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1.
Environ Int ; 143: 105906, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619915

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the associations between outdoor air pollution and hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders in China. METHODS: We obtained data of 111,842 hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders from the largest hospitals of 13 cities, China, between January 01, 2013 and December 31, 2015. We collected air pollutant data including particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre during the same period. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression models to determine the associations. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 was associated with a significant increase in hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders on the current day. When stratified by age, sex and season, the effects of PM2.5 and NO2 were robust among different subgroups at lag05 days. PM10 showed positive associations in males, in cold season, and in depression patients. SO2 showed positive associations in males, in cold season, and in anxiety patients. O3 showed positive associations in females, in warm season, and in depression patients. Nearly one sixth hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders can be attributable to NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations was significantly associated with exacerbation of mental disorders in China as indicated by increases in hospital outpatient visits. NO2 had more serious health threat than other pollutants in terms of mental disorders. Our findings strongly suggest a need for more strict emission control regulations to protect mental health from air pollution.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(4): 1941-1949, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608703

RESUMO

The use of biochar to improve adversity of soil has received increasing attention. Enteromorpha prolifera biochar is used to repair coastal saline-alkali soil, which can not only utilize Enteromorpha prolifera but can also increase the scale of the coastal land reserve. In this study, the method of soil culture experiments was used to explore the effect and pathway of 0%-3% addition of Enteromorpha prolifera on the improvement of saline-alkali soil. The results showed that the optimum preparation temperature of Enteromorpha prolifera biochar suitable for saline-alkali soil improvement was 400℃, and the optimum addition amount was 1.5%. At the optimum level, although the biochar had a negative effect, such as increasing soil salinity (0.12%) and pH (1.49%), it also produced positive effects, such as reducing soil Na+/K+ by 55.73%, increasing mineral content, and improving water conductivity. Enteromorpha prolifera biochar improved soil physicochemical and biological properties, increased nutrient content, enhanced microbial activity, improved soil nutrient availability, and produced positive effects. These positive effects were characterized by reducing soil bulk density by 11.35%, increasing organic matter by 42.64%, increasing the proportion of organic carbon in total carbon by 3.84 times, increasing the proportion of available phosphorus in total phosphorus by 4.15 times, and increasing soil invertase activity by 2.39 times, urease activity by 1.18 times, and catalase activity 1.50 times. Therefore, the positive effect of Enteromorpha prolifera biochar on saline-alkali soil is more than negative, and it can be used for the improvement of coastal saline-alkali soil. This study provides a new path for the resource utilization of Enteromorpha prolifera and the improvement of the ecological environment of coastal saline-alkali soil.

3.
J Glaucoma ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555060

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: Glaucomatous eyes without detectable 10-2 visual field loss showed significant macular vessel density loss, especially in inferior quadrant of perifoveal area. Macular vessel density loss spatially corresponded with structural and functional damage. PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics, inter-eye and intra-eye asymmetry of macular vessel density assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in bilateral early open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with unilateral 10-2 visual field loss. METHODS: Thirty two eyes of 16 patients with bilateral early OAG and unilateral 10-2 visual field loss, and 13 eyes of 13 healthy participants were consecutively enrolled. All subjects underwent 30-2, 10-2 visual fields, OCT and OCTA examinations. Inter-eye differences were compared between the perimetrically affected eye and the unaffected eye in the same patient. Intra-eye differences were compared between the affected hemifields and the unaffected hemifields in the same eye with single-hemifield 10-2 visual field loss. RESULTS: Macular whole image vessel density of the perimetrically unaffected eyes was lower than the healthy eyes (46.6% vs. 51.1%; P<0.001). Parafoveal vessel density parameters of the perimetrically affected eyes were comparable to the unaffected eyes (all P>0.05). While inferior perifoveal vessel density of the perimetrically affected eyes was significantly lower than the unaffected eyes (42.2% vs. 46.2%; P=0.007), similar results were found in macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC). In glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield loss, perifoveal vessel density and mGCC of the affected hemifields were significantly worse than the unaffected hemifields (43.6% vs. 47.0%, 78.4▒µm vs. 89.0▒µm; P=0.023, 0.005; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Significant macular microvascular damage was present in glaucomatous eyes without detectable 10-2 visual field damage. The damage of inferior perifoveal vessel density was more significant in early glaucoma. Macular microvascular damage spatially corresponded with functional and structural damage.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479048

