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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1293: 545-555, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398841

RESUMO

The loss of photoreceptor cells caused by retinal degenerative diseases leads to blindness. The optogenetic approach for restoring vision involves converting the surviving inner retinal neurons into photosensitive cells, thus imparting light sensitivity to the retina following the loss of photoreceptor cells. Our first demonstration of the feasibility of such an approach involved expressing ChR2 in the retinal ganglion cells of blind mice; since then, optogenetic vision restoration has been demonstrated by using a variety of optogenetic tools, especially microbial channelrhodopsins (ChRs). A ChR-based optogenetic therapy for treating blindness has advanced to clinical trials. In this chapter, we review our early proof-of-concept study of optogenetic vision restoration. We also discuss our studies for developing better ChR tools and for restoring intrinsic visual processing features in retinas with degenerated photoreceptors.

2.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112644, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429352

RESUMO

The genus Corydalis is a botanical source of various pharmaceutically active components. Its member species have been widely used in traditional medicine systems in Southeast Asia, especially in China for thousands of years. They have been administered to treat the common cold, hypertension, hepatitis, hemorrhage, edema, gastritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Analgesia is the most important effect of Corydalis products, which are relatively non-addictive and associated with low tolerance compared with other analgesics. Certain Corydalis species are rich in alkaloids, which have strong biological activity, and also contain coumarins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids and other chemical components. These constituents have pharmacological efficacy against diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Numerous investigations have been performed on these plants and their components. Here, we systemically summarized the chemical constituents of important medicinal member species of Corydalis that have been reported since 1962. A total 381 alkaloids were enumerated, including 117 quaternary isoquinoline type, 60 Benzophenanthridine type, 37 aporphine type, 10 protopine type, 59 phthalide isoquinoline type, 52 simple isoquinoline-type, 25 lignin amides and 21 other alkaloids. Thus, we have provided a basis for further explorations into the pharmacologically active constituents of Corydalissp.(Papaveraceae) to develop medicines that exert strong effects, are relatively non-addictive, and result in few side effects.

3.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) globally poses a public health threat; however, detecting carbapenemases is a challenge because of their variety. METHODS: GENECUBE, a fully automated gene analyzer, detects a target gene in a short time and simultaneously detects its single nucleotide polymorphism. We used this property to develop for the first time a rapid assay for detecting CPOs from cultured bacteria using GENECUBE. The original primer-probe sets were used to detect blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48-like from 149 CPOs (nine types) and 61 non-CPOs. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictions of the GENECUBE assay were 100%. This assay detected carbapenemase single-producers and carbapenemase co-producers with 100% accuracy. The time required for detects of four types of carbapenemase at one run was about 30 min, but it took about 1 h to detect all five types. In addition, this assay performed the rapid detection and classification of blaOXA-48, blaOXA-181, blaOXA-232, and blaOXA-244 simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: The GENECUBE assay is a promising tool for controlling the spread of CPOs and helping to select accurate and rapid antibiotic therapies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481320

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of Na+ , K+ -ATPase (NKA) involved in low concentration of ouabain (Oua, activating NKA)-induced protection of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and neurological deficit scores were performed to evaluate rat cerebral injury degree respectively at 2 h, 6 h, 1 d and 3 d after reperfusion of MCAO 2 h in rats. NKA α1/α2 subunits and GLT-1 protein expression were investigated by Western blotting. The cerebral infarct volume ratio was evidently decreased in Oua group vs MCAO/R group at 1 d and 3 d after reperfusion of 2 h MCAO in rats (*p<0.05). Moreover, NDS were not significantly different (p>0.05). NKA α1 was decreased at 6 h and 1 d after reperfusion of 2 h MCAO in rats, and was improved in Oua group. However, NKA α1 and α2 were increased at 3 d after reperfusion of 2 h MCAO in rats, and was decreased in Oua group. GLT-1 was decreased at 6 h, 1 d and 3 d after reperfusion of 2 h MCAO in rats, and was improved in Oua group. These data indicated that low concentration of Oua could improve MCAO/R injury via NKA α1/α2 and GLT-1, then probably increasing GLT-1 function and promoting Glu transport and absorption, which could be useful to determine potential therapeutic strategies for patients with stroke.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113415, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987126

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR), mainly includes Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (A. lancea) and Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz. (A. chinensis) is widely used in East Asia as a diuretic and stomachic drug, for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, digestive disorders, night blindness, and influenza as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. AIM OF THE REVIEW: A systematic summary on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control of AR was presented to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by consulting scientific databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, Springer, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, etc. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List". RESULTS: Over 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from AR, notably sesquiterpenoids and alkynes. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially improving gastrointestinal function and thus allowed to assert most of the traditional uses of AR. CONCLUSIONS: The researches on AR are extensive, but gaps still remain. The molecular mechanism, structure-activity relationship, potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of these components need to be further elucidated. It is suggested that further studies should be carried out in the aspects of comprehensive evaluation of the quality of medicinal materials, understanding of the "effective forms" and "additive effects" of the pharmacodynamic substances based on the same pharmacophore of TCM, and its long-term toxicity in vivo and clinical efficacy.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117310, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357874

RESUMO

Aminated cellulose nanofibers (A-CNF) with high thermostability (>350 ℃), high crystallinity (81.25 %), and high dispersion stability were extracted from "biological grinding" biomass through one-pot microwave-hydrothermal synthesis. Worm-eaten wood powder (WWP) as the product of "biological grinding" by borers is a desirable lignocellulose for fabricating A-CNF in a green and cost-effective way since it is a well-milled fine powder with dimension of dozens of microns, which can be used directly, saving energy and labor. Generated A-CNF proved to be an excellent reinforcing and curing agent for constructing high performance epoxy nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity enhancement of about 120 %, coefficient of thermal expansion reduction of 78 %, and Young's modulus increase of 108 % at a low A-CNF loading of 1 wt.%, demonstrating their remarkable reinforcing potential and effective stress transfer behavior. The process proposed herein might help to bridge a closed-loop carbon cycle in the whole production-utilization of biomass.

7.
Appl Opt ; 60(1): 41-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362071

RESUMO

To accurately determine the optical axis cut error of a nonlinear uniaxial crystal, a measurement method based on dual-optical path second-harmonic energy (SHE) rocking curve acquisition is presented in, of which the measurement uncertainty can be controlled within 3.20 µrad , 26 times higher than that of a high-precision commercial x-ray diffractometer (XRD). To meet the measurement requirements, a Type I potassium dihydrogen phosphate reference crystal (RC) is first made, and its optical axis cut error is considered as a reference. Then, the optical axis cut error of a measured crystal (MC) with an aperture of 25mm×25mm and a thickness of 10 mm is determined by simultaneously recording the SHE scatter plots of the RC and the MC, where the measurement repeatability of 10 consecutive measurements is only 4.48 µrad and the measurement speed is within 20 s. During data processing, a third-order Fourier polynomial is proposed to fit the scatter plots into smooth curves, of which the regression coefficients are greater than 0.9975. The experimental method not only overcomes the shortcomings that XRDs will introduce scratches and defects to the crystal surface and are unable to measure large-aperture crystals, but can be used to guide the production of precise cutting of a nonlinear uniaxial crystal, thus ensuring the maximum conversion efficiency of a frequency multiplication system.

8.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 4(1): 33, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303906

RESUMO

The correlations between microbiota dysbiosis and cancer have gained extensive attention and been widely explored. As a leading cancer diagnosis worldwide, lung cancer poses a great threat to human health. The healthy human lungs are consistently exposed to external environment and harbor a specific pattern of microbiota, sharing many key pathological and physiological characteristics with the intestinal tract. Although previous findings uncovered the critical roles of microbiota in tumorigenesis and response to anticancer therapy, most of them were focused on the intestinal microbiota rather than lung microbiota. Notably, the considerable functions of microbiota in maintaining lung homeostasis should not be neglected as the microbiome dysbiosis may promote tumor development and progression through production of cytokines and toxins and multiple other pathways. Despite the fact that increasing studies have revealed the effect of microbiome on the induction of lung cancer and different disease status, the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies remained unclear. Herein, we summarized the recent progresses about microbiome in lung cancer and further discussed the role of microbial communities in promoting lung cancer progression and the current status of therapeutic approaches targeting microbiome to alleviate and even cure lung cancer.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254361

RESUMO

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, carcass traits, and fat deposition in white-feather broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 480 male one-day-old white-feather broiler chickens were selected randomly and divided into four groups with six replicates of 20 broiler chickens in each. The experimental chickens of the treatment groups were fed diets including 3, 6 or 9% FCSM fermented by Candida tropicalis until 42 days old. In the experiment, the chickens of the control group were fed soybean meal. Results: FCSM supplementation linearly decreased the feed conversion ratio from d 15 - 21 and d 36 - 42, respectively (p < 0.05). The percentage of carcass and semi-eviscerate increased in response to dietary FCSM supplementation at d 21 (p < 0.05). The percentage of eviscerated and semi-eviscerate of 3FCSM was higher than that in other groups at d 35 (p < 0.05). At the age of 42 d, the percentage of carcass increased in a quadratic way among increasing FCSM in diets (p < 0.05). The subcutaneous fat thickness linearly decreased with the increasing levels of FCSM at d 21 (p < 0.05). Gompertz and Logistic functions provided a better fit on abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat, respectively. The best fitted equation predicted that the maximum growth rate of abdominal fat weight and subcutaneous fat thickness occurred at d 28. FCSM has no significant effects on the shape of growth curve of abdominal fat weight and subcutaneous fat thickness, but reduced the height of the curve. Birds receiving the 6FCSM diet for 21 d had smaller adipocyte surface and lower serum glucose as well as triglyceride concentration. Conclusion: FCSM is beneficial for broiler chickens as it positively affects their growth and carcass in addition to altering their fat deposition.

10.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278566

RESUMO

Plant exosome like nanovesicles, being innately replete with bioactive lipids, proteins, RNA and other pharmacologically active molecules, offer unique morphological and compositional characteristics as natural nanocarriers. Furthermore, their compelling physicochemical traits underpin their modulative role in physiological processes, all of which have enkindled the concept that these nanovesicles may be highly proficient in development of next-generation biotherapeutic and drug delivery nanoplatforms to meet the ever-stringent demands of current clinical challenges. This review systemically deals with various facets of plant exosome like nanovesicles ranging from their origin and isolation to identification of morphological composition, biological functions and cargo loading mechanisms. Efforts are made to encompass their biotherapeutic roles by elucidating their immunological modulating, anti-tumor, regenerative and anti-inflammatory roles. We also shed light on re-engineering of these nanovesicles into robust, innocuous and non-immunogenic nanovectors for drug delivery through multiple stringent biological hindrances to various targeted organs such as intestine and brain. Finally, recent advancements centered around plant exosome like nanovesicles along with new insights into transdermal, transmembrane and targeting mechanisms of these vesicles are also elucidated. We expect the continuing development of plant exosome like nanovesicles-based therapeutic and delivery nanoplatforms will promote their clinical applications.

11.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; : 108720, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is closely related to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Stimulating ß2 adrenergic receptor (ß2AR) can effectively combat cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrate that the gut microbial metabolite phenylacetylglycine (PAGly) can stimulate ß2AR. However, the effect of PAGly on myocardial I/R injury remains unknown. METHODS: The hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model was established using the neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes (NMCMs). Different doses of PAGly were used to treat NMCMs, and apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Additionally, the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was examined by using a cAMP detection kit. Mouse model of myocardial I/R injury was established in C57BL/6 mice, and different doses of phenylacetic acid were administrated intraperitoneally. Apoptosis of myocardial cells was detected by TUNEL and α-actin staining. The area at risk and the infarct areas were identified by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining. Western blotting was used to measure the protein expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), total Akt (t-Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-AKT), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: PAGly significantly suppressed H/R injury-induced apoptosis in NMCMs and inhibited apoptosis in myocardial I/R injured mice in vivo. We verified that PAGly activated the anti-apoptotic Gαi/PI3K/AKT signaling cascade in NMCMs via stimulating ß2AR signaling. Continuous administration of PAGly at an appropriate dose could inhibit apoptosis and reduce the infarct size resulting from I/R injury in mice. However, high-dose PAGly treatment was associated with a higher mortality rate. Moreover, we demonstrated that Aspirin reduced the infarct size and the high mortality caused by high doses of PAGly in I/R injured mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that treatment with the gut microbial metabolite PAGly could suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by myocardial I/R injury and reduce the infarct size, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with myocardial infarction.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4812-4818, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350251

RESUMO

The molecular marker-assisted breeding is one of the important methods to cultivate excellent germplasms of Chinese medicinal materials by combining modern molecular biology with traditional genetic breeding. The main target of breeding is to make the biological characters of Chinese medicinal materials stable and the yield and medicinal component of it controllable, and ensure that the medicinal materials produced have the characteristics of "excellent shape, high quality and high effect". Compared with traditional breeding that prefers to the selection of phenotypic traits, the molecular marker-assisted breeding also emphasizes genotype screening. It mainly includes five fields, namely the construction of genetic linkage maps, the positioning of quantitative trait locus(QTL), the analysis of genetic diversities, the identification of varieties and hybrid germplasm purity, and the application of molecular marker-assisted selection. At present, SCoT, ISSR, SSR and SNP are the main DNA markers used in the studies of marker-assisted breeding of Chinese medicinal materials. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology, genome-wide association(GWAS) and molecular design breeding will become the hotspots of Chinese medicinal materials breeding in the future. In this paper, we review current studies excellent germplasm selection of Chinese medicinal materials using molecular marker-assisted breeding and future development prospects. It is suggested to accelerate the breeding of traditional Chinese medicinal materials using molecular pharmacognosy theory and methods, in order to provide theoretical guidance for breeding, protection and sustainable utilization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cruzamento , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4867-4874, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350258

RESUMO

"Dao-di herbs" is the original comprehensive index for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the characteristics of high quality and good effect. After more than 30 years of development, a large number of data, including text data, image data and other types, have been generated in the modern research on Dao-di herbs. It has the characteristics of large quantity, variety, scattered content and different structure, and the data types of each feature are isolated or less interrelated. Based on the literature published in CNKI journal database since 1999-2019, the data collection, selection and collation of 34 kinds of Dao-di herbs characteristics, micro characteristics, ecological characteristics and genetic characteristics were carried out. Using the knowledge base construction technology and combining these characteristics of the characteristics data of the herbs, the above characteristics data were standardized and regarded as a part of the knowledge base of the herbs. Based on a large number of data, this paper analyzes the knowledge composition, research status, comparison between modern and traditional producing areas of traditional Chinese medicine, and takes Salvia miltiorrhiza as an example to compare the ecological characteristics of modern and traditional producing areas. The construction of the knowledge base will facilitate the mining and utilization of the scientific data of Dao-di herbs, and provide resource management and basic guarantee for the transformation and promotion of scientific and technological achievements of Dao-di herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Descoberta do Conhecimento , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4957-4963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350269

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the quality of different varieties of Maca(Lepidium meyenii), the main chemical components in Maca were investigated and a method for simultaneous determination of the main chemical components in Maca was established. UPLC-UV-Q-TOF-MS technology and reference materials were used to identify the structures of 19 main components in Maca. Seven compounds with UV absorption and high contents were selected to establish a simultaneous concentration determination method. The method was employed with a Waters Acquity I-Class~(TM) liquid chromatographic system coupled with a PDA detector and a Waters Acquity Cortecs C_(18)~+ column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.6 µm), and acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid water was used as mobile phase(0.45 mL·min~(-1)). The detection wavelength was 195 nm and the column temperature was maintained at 40 ℃. There was efficient separation of seven compounds, p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate, benzylglucosinolate, N-benzyl-9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienamid, N-benzyl-9Z,12Z-octadecadienamide, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide, N-benzyl-hexadecanamide, and N-benzyl-9Z-octadecenamide. The stan-dard calibration curves were good(R~2>0.999). The precision, stability and repeatability were also good. The linearity ranges were 0.197-4.980 µg·mL~(-1) to 193.67-796.8 µg·mL~(-1), and the average recovery rate was 96.71%-103.9%. The average concentration of glucosinolates and macamides in Maca were 1.20% and 0.20%, respectively. Among four kinds of Maca grown in China, the concentration of glucosinolates in yellow Maca and black Maca were relatively high(1.55%), followed by white Maca(0.93%), and purple Maca(0.76%). The concentration of macamides in yellow, purple and white Maca was similar(0.23%-0.29%), however black Maca had significantly lower concentration(0.15%). Peru Maca tested in this study had the lowest concentration of these compounds. This qua-lity evaluation method was fast, accurate, and comprehensively reflects the concentration of the main chemical components in Maca, which provides a useful reference for the quality control and evaluation of Maca.


Assuntos
Lepidium , China , Extratos Vegetais/análise
15.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124211, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268198

RESUMO

LiCoO2 is still the most extensively used cathode material in Li-ion battery for portable electronics currently. The increasing usage of electronics has resulted in the growing discard of LiCoO2 with the stream of its spent battery. Current recycling approaches for LiCoO2 from spent batteries are dominantly based on hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, which usually require multiple complicated steps and involve the use of high temperature or harmful chemicals, like acids and alkalis. There remains an urgent need for green and simple processes. Here we report a single step approach based on suspension electrolysis to directly recycle LiCoO2 in one reactor at atmospheric condition without any usage of acid and alkalis. The electrolyte of the suspension electrolysis system is only comprised of NH4HCO3, [Formula: see text] and NaF. The reaction system of LiCoO2 leaching in the anode region and simultaneously re-synthesizing in the cathode region in the electrochemical system is established. Mechanism analysis indicates that NH4+ only serves as a provider for complexing agent of NH3 and is virtually not consumed. This work provides potentially meaningful strategies for recovering LiCoO2 in a shorter procedure and an environmentally friendly manner.

16.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns on the lung fluid homeostasis in experimental acute lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and control subjects, wild-type C57BL/6 and formyl peptide receptor-1 gene knockout mice, and primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells. INTERVENTIONS: Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were obtained from patients and control subjects. Mice were intratracheally instilled with lipopolysaccharide and mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. The primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were isolated and incubated with mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were divided into direct (pulmonary) and indirect (extrapulmonary) injury groups based on etiology. The release of mitochondrial peptide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was induced in patients and was associated with etiology. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury, administration of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns exacerbated the lung fluid imbalance, which was mitigated in formyl peptide receptor-1 knockout mice. Proteomic analysis of mouse lung tissues revealed the involvement of ion channels and tight junction proteins in this process. Treatment with mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns decreased the expression of epithelial sodium channel α, zonula occludens-1, and occludin via the formyl peptide receptor-1/p38 pathway in the primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns exacerbate lung fluid imbalance in the experimental acute lung injury model through formyl peptide receptor-1 signaling, the inhibition of which may prevent exacerbation of lung fluid imbalance induced by mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. Thus, formyl peptide receptor-1 is a potential therapeutic target for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(17): 4158-4162, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164401

RESUMO

The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of aflatoxin has been adopted in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). Based on high-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies technology, monoclonal antibodies that can specifically recognize the aflatoxin B_1 and the total amount of aflatoxin B_1, B_2, G_1, and G_2 in Chinese herbal medicines were prepared. By optimizing the concentration of coating antibody, enzyme-labeled antigen, and the reaction system of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) were developed for detection of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal medicines, decoction pieces, and preparation of Chinese medicine. In this method, the recovery test of actual samples is 60%-120%, and the relative standard deviation is less than 15%. In addition, in view of the complicated and expensive pretreatment methods for the determination of aflatoxin in Chinese herbal medicine, we developed a highly efficient pretreatment method of liquid-liquid extraction of aflatoxin in Chinese herbal medicine without immunoaffinity column. As an effective method for the detection of aflatoxin, the ELISA can effectively reduce the aflatoxins testing cost of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the detection ability at earlier stages of production, and strengthen the quality supervision of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Aflatoxina B1 , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
18.
Res Theory Nurs Pract ; 34(4): 340-357, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate parents' acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their daughters and associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city in China with a sample population of parents with a daughter in middle school. Participants' demographic characteristics, knowledge level regarding HPV and the HPV vaccine, perspectives on the health belief model (HBM) constructs, social norms, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine were determined through self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Among the 523 parents who completed the questionnaire, 71.5% expressed willingness to have their daughters vaccinated against HPV infection and cervical cancer. Logistic regression analysis revealed higher acceptability in the participants with higher perceived severity of HPV infection (OR = 4.823, 95% CI = 2.683, 12.049), higher knowledge-assessment score (OR = 1.298, 95% CI = 1.055, 1.476), and higher perceived safety of the HPV vaccine (OR = 6.372, 95% CI = 3.856, 14.062). Parents influenced by social norms (OR = 4.959, 95% CI = 2.989, 14.386) and those who complied with physicians' recommendations (OR = 4.896, 95% CI = 1.936, 9.258) reported higher levels of acceptability. IMPLICATIONS: Our results provide preliminary evidence on the need for health education programs and HPV vaccination campaigns. Future studies should focus on whether the factors associated with vaccination can increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine.

19.
Phytopathology ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245255

RESUMO

The Gram-negative (G-) bacterial species Pectobacterium actinidiae causes summer canker in kiwifruit plants. However, little is known about its virulence factors and the mechanisms of genetic adaptation. We aimed to identify the key determinants that control the virulence of P. actinidiae to kiwifruit by genomic and functional analyses. Within four P. actinidiae isolates, low genetic variability displayed and shared an average 98.7% and 82% in genome-level sequence similarity and coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis, based on both the bulk of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomes single-copy genes, revealed that P. actinidiae strains cluster into a sole clade, whichclosly related to the clades of P. odoriferum, the pathogen of vegetable soft rot from a completely different host range. By comparison with these two clades of genomes, 746 unique core orthologs/genes were enriched in the clades of P. actinidiae, especially for the key virulence determinants involved in the biosynthesis of secretion systems (type III, III and IV), iron, flagellar and the quorum-sensing system. Our results provide insights into the pathogenomics basis underlying the genetic diversification and evolution of pathogenicity in the species of P. actinidiae.

20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 193: 113713, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160222

RESUMO

Aconitum L., the main source of Aconitum medicinal materials, is rich in diterpenoid alkaloids. Several drugs derived from diterpenoid alkaloids are widely used to the current clinical treatment of pain, inflammation, and other symptoms. This paper aims to clarify the main metabolites and distribution of diterpenoid alkaloids in different parts of Aconitum plants. To that end, 7 species of Aconitum from three subgenera were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS under identical conditions. The fragmentation regularity of various types of diterpene alkaloids were determined and a total of 126 metabolites were identified by comparing the reference material and secondary mass spectrometry, with the literature. 67, 49, 17, 41, 14, 17 and 21 metabolites were identified from Aconitum carmichaeli, Aconitum stylosum, Aconitum sinomontanum, Aconitum vilmorinianum, Aconitum pendulum, Aconitum tanguticum and Aconitum gymnandrum, respectively. Meanwhile, the structure type of A. carmichaeli, A. stylosum, A. vilmorinianum, A. pendulum, A. gymnandrum were identified as C19 type, A. sinomontanum was C18 type, while A. tanguticum was C20 type. A high similarity of metabolites was found between A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum. The quantitative analysis of 19 compounds and the relative peak area of all metabolites which obtained through internal standard berberine, highlighted compounds like karakoline, talatisamine and atisine as references for future study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, results from metabolites distribution and relative peak area analysis suggest that the leaf of A. carmichaeli, the leaf and stem of A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum, and the flower of A. pendulum have potential as medicinal resources and are worth further development. These results establish a foundation for the comprehensive utilization of Aconitum resources.

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