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1.
J Neurooncol ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most recent cIMPACT-NOW update highlighted the homozygous deletion of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene as a clinically important molecular alteration in IDH-mutant glioma. Correspondingly, we systematically reviewed the contemporary literature to affirm the contemporary stance of the literature on the prognostic significance of this alteration in this setting based on the current World Health Organization (WHO) Grade classification. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases from inception to February 2020 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria to include lower-grade glioma (LGG, WHO Grade II/III) and glioblastoma (GBM, WHO Grade IV) separately. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from Kaplan-Meier and multivariable analyses were outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Nine institutional studies describing 2193 IDH-mutant gliomas satisfied criteria for evaluation, with 1756 (80%) LGG and 437 (20%) GBM. When reported, the proportion of CDKN2A homozygous deleted gliomas ranged from 9 to 43%, with a median incidence of 22%. For LGG, Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated shorter PFS in the presence of CDKN2A homozygous deletion in three studies (median values, 31 versus 91 months), and shorter OS in five studies (median values, 61 versus 154 months). For GBM, Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated shorter PFS in the presence of CDKN2A homozygous deletion in two studies (median values, 16 versus 30 months), and shorter OS in four studies (median values, 38 versus 86 months). By multivariable analyses, CDKN2A homozygous deletion was a predictor of significantly shorter PFS and OS in both LGG and GBM across all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: The CDKN2A homozygous deletion is an important prognostic factor for survival outcomes of IDH-mutant glioma patients across multiple histologic WHO grades with specific molecular features likely dependent on IDH-mutant status. Greater understanding of how identifying this deletion can assist in the stratification of management for these tumors to optimize clinical course is required.

4.
J Neurooncol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) can be impacted by multiple demographic parameters. Barriers specific to the Hispanic population of the United States (US) are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate geographic disparities for access to GBM treatment in the US Hispanic population. METHODS: All GBM patients with known Hispanic ethnicity status (and Caucasian race) in the US National Cancer Database (NCDB) between the years 2005-2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment statuses of surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and triple therapy (resection, chemotherapy and radiation) were summarized, and analyzed by comparison and regression analyses over US Census regions. RESULTS: A total cohort size of 40,232 Caucasian GBM patients were included, with 3,111 (8%) identifying as Hispanic. The odds of treatment by chemotherapy (OR 0.78, P < 0.01), radiation therapy (OR 0.82, P < 0.01) and triple therapy (OR 0.84, P < 0.01) were all significantly lower in the Hispanic group versus non-Hispanic group. The odds of being treated in the Hispanic group were significantly lower in multiple Census regions with respect to surgical resection (New England, OR 0.51; Mountain, OR 0.68), chemotherapy (East North Central, OR 0.77; Middle Atlantic, OR 0.71; Pacific, OR 0.77), radiation therapy (Middle Atlantic, OR 0.77) and triple therapy (New England, OR 0.49; Middle Atlantic, OR 0.87; Pacific, OR 0.84). Significant barriers to triple therapy in the Hispanic group within these regions were older age (OR 0.97; P < 0.01), treatment in a community facility (OR 0.85, P = 0.03), lack of insurance (OR 0.71, P = 0.03), yearly income < $40,227 (OR 0.69, P < 0.01), low education levels (OR 0.75, P = 0.03) and presence of co-morbidity (OR 0.82; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Currently in the US, there exists heterogenous geographic disparities for Hispanic GBM patients to access different treatments compared to non-Hispanic patients. Multiple circumstances can influence access to treatment within the Hispanic community of these regions, and greater investigation with more granularity required to reveal mechanisms in which these disparities may be addressed in the future.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(4): 738-746, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess our initial experