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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 112, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335390

RESUMO

By 26 August 2022, the number of cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology (AHUA) has drastically increased to 1115 distributed in 35 countries that fulfill the World Health Organization definition. Several hypotheses on the cause of AHUA have been proposed and are being investigated around the world. In the recent United Kingdom (UK) report, human adenovirus (HAdV) with adeno-associated virus (AAV) co-infection is the leading hypothesis. However, there is still limited evidence in establishing the causal relationship between AHUA and any potential aetiology. The leading aetiology continues to be HAdV infection. It is reported that HAdV genomics is not unusual among the population in the UK, especially among AUHA cases. Expanding the surveillance of HAdV and AAV in the population and the environment in the countries with AUHA cases is suggested to be the primary action. Metagenomics should be used in detecting other infectious pathogens on a larger scale, to supplement the detection of viruses in the blood, stool, and liver specimens from AUHA cases. It is useful to develop a consensus-specific case definition of AHUA to better understand the characteristics of these cases globally based on all the collected cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos , Adenovírus Humanos , Hepatite , Criança , Humanos , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Fezes
2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 247: 114076, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427387

RESUMO

Air pollutants can cause serious harm to human health and a variety of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore the associations between air pollutants and outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) under urbanization process in the sub-center of Beijing. The data of ILI in sub-center of Beijing from April 1, 2014 to December 31, 2020 were obtained from Beijing Influenza Surveillance Network. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to examine the associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and daily outpatient visits for ILI when controlling meteorological factors and holidays. A total of 322,559 patients with ILI were included. The results showed that in the early urbanization period, the effects of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, O3, and CO on lag0 day, and PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO on lag1 day were not significant. In the later urbanization period, AQI and the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO on lag1 day were all significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI, which increased by 0.34% (95%CI 0.23%, 0.45%), 0.42% (95%CI 0.29%, 0.56%), 0.44% (95%CI 0.33%, 0.55%), 0.36% (95%CI 0.24%, 0.49%), 0.91% (95%CI 0.62%, 1.21%) and 0.38% (95%CI 0.26%, 0.49%). The concentration of O3 on lag1 day was significantly associated with a decreased risk of outpatient visits for ILI, which decreased by 0.21% (95%CI 0.04%, 0.39%). We found that the urbanization process had significantly aggravated the impact of air pollutants on ILI outpatient visits. These findings expand the current knowledge of ILI outpatient visits correlated with air pollutants under urbanization process.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 956473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248783

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) has been routinely recommended as part of the immunization program in China and has had a satisfactory safety and effectiveness profile in protecting infants from hepatitis B virus infection. We evaluated the surveillance sensitivity and changes over time of AEFI reports related to HepB among infants based on the consistent national data before and after the introduction of vaccine administration law (LAW) from 2013 to 2020 in China. Methods: AEFI records were extracted from the Chinese National AEFI Surveillance System from 2013 to 2020. According to the proportion of different kinds of HepB vaccines distributed, the annual administration data of the most distributed HepB produced by Bio-Kangtai and its corresponding adverse reaction reports were collected and analyzed. We categorized the time interval into the pre-LAW period (2013 to 2017), transition period (2018 to 2019), and LAW period (2020) to demonstrate the impact of LAW on the surveillance patterns of AEFIs. Results: The annual AEFI rates increased from 3.1/100,000 to 14.8/100,000 over this period in total. The rate ratio for the post-LAW period and pre-LAW period was 2.19 (95%CI: 2.10, 2.29). Common reactions occupied 87.6% of the total reported AEFIs whose rate was recorded as 7.9/100,000. Rare reactions occupied 9.1% of the total AEFIs showing an average rate of 0.8/100,000, of which anaphylaxis accounted for over 80%, with the rate ratio of the transition period and LAW period as 1.36 (95%CI:1.22, 1.52) and 1.14 (95%CI:0.95, 1.35), respectively. Children receiving more than one vaccine showed a higher proportion of fever, anaphylaxis, and febrile convulsions, which were suggested to be a result of vaccine co-administration vaccines, such as the DPT and Polio vaccine. Conclusion: Most reactions were mild and self-limited and the rates of rare more serious events remained stable. The LAW has largely increased the surveillance capability and sensitivity on AEFIs of HepB and also contributes to enhancing public confidence in HepB immunization. Hepatitis B vaccination is a safe and effective means of preventing the complications of hepatitis B disease and continuous standardized AEFI investigation and assessment of causal association should be maintained.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hepatite B , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Fenilbutiratos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
4.
J Med Virol ; : e28256, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305477

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the hesitancy and willingness of parents to vaccinate themselves and their children with a booster dose against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and related factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Puyang city, China. The information was collected, including demographic characteristics, willingness to receive a booster dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine, and attitudes and concerns toward COVID-19 and vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed in individuals completing the first two doses and booster eligible, while vaccine willingness was assessed in those completing the first two doses and not yet booster eligible. Among the participants completing two primary doses while not meeting the booster criteria, 95.4% (1465/1536) and 95.0% (1385/1458) had a willingness to a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children, respectively. Among the participants who met the booster criteria, 40.3% had vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy and unwillingness tended to occur in people who were younger, less educated, less healthy, and with unsureness of vaccines' efficacy and adverse events (AE). The younger age of children, children in poorer health, and concern about the efficacy and AE of vaccines contributed to the participants' unwillingness to vaccinate their children. We observed a high willingness to the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine both for the parents and their children, regardless of the eligibility to a booster dose. However, 40% of people had delayed vaccination behaviors. The promotion of scientific knowledge of vaccines' effectiveness and safety is needed, especially for people in poor health and parents with young children. Timely disclosure of AE caused by COVID-19 vaccines and proper aiding offered to people encountering AE are suggested.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 10-16, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease with a high case fatality rate. Key gaps remained as to the assessment of the clinical picture in fatal cases. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 496 patients with fatal SFTS. The dynamic pattern of clinical manifestations and laboratory indicators were delineated. RESULTS: The mean age of the fatal cases was 69.0 years (standard deviation: 9.3), and 52.8% were male. The median clinical course from disease onset to death was 11 (interquartile range: 10-13) days. A total of 11 laboratory indicators (neutrophil %, platelet, aspartate aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cystatin C, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, glucose) persistently deviated from normality across hospitalization. The critical time points when the rapid worsening of the indicators was at 6-9 days after disease onset. Alanine transaminase, AST, lactate dehydrogenase, total bile acid, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and glucose were all elevated to a more pronounced level in fatal cases of those aged ≤70 years. CONCLUSION: The fatal outcome was developed in rather a short course after the disease onset of SFTS. High vigilance should be put on the key time points when the severe worsening and severe complications occur.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 896409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36160124

RESUMO

Objectives: The changes in metabolism by human adenovirus (HAdV) infection was unclear. The potential mechanism of HAdV-7 causing acute respiratory tract infection was explored. Methods: Totally 35 patients with HAdV-7 infection, 32 asymptomatic cases with HAdV-7 and 14 healthy controls were enrolled from an outbreak of HAdV-7 in the army. The serum samples were analyzed by untargeted and targeted metabolomics. The effects of differential metabolites were verified on HAdV-7 replication in an A549 cell line. Results: The untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed more significant changes in the classes of sphingolipids, polyketides, glycerolipids, fatty acyls, and carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the patients with HAdV-7 than in healthy controls. Two key metabolic pathways of secondary and primary bile acid biosynthesis were noted from pathway enrichment analysis. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that the levels of unconjugated bile acids in the patients were significantly lower, while the levels of glyco- and tauro- conjugated bile acids in patients and asymptomatic cases were higher than those in the healthy controls. The profiles of cytokines and peripheral lymphocyte subsets obviously varied at different levels of bile acids, with significant differences after HAdV-7 infection. A cell verification test demonstrated that the replication of HAdV-7 significantly reduced when GCDCA and TCA were added. Conclusion: Bile acids inhibited HAdV-7 replication in vitro. Alterations in bile acids was metabolic signatures of HAdV-7 infected subjects, and our results suggested bile acids might play protective roles against HAdV-7 infection.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056540

RESUMO

We aim to evaluate the evolution differences in the incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta and Omicron variants. The average incidence and CFRs were described between different countries. A gamma generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to compare the CFRs of Delta and Omicron variants based on vaccination coverage. Totally, 50 countries were included for analyses. The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranged from 0.16/100,000 to 82.95/100,000 during the Delta period and 0.03/100,000 to 440.88/100,000 during the Omicron period. The median CFRs were 8.56 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.76-18.39) during the Delta period and 3.04 (IQR: 1.87-7.48) during the Omicron period, respectively. A total of 47 out of 50 countries showed decreased CFRs of the Omicron variant with the rate ratio ranging from 0.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.03) (in Cambodia) to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87-1.08) (in Ireland). Gamma GLMM analysis showed that the decreased CFR was largely a result of the decreased pathogenicity of Omicron besides the increased vaccination coverage. The Omicron variant shows a higher incidence but a lower CFR around the world as a whole, which is mainly a result of the decreased pathogenicity by SARS-CoV-2's mutation, while the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 still acts as a valuable measure in preventing people from death.

8.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112136

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious global threat. The metabolic analysis had been successfully applied in the efforts to uncover the pathological mechanisms and biomarkers of disease severity. Here we performed a quasi-targeted metabolomic analysis on 56 COVID-19 patients from Sierra Leone in western Africa, revealing the metabolomic profiles and the association with disease severity, which was confirmed by the targeted metabolomic analysis of 19 pairs of COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed on published metabolic data of COVID-19 to verify our findings. Of the 596 identified metabolites, 58 showed significant differences between severe and nonsevere groups. The pathway enrichment of these differential metabolites revealed glutamine and glutamate metabolism as the most significant metabolic pathway (Impact = 0.5; -log10P = 1.959). Further targeted metabolic analysis revealed six metabolites with significant intergroup differences, with glutamine/glutamate ratio significantly associated with severe disease, negatively correlated with 10 clinical parameters and positively correlated with SPO2 (rs = 0.442, p = 0.005). Mini meta-analysis indicated elevated glutamate was related to increased risk of COVID-19 infection (pooled odd ratio [OR] = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.50) and severe COVID-19 (pooled OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.14-4.56). In contrast, elevated glutamine related to decreased risk of infection and severe COVID-19, the pooled OR were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20-0.44), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.19-0.98), respectively. Glutamine and glutamate metabolism are associated with COVID-19 severity in multiple populations, which might confer potential therapeutic target of COVID-19, especially for severe patients.

9.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 60(4): 106647, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have evaluated treatment efficacy of various antibiotics for patients with mild-to-moderate scrub typhus (ST). However, the efficacy of different antibiotics for treating severe ST remains uncertain. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with severe ST was undertaken in China. The treatment efficacy rates of doxycycline, azithromycin and chloramphenicol were compared, using treatment failure and time to defervescence as primary outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 876 patients with severe ST who initially received doxycycline, azithromycin or chloramphenicol were recruited. The treatment failure rate did not differ significantly between patients receiving doxycycline and patients receiving azithromycin (6.0% vs 11.4%; P=0.109). However, a higher treatment failure rate was observed for chloramphenicol compared with doxycycline (14.6% vs 6.0%; P=0.004). No significant difference in time to defervescence was observed between patients receiving doxycycline, azithromycin or chloramphenicol. Further subgroup analysis revealed a higher risk of treatment failure for chloramphenicol compared with doxycycline in patients with acute kidney injury, pneumonia and shock; and a higher risk of treatment failure for azithromycin compared with doxycycline in patients with meningitis. Significant correlation was found between azithromycin resistance and meningitis (P=0.009), and between chloramphenicol resistance and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P<0.001) using Cramer's V correlation coefficient. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis revealed significant associations between time to defervescence and presence of ARDS, shock, myocarditis, meningitis and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSION: Azithromycin and doxycycline were found to have significant therapeutic effects in patients with severe ST. In contast, chloramphenicol was less efficacious for the treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Tifo por Ácaros , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 674, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantitatively assess the impact of the onset-to-diagnosis interval (ODI) on severity and death for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted based on the data on COVID-19 cases of China over the age of 40 years reported through China's National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from February 5, 2020 to October 8, 2020. The impacts of ODI on severe rate (SR) and case fatality rate (CFR) were evaluated at individual and population levels, which was further disaggregated by sex, age and geographic origin. RESULTS: As the rapid decline of ODI from around 40 days in early January to < 3 days in early March, both CFR and SR of COVID-19 largely dropped below 5% in China. After adjusting for age, sex, and region, an effect of ODI on SR was observed with the highest OR of 2.95 (95% CI 2.37‒3.66) at Day 10-11 and attributable fraction (AF) of 29.1% (95% CI 22.2‒36.1%) at Day 8-9. However, little effect of ODI on CFR was observed. Moreover, discrepancy of effect magnitude was found, showing a greater effect from ODI on SR among patients of male sex, younger age, and those cases in Wuhan. CONCLUSION: The ODI was significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of timely diagnosis, especially for patients who were confirmed to gain increased benefit from early diagnosis to some extent.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 83, 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the key interventions recommended by World Health Organization in preventing malaria infection. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of global studies about the impact of IRS on malaria control. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies published from database establishment to 31 December 2021. Random-effects models were used to perform meta-analysis and subgroup analysis to pool the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-regression was used to investigate potential factors of heterogeneity across studies. RESULTS: Thirty-eight articles including 81 reports and 1,174,970 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. IRS was associated with lower rates of malaria infection (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27-0.44). The significantly higher effectiveness was observed in IRS coverage ≥ 80% than in IRS coverage < 80%. Pyrethroids was identified to show the greatest performance in malaria control. In addition, higher effectiveness was associated with a lower gross domestic product as well as a higher coverage of IRS and bed net utilization. CONCLUSIONS: IRS could induce a positive effect on malaria infection globally. The high IRS coverage and the use of pyrethroids are key measures to reduce malaria infection. More efforts should focus on increasing IRS coverage, developing more effective new insecticides against malaria, and using multiple interventions comprehensively to achieve malaria control goals.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos
12.
PeerJ ; 10: e13608, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791362

RESUMO

Background: Thrombocytopenia was common in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the infection, while the role of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 pathogenesis and its relationship with systemic host response remained obscure. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 patients and clinical, haematological and biochemical markers of the disease as well as adverse outcomes. Methods: To assess the relationship between abnormal platelet levels and disease progression, a multi-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. COVID-19 patients with thrombocytopenia and a sub-cohort of matched patients without thrombocytopenia were compared for their clinical manifestations, haematological disorders, biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Results: Thrombocytopenia was present in 127 of 2,209 analyzed patients on admission. Compared with the control group, thrombocytopenia patients developed significantly higher frequency of respiratory failure (41.9% vs. 22.6%, P = 0.020), intensive care unit entrance (25.6% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.012), disseminated intravascular coagulation (45.2% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.001), more altered platelet morphology indexes and coagulation perturbation, higher levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, a significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.18, P < 0.001) was also observed in the patients with thrombocytopenia. Late development of thrombocytopenia beyond 14 days post-symptom was observed in 61 patients, from whom a comparable mortality rate yet longer duration to death was observed compared to those with early thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Our finding from this study adds to previous evidence that thrombocytopenia is associated with adverse outcome of the disease and recommend that platelet count and indices be included alongside other haematological, biochemical and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients' assessment during the hospital stay.