RESUMO

The leakage and fire hazard of organic solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) tremendously limit its long-term and safe application in thermal energy storage and regulation. In this work, novel nanoflakes-fabricated organic-inorganic supramolecular hierarchical microsphere denoted as BPL was synthesized through the electrostatically driven assembly of poly(ethylene ammonium phenylphosphamide) (BP) decorated layered double hydroxides using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a template. Then the BPL was simultaneously utilized as porous supporting material and flame retardant for polyethylene glycol to fabricate shape-stabilized PCM (BS-PCM). Benefiting from the structural uniqueness of BPL microsphere, the BS-PCM possessed high latent heat capacity of 116.7 J g-1 and excellent thermoregulatory capability. Moreover, the BS-PCM did not appear obvious leakage after 200-cycle heating/cooling process, showing excellent thermal reversibility, superior to similar solid-liquid PCMs reported in recent literatures. More interestedly, unlike the flammability of PEG, the BS-PCM showed excellent fire resistance when encountering fire source. The unique BPL porous microsphere was not only a microcontainer with high storage space for solid-liquid PCM, but also provided fire resistance barrier to PEG, supplying a promising solution for highly efficient and fire-safety thermal energy storage.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 627-635, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535206

RESUMO

Bio-based nanomaterials with antimicrobial functions hold promise in replacing petroleum-based packaging for food preservation. A nanocellulose-based hybrid film with antimicrobial properties was developed from sugarcane bagasse and nisin. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared from sugarcane bagasse pulp by mechanical grinding, and mixed with nisin to prepare CNFs/nisin nanohybrid films. The concentration of nisin has a remarkable influence on the mechanical, light transmission, gas barrier, and antimicrobial properties of these films. CNFs/nisin hybrid films with 1920 mg/L nisin exhibit good light transmission, relatively high tensile strength, low oxygen permeability, and low water vapor transmission rates. This hybrid film was used as a liner of low-density polyethylene plastic packaging for ready-to-eat ham; it completely inhibited Listeria monocytogenes during 7 days of storage at 4 °C. Such novel CNFs/nisin nanohybrid films are expected to expand the application of bagasse nanocellulose in active packaging for food preservation.

6.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomical liver resection is an established procedure for primary hepatic tumors. Laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy has been proven to be technically achievable from S1 to S8 in experienced hands. The indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging technique offers a novel tool of intraoperative visualization in hepatobiliary surgery. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic anatomical liver resection based on segmental staining using real-time ICG fluorescence. METHODS: From December 2015 to October 2017, 36 patients in our institute underwent lap-ALR using real-time ICG fluorescence mapping of the tumor-bearing portal territory. The procedural and perioperative data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In our case series, we successfully performed the fashion of positive staining mostly in segmentectomy or sub-segmentectomy by individually injecting 5-10 ml of ICG (0.025 mg/ml) into its feeding portal branch guided by intraoperative ultrasound, and the negative staining mainly for sectionectomy, hemihepatectomy and multi-segmentectomy by interrupting the Glissonean pedicle serving the tumor-bearing segments and systemically injecting 1 ml of ICG (2.5 mg/ml). Our total successful rate of staining is 53%. No conversion to laparotomy, Clavien III-IV complication or 90-day mortality occurred. Valuable technical feedback, experience and lessons are learned from this initial practice. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time ICG fluorescence imaging adds much precision to laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy. The success of segmental staining requires a high proficiency of IOUS and skillful interpretation of preoperative 3D simulation. Decision-making on the fashions of positive and negative staining have been initially recommended. Multi-centered practice and technical modification are necessary to standardize its application.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 122824, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535515

