Our study further confirms that the lower boundary of the soil adjustment factor can be negative and that using a negative soil adjustment factor improves the computation of time series of LAI.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Solo , Modelos Lineares , Imagens de Satélites
15.
Langmuir ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849275

RESUMO

The oxygen vacancy caused by ultrathin structures would be introduced into the semiconductor photocatalyst to boost its photocatalytic activity. Herein, ultrathin Bi2O3-Bi2WO6 nanosheet composites have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Compared to pure Bi2WO6 nanosheets, the Bi2O3-Bi2WO6 nanosheet composites possess abundant oxygen vacancies, which was confirmed by the positron annihilation spectra. The ultrathin Bi2O3-Bi2WO6 nanosheet composites exhibited remarkable photocatalytic degradation performance for oxytetracycline compared with that of pure Bi2WO6 nanosheets. The excellent photocatalytic activities of Bi2O3-Bi2WO6 composites could be attributed to the heterojunction structure and the oxygen vacancies caused by ultrathin structures.

16.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919645

RESUMO

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have broad application prospects in the field of gene therapy. The establishment of low-cost and large-scale manufacturing is now the general agenda for industry. The baculovirus-insect cell/larva expression system has great potential for these applications due to its scalability and predictable biosafety. To establish a more efficient production system, Bombyx mori pupae were used as a new platform and infected with recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV). The production of a chimeric recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2/human bocavirus type-1 (HBoV1) vector was used to evaluate the efficiency of this new baculovirus expression vector (BEV)-insect expression system. For this purpose, we constructed two recombinant BmNPVs, which were named rBmNPV/AAV2Rep-HBoV1Cap and rBmNPV/AAV2ITR-eGFP. The yields of rAAV2/HBoV1 derived from the rBmNPV/AAV2Rep-HBoV1Cap and rBmNPV/AAV2ITR-eGFP co-infected BmN cells exceeded 2 × 104 vector genomes (VG) per cell. The rBmNPV/AAV2Rep-HBoV1Cap and rBmNPV/AAV2ITR-eGFP can express stably for at least five passages. Significantly, rAAV2/HBoV1 could be efficiently generated from BmNPV-infected silkworm larvae and pupae at average yields of 2.52 × 1012 VG/larva and 4.6 × 1012 VG/pupa, respectively. However, the vectors produced from the larvae and pupae had a high percentage of empty particles, which suggests that further optimization is required for this platform in the future. Our work shows that silkworm pupae, as an efficient bioreactor, have great potential for application in the production of gene therapy vectors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739864

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CART) has achieved excellent results in the past 10 years for the treatment of leukemia. Treatment of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by anti-CD19 CART can reach a complete remission rate of 90%. Although CART has greatly improved the treatment of patients with leukemia and lymphoma, as many as one-third of patients can suffer disease relapse after CART. The tumor surface marker CD19 is negative in most patients who relapse, and these patients display high expression of CD19 before treatment. In this review, the current causes of CD19-negative relapses after CD19 CART against leukemia, and the mechanisms of target escape are briefly summarized. Also, methods and strategies for treating relapse to provide references for the treatment of leukemia relapse are also discussed.

18.
Ultramicroscopy ; : 113257, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773842

RESUMO

Most implementations of ptychography on the electron microscope operate in scanning transmission (STEM) mode, where a small focussed probe beam is rapidly scanned across the sample. In this paper we introduce a different approach based on near-field ptychography, where the focussed beam is replaced by a wide-field, structured illumination, realised through a purpose-designed etched Silicon Nitride window. We show that fields of view as large as 100 µm2 can be imaged using the new approach, and that quantitative electron phase images can be reconstructed from as few as nine near-field diffraction pattern measurements.

19.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 6682275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688340

RESUMO

Chronic pain is considered an economic burden on society as it often results in disability, job loss, and early retirement. Opioids are the most common analgesics prescribed for the management of moderate to severe pain. However, chronic exposure to these drugs can result in opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. On pain modulation strategies, exploiting the multitarget drugs with the ability of the superadditive or synergistic interactions attracts more attention. In the present report, we have reviewed the analgesic effects of different dopamine receptors, particularly D1 and D2 receptors, in different regions of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, striatum, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and periaqueductal gray (PAG). According to the evidence, these regions are not only involved in pain modulation but also express a high density of DA receptors. The findings can be categorized as follows: (1) D2-like receptors may exert a higher analgesic potency, but D1-like receptors act in different manners across several mechanisms in the mentioned regions; (2) in the spinal cord and striatum, antinociception of DA is mainly mediated by D2-like receptors, while in the NAc and PAG, both D1- and D2-like receptors are involved as analgesic targets; and (3) D2-like receptor agonists can act as adjuvants of µ-opioid receptor agonists to potentiate analgesic effects and provide a better approach to pain relief.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 634191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776928

RESUMO

Objective: The Iroquois homeobox 3 (IRX3) gene was recently reported to be a functional downstream target of a common polymorphism in the FTO gene, which encodes an obesity-associated protein; however, the role of IRX3 in energy expenditure remains unclear. Studies have revealed that the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of IRX3 in the mouse hypothalamus and adipose tissue promoted energy expenditure by enhancing brown/browning activities. Meanwhile, we and others recently demonstrated that IRX3 knockdown impaired the browning program of primary preadipocytes in vitro. In this study, we aimed to further clarify the effects of overexpressing human IRX3 (hIRX3) on brown/beige adipose tissues in vivo. Methods: Brown/beige adipocyte-specific hIRX3-overexpressing mice were generated and the browning program of white adipose tissues was induced by both chronic cold stimulation and CL316,243 injection. Body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and energy expenditure were measured, while morphological changes and the expression of thermogenesis-related genes in adipose tissue were analyzed. Moreover, the browning capacity of primary preadipocytes derived from hIRX3-overexpressing mice was assessed. RNA sequencing was also employed to investigate the effect of hIRX3 on the expression of thermogenesis-related genes. Results: hIRX3 overexpression in embryonic brown/beige adipose tissues (Rosa26 h IRX3 ;Ucp1-Cre) led to increased energy expenditure, decreased fat mass, and a lean body phenotype. After acute cold exposure or CL316,243 stimulation, brown/beige tissue hIRX3-overexpressing mice showed an increase in Ucp1 expression. Consistent with this, induced hIRX3 overexpression in adult mice (Rosa26 h IRX3 ;Ucp1-CreERT2) also promoted a moderate increase in Ucp1 expression. Ex vitro experiments further revealed that hIRX3 overexpression induced by Ucp1-driven Cre recombinase activity upregulated brown/beige adipocytes Ucp1 expression and oxygen consumption rate (OCR). RNA sequencing analyses indicated that hIRX3 overexpression in brown adipocytes enhanced brown fat cell differentiation, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Conclusion: Consistent with the in vitro findings, brown/beige adipocyte-specific overexpression of hIRX3 promoted Ucp1 expression and thermogenesis, while reducing fat mass.

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