14.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4934-4943, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655366

RESUMO

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that usually occurs in children under 5 years and is caused by a group of enteroviruses. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD clusters from 2016 to 2020 in Tongzhou, Beijing, and explored the genetic evolution of CV-A6. The HFMD case information came from the Information System of China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as the clusters information verification and on-site investigation by Tongzhou CDC. ARIMA model was applied to forecast HFMD clusters in 2020. Totally 440 HFMD clusters were reported during 2016-2020. The large peak of the clusters occurred in April-July, followed by a smaller peak in October-November during 2016-2019. However, in 2020, the two peaks disappeared. The main site of HFMD clusters was childcare facilities (65.0%) and mostly occurred in urban areas (46.1%). The detection rate of CV-A6 was the highest (36.1%), and cases with CV-A6 infection had the highest proportion of fever. The phylogenetic analysis based on CV-A6 VP1 gene showed that the predominant strains mainly located in Group F during 2016-2017, while changed into Group A during 2018-2020. HFMD clusters presented seasonality, mainly located in childcare facilities and urban areas, and CV-A6 was the major causative agent. Targeted prevention and control measures should be taken to reduce HFMD clusters.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/genética , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Filogenia
15.
Exp Lung Res ; 48(4-6): 149-157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708062

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment as a noninvasive method reducing the risk of exposure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of a new sample type of EBC in pneumonia by metabolomics and to explore differential metabolites and potential metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed at the Peking University Third Hospital from August to December 2020. C-MS/MS analyses were performed on EBC samples using a UHPLC system. RESULTS: Totally 22 patients with pneumonia and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Using untargeted metabolomics based on LC-MS/MS analysis, 25 kinds of differential metabolites were found. Through a comprehensive analysis of the pathways in which the differential metabolites were located, the key pathway with the highest correlation with the difference of metabolites was taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The study implicates that the hypotaurine/taurine metabolic pathway may play a role on the development of pneumonia through metabolism analysis on EBC and the 3-Sulfinoalanine may be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Expiração , Humanos , Metaboloma , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Taurina
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746530

RESUMO

Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an important public health solution. Developing a safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19 is a viable long-term solution to control the pandemic. As one of the two inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines developed in China that entered the WHO emergency use list, Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV, an aluminum-hydroxide-adjuvanted, inactivated whole-virus vaccine, has been widely distributed, with more than 400 million doses administered in more than 40 countries. The evidence of the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of BBIBP-CorV is gathered and reviewed. We further comment on one of the latest papers that disclosed the effectiveness results between BBIBP-CorV, rAd26-rAd5, and ChAdOx1.

17.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4329-4337, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562326

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by novel bunyavirus (SFTSV), is a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate of over 10%. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (gMDSC) might affect arginine metabolism, which was associated with decreased platelet count and T lymphocyte dysfunction in this disease. The study was designed to investigate the expression of the gMDSCs subsets in SFTS patients, and to evaluate its association with disease severity. A prospective study was performed on 166 confirmed SFTSV infected patients. Sequential blood samples were collected during hospitalization and after recovery. SFTSV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The gMDSCs and NK cells were determined by flow cytometry analysis, which were associated with disease severity. Elevation of the activated gMDSC was observed in SFTS patients at the acute phase, with a significantly higher level of gMDSC attained in 79 severe and 29 fatal SFTS patients than in the mild patients. The NK cells were depleted at the early infection and not restored to normal level until 4 months after the disease. The expansion of gMDSC was accompanied by the elevated expressions of CD3-ζ of NK and Arginase-1, in contrast with the decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gMDSC. The levels of NK, CD3-ζ of NK, viral load, and platelet count were significantly associated with the level of gMDSC. Expansion of gMDSC was demonstrated in SFTS, which was associated with severe disease and suppressed antiviral NK cell via other mechanisms than Arginase-1 or ROS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Arginase , Humanos , Phlebovirus/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 822796, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547223

RESUMO

Background: The changing pattern of pathogen spectrum causing herpangina in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on the molecular epidemiology of herpangina children during 2019-2020 in Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. Method: From January 2019 to December 2020, children diagnosed with herpangina were recruited by the staff from Tongzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Beijing. Viral RNA extraction from pharyngeal swabs was used for enterovirus (EV) detection and the complete VP1 gene was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on all VP1 sequences for EV genotypes. Result: A total of 1,331 herpangina children were identified during 2019-2020 with 1,121 in 2019 and 210 in 2020, respectively. The predominant epidemic peak of herpangina children was in summer and autumn of 2019, but not observed in 2020. Compared to the number of herpangina children reported in 2019, it decreased sharply in 2020. Among 129 samples tested in 2019, 61 (47.3%) children were detected with EV, while 22.5% (20/89) were positive in 2020. The positive rate for EV increased since June 2019, peaked at August 2019, and decreased continuously until February 2020. No cases were observed from February to July in 2020, and the positive rate of EV rebounded to previous level since August 2020. Four genotypes, including coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6, 9.3%), CV-A4 (7.8%), CV-A10 (2.3%) and CV-A16 (10.1%), were identified in 2019, and only three genotypes, including CV-A6 (9.0%), CV-A10 (6.7%) and CV-A16 (1.1%), were identified in 2020. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all CV-A6 strains from Tongzhou located in Group C, and the predominant strains mainly located in C2-C4 subgroups during 2016-2018 and changed into C1 subgroup during 2018-2020. CV-A16 strains mainly located in Group B, which consisting of strains widely distributed around the world. Conclusions: The predominant genotypes gradually shifted from CV-A16, CV-A4 and CV-A6 in 2019 to CV-A6 in 2020 under COVID-19 pandemic. Genotype-based surveillance will provide robust evidence and facilitate the development of public health measures.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 865001, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620096

RESUMO

Background: Oseltamivir resistance in influenza virus (IFV) has been of widespread concern. An increase in the frequency of viruses with reduced inhibition was observed. Whether oseltamivir is effective is uncertain. We conducted this study to understand the real-world situation in northern China and the clinical efficacy for patients with IFV infection after the use of oseltamivir. Methods: The longitudinal study was performed on influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in a tertiary general hospital in Beijing, China during the flu season of 2018-2019. All ILI cases (≥18 years) were recruited into the study. We analyzed the effect of the oseltamivir therapy on the number of clinic visits, hospitalization frequency, and the duration of fever and cough. Results: A total of 689 ILI patients were recruited in this study with 355 in the oseltamivir therapy group and 334 in the supportive therapy group. Among the ILI patients, 388 patients were detected for IFV infection (364 IFV-A and 24 IFV-B) and divided into two groups with or without the oseltamivir therapy (302 vs. 86). There were no significant differences in the basic characteristics between the oseltamivir and supportive therapy groups in the ILI patients or in the IFV positive patients (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for the potential confounders, oseltamivir therapy reduced the times of clinic visits in the ILI and IFV positive patients (p = 0.043 and p = 0.011). No effectiveness with oseltamivir therapy was observed in the outcomes of hospitalization frequency, and the duration of fever and cough. Conclusion: Oseltamivir use may reduce the times of clinic visits. However, we did not observe the differences in the duration of fever, cough, and the frequency of hospitalization between oseltamivir therapy and supportive therapy.

20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1672-1682, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603493

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus, causes mild-to-moderate infection to critical illness or even death in human patients. The effect of virus variations on virulence and related clinical significance is unclear. We prospectively recruited SFTSV-infected patients in a hotspot region of SFTS endemic in China from 2011 to 2020, sequenced whole genome of SFTSV, and assessed the association of virus genomic variants with clinical data, viremia, and inflammatory response. We identified seven viral clades (I-VII) based on phylogenetic characterization of 805 SFTSV genome sequences. A significantly increased case fatality rate (32.9%) was revealed in one unique clade (IV) that possesses a specific co-mutation pattern, compared to other three common clades (I, 16.7%; II, 13.8%; and III, 11.8%). The phenotype-genotype association (hazard ratios ranged 1.327-2.916) was confirmed by multivariate regression adjusting age, sex, and hospitalization delay. We revealed a pronounced inflammation response featured by more production of CXCL9, IL-10, IL-6, IP-10, M-CSF, and IL-1ß, in clade IV, which was also related to severe complications. We observed enhanced cytokine expression from clade IV inoculated PBMCs and infected mice. Moreover, the neutralization activity of convalescent serum from patients infected with one specified clade was remarkably reduced to other viral clades. Together, our findings revealed a significant association between one specific viral clade and SFTS fatality, highlighting the need for molecular surveillance for highly lethal strains in endemic regions and unravelled the importance of evaluating cross-clade effect in development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Phlebovirus/fisiologia , Filogenia
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