RESUMO

The novel bifunctional NH2-MIL-125/Co(dmgH)2 composite catalysts with several different Co(dmgH)2 contents that can simultaneously achieve photocatalytic NO removal and hydrogen production were first prepared by a simple and convenient method. The corresponding physical and chemical properties of the composite catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, ESR, in situ DRIFTS, etc. The characterization results indicated that the noble-metal-free Co(dmgH)2, which was much cheaper and more available than most noble-metals such as Pt, could be an effective co-catalyst to accelerate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, further eventually enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency. Under visible-light irradiation for half an hour, the NO removal ratio of NH2-MIL-125/Co(dmgH)2 (3 wt%) increased by 22.7 % compared with the pristine NH2-MIL-125 without Co(dmgH)2 loading. In addition, it was found that Eosin Y dye-sensitized NH2-MIL-125/Co(dmgH)2 (3 wt%) was capable of promoting a hydrogen generation rate of 2195 µmol g-1 h-1 under visible light, which was 12.6 times greater than the original NH2-MIL-125. This strategy was expected as an available way to fabricate noble-metal-free molecular complexes with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to enhance the photocatalytic NO removal and hydrogen production performance simultaneously.

8.
Allergy ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lanadelumab demonstrated efficacy in preventing hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in the phase 3 HELP Study. OBJECTIVE: To assess time to onset of effect and long-term efficacy of lanadelumab, based on exploratory findings from the HELP Study. METHODS: Eligible patients with HAE type I/II received lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (q4wks), 300 mg q4wks, 300 mg q2wks, or placebo. Ad hoc analyses evaluated day 0-69 findings using a Poisson regression model accounting for overdispersion. Least-squares mean monthly HAE attack rate for lanadelumab was compared with placebo. Intrapatient comparisons for days 0-69 versus steady state (days 70-182) used a paired t test for continuous endpoints or Kappa statistics for categorical endpoints. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five patients were randomized and treated. During days 0-69, mean monthly attack rate was significantly lower with lanadelumab (0.41-0.76) vs placebo (2.04), including attacks requiring acute treatment (0.33-0.61 vs 1.66) and moderate/severe attacks (0.31-0.48 vs 1.33, all P ≤ .001). More patients receiving lanadelumab vs placebo were attack free (37.9%-48.1% vs 7.3%) and responders (85.7%-100% vs 26.8%). During steady state, the efficacy of lanadelumab vs placebo was similar or improved vs days 0-69. Intrapatient differences were significant with lanadelumab 300 mg q4wks for select outcomes. Lanadelumab efficacy was durable-HAE attack rate was consistently lower vs placebo, from the first 2 weeks of treatment through study end. Treatment emergent adverse events were comparable during days 0-69 and 70-182. CONCLUSION: Protection with lanadelumab started from the first dose and continued throughout the entire study period.

9.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(1): 21-31, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389533

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2006, zoster vaccine live was recommended for adults aged ≥60 years. In 2011, zoster vaccine live was approved for use but not recommended for adults aged 50-59 years. This study assessed zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged 50-59 years and ≥60 years. METHODS: Data from the 2013-2017 National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed in 2019 to estimate national zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged ≥50 years. State-specific zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged ≥50 years was assessed using 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. RESULTS: Among adults aged 50-59 years, zoster vaccine live coverage was 5.7% in 2017, ranging from 4% to 6% during 2013-2017 (test for trend, p>0.05). Zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged 50-59 years ranged from 5.8% in Pennsylvania to 14.7% in South Dakota. By 2017, zoster vaccine live was received by 34.9% of adults aged ≥60 years, a significant increase from 24.2% in 2013. Zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged ≥60 years in 2017 ranged from 26.0% in Mississippi to 51.8% in Vermont. In 2017, major characteristics significantly associated with increased likelihood of zoster vaccine live vaccination among adults aged 50-59 years and ≥60 years were older age, having 4 to 9 physician contacts in the past 12 months, and having a usual place for health care. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an assessment of zoster vaccine live coverage among adults aged ≥50 years before the newly recommended recombinant zoster vaccine came into widespread use. Providers should routinely assess adults' vaccination status and strongly recommend or offer needed vaccines to their patients.

10.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386491

RESUMO

Pulmonary pharmaceutical formulations are targeted for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, their application is limited due to physiological characteristics of the lungs such as branching structure, mucociliary and macrophages, as well as certain properties of the drugs like particle size and solubility. Nano-formulations can ameliorate particle sizes and improve drug solubility to enhance bioavailability in the lungs. The nano-formulations for lungs reviewed in this article can be classified into nanocarriers, no-carrier-added nanosuspensions and polymer-drug conjugates. Compared with conventional inhalation preparations, these novel pulmonary pharmaceutical formulations have their own advantages, such as increasing drug solubility for the better absorption and less inflammatory reaction caused by the aggregation of insoluble drugs; prolonging pulmonary retention time and reducing drug clearance; improving the patient compliance by avoiding multiple repeated administrations. This review will provide the reader with some background information for pulmonary drug delivery and give an overview of the existing literature about nano-formulations for pulmonary application to explore nano-strategies for improving bioavailability of pulmonary pharmaceutical formulations.

12.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418175

RESUMO

DNA hypermethylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in the oncogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Aberrant DNA methylation represses the transcription of promotors of tumor suppressor genes, inducing gene silencing. Realgar (α-As4S4) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of various diseases in the ancient time. Realgar was reported to have efficacy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It has been demonstrated that realgar could efficiently reduce DNA hypermethylation of MDS. This review discusses the mechanisms of realgar on inhibiting DNA hypermethylation of MDS, as well as the species and metabolisms of arsenic in vivo.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396596

RESUMO

HPM-7, a germanosilicate synthesized using long imidazolium-based dications with two different linkers, is shown to possess the POS topology, although disorder may exist but it is very difficult to discern. First, three simple ordered polymorphs (POS-A to POS-C) with very similar energies and structural motifs could give rise to intergrowths that would be very difficult to recognize by powder X-ray diffraction, according to DIFFaX simulations. Another four structures (POS-D to POS-G) can be derived from POS by changing the orientation of two single four rings within the structure, possibly providing an additional source of disorder. While 3D EDT strongly suggests that HPM-7 basically possesses the POS-A (i.e. POS) topology, a detailed HR-STEM study demonstrates the rare existence of some disorder compatible with the polymorph POS-D. The general avoidance of polymorphs with very similar structural motifs and comparable energies points to a rather specific structure-direction by the organic dications used.

14.
Physiol Meas ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compressed sensing is a low-complexity compression technology that has recently been proposed. It can be applied to long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring using wearable devices. In this study, an automatic screening method for atrial fibrillation based on lossy compression of the electrocardiogram signal is proposed. APPROACH: The proposed method combines the compressed sensing with the convolutional neural network. The sparse binary sensing matrix is first used to project the raw ECG signal randomly, transformed the raw ECG data from high-dimensional space to low-dimensional space to complete compression, and then uses CNN to classify the compressed ECG signal involving AF. Our proposed model is validated on the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database. MAIN RESULTS: The experimental results show that the model only needs about 1s to complete the 24-hour ECG recording of AF, which is 3.41%, 69.84% and 67.56% less than the time required by AlexNet, VGGNet and GoogLeNet. Under different compression ratios of 10% to 90%, the maximum and minimum F1 scores reach 96.25% and 88.17%, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: The CS-CNN model has high computational efficiency while ensuring prediction accuracy, and is a promising method for AF screening in wearable application scenarios.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discordance between QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) Gold In-Tube and tuberculin skin tests (TST) is not well understood. To identify factors that determine discordance between TST and QFT tests when compared to either TST+QFT+ or TST-QFT- results in a medium tuberculosis burden setting. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study in Eastern China and administered TST and QFT tests to participants. We calculated kappa values while constructing multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate predictors of test discordance. We analyzed the predictive value of discordant and concordant test results for progression to tuberculosis over 6 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 5,405 participants were enrolled; 2,043 (37.8%) and 1,104 (20.4%) were TST and QFT positive. There was fair agreement between the TST and the QFT (kappa values between 0.30-0.39 at different TST cutoffs). Agreement was lower among BCG-vaccinated participants (κ, 0.17 versus 0.47). TST+QFT- results were associated with decreasing age, smoking, undiagnosed diabetes, and BCG vaccination (adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.45, 95%CI, 1.11-1.90). TST-QFT+ results were associated with increasing age, male sex, smoking, and diagnosed diabetes. Compared to participants with TST-QFT- results, QFT+ and TST+QFT+ participants were 6.3 (95%CI, 1.9-20.4) and 7.5 (95%CI, 2.3-25.1) times more likely to progress to tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study of over 5000 participants from a medium tuberculosis burden region, test agreement between QFT and TST was fair overall, and we found multiple novel predictors of discordant QFT/TST test results. QFT provides a substantial improvement to the TST among these populations and was multi-fold better predictive of progression to tuberculosis.

16.
J Proteomics ; 222: 103802, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360640

RESUMO

The biological functions of protein glycosylation have been increasingly recognized but not yet been very well understood, especially in lower organisms. Silkworm as a model lepidopteran insect and important economic insect, has been widely studied in life science, however, the current knowledge on the glycosylation status of its proteome is not satisfactory, and little is known about how pathogenic infections could affect the glycosylation status. This study performed large scale glycosite mapping for the silkworm Bombyx mori P50 strain, and quantitatively compared with that infected with the Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV). Some 400 glycoproteins were mapped in the silkworm, including N- and O-glycoproteins. Upon virus infection, the glycosylation levels of 41 N-glycopeptides were significantly changed, some of them belonging to transmembrane glycoproteins. The O-glycosylation profiles were also affected. In addition, 4 BmCPV-encoded viral proteins were found to be glycosylated for the first time, including polyhedrin, P101, VP3, and the NS protein. This study drafted a silkworm protein glycosylation map and underlined the potential impact of virus infection on glycosylation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals the characteristics of the glycoproteome in the silkworm strain P50, and quantitatively compared to that infected by the virus BmCPV, which underlines the impact of virus infection on the alteration of protein glycosylation in invertebrate species. Our findings add to the knowledge of the post translational modifications of this model organism, and also uncovered for the first time the glycosylation status of the viral proteins expressed by BmCPV.

17.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e648-e654, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A/J mice are a mouse model of age-related hearing loss (AHL) with progressive degeneration of outer hair cells (OHCs), spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), and stria vascularis. This study was carried out to observe the otoprotective effects of α-lipoic acid on A/J mice. METHODS: A/J mouse pups at postnatal day 7 were randomly distributed into the untreated group, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group, and the α-lipoic acid + DMSO group. α-lipoic acid was given to the mice intraperitoneally at a dosage of 50 µg/g body weight every other day. Time course auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were tested. OHC loss was counted and the densities of SGNs and the width of stria vascularis were measured at 4 and 8 weeks of age. RESULTS: Measurement of the ABR thresholds revealed that hearing loss in A/J mice was attenuated by α-lipoic acid at age from 3 to 8 weeks. Moreover, preservation effects of OHCs, SGNs, and stria vascularis by α-lipoic acid were observed in the cochleae of A/J mice at 4 and 8 weeks of age. CONCLUSION: Hearing loss in A/J mice can be attenuated by α-lipoic acid. The otoprotective effects of α-lipoic acid on A/J mice may be obtained by preserving OHCs, SGNs, and stria vascularis in the cochleae. The oxidative damage related to gene mutations may be a potential target for AHL prevention and therapy.

18.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 10(2): 309-326, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In short-bowel syndrome (SBS), inadequate intestinal adaptation is responsible for the majority of complications, including sepsis, liver failure, and death. In this study, we sought to further delineate the adaptive response to identify potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed a 75% small-bowel resection (SBR) or sham operation on C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT), lipocalin-2 (LCN2)-/-, and interleukin 22 (IL22)-/- mice. Exogenous IL22 was administered to SBR WT mice. Cecal fecal matter from SBR WT and SBR LCN2-/- mice were transplanted into germ-free mice. Intestinal permeability, inflammation, proliferation, and the microbiome were evaluated 1 week after surgery. CD4+IL22+ laminal propria lymphocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Naïve T cells were polarized to T-helper cells with or without LCN2. RESULTS: A 75% SBR in a mouse re-creates the increased intestinal permeability, enterocyte proliferation, and intestinal dysbiosis seen in SBS. LCN2 expression increases after 75% SBR, and this increase can be abrogated with broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. LCN2-/- mice have less intestinal inflammation, increased IL22 expression, and greater adaptation as evidenced by less intestinal permeability, increased carbohydrate enzyme expression, less weight loss, and less dysbiosis after 75% SBR than WT mice. The proinflammatory and anti-adaptive effects of LCN2 can be transferred to germ-free mice via a fecal transplant. Administration of exogenous IL22 improves adaptation and restores the normal microbiome after 75% SBR in WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: LCN2 promotes inflammation and slows intestinal adaptation through changes in the microbiome and IL22 inhibition in a mouse SBS model. Strategies to reduce LCN2 may offer novel therapeutic approaches to enhance adaptation in SBS.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3765, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111852

RESUMO

Rising global temperatures will increase the number of extreme weather events, creating new challenges for cities around the world. Archaeological research on the destruction and subsequent reoccupation of ancient cities has the potential to reveal geological and social dynamics that have historically contributed to making urban settings resilient to these extreme weather events. Using a combination of archaeological and geological methods, we examine how extreme flood events at Kaifeng, a former capital of dynastic China, have shaped the city's urban resilience. Specifically, we focus on an extreme Yellow River flood event in AD 1642 that historical records suggest killed around 300,000 people living in Kaifeng. Our recent archaeological excavations have discovered compelling geological and archaeological evidence that corroborates these documents, revealing that the AD 1642 Yellow River flood destroyed Kaifeng's inner city, entombing the city and its inhabitants within meters of silt and clay. We argue that the AD 1642 flood was extraordinarily catastrophic because Kaifeng's city walls only partly collapsed, entrapping most of the flood waters within the city. Both the geology of the Yellow River floods as well as the socio-political context of Kaifeng shaped the city's resilience to extreme flood events.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4197, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144372

RESUMO

Serum small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have recently drawn considerable interest because of the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of their miRNAs content. However, the characteristics of human, mouse and rat serum sEVs and their differences in small RNA contents are still unknown. In this study, through nanoparticle tracking analysis and small RNA sequencing, we found that human, rat, and mouse serum sEVs exhibited distinct sizes and particle numbers as well as small RNA contents. Serum sEVs contained not only abundant miRNAs but also a large number of tRNA fragments. Most serum miRNAs existed both inside and outside of sEVs but were enriched in sEVs. Common serum sEV miRNAs (188 miRNAs) and species-specific serum sEV miRNAs (265, 58, and 159 miRNAs, respectively) were identified in humans, rats, or mice. The serum sEVs contained miRNAs from tissues and organs throughout the body, with blood cells as the main contributors. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the rationality of exploring serum sEV miRNAs as noninvasive diagnostic markers and revealed great differences in serum sEV small RNAs between humans, rats, and mice. Inadequate attention to these differences and the contribution of blood cells to serum sEV miRNAs could hinder the clinical translation of basic studies.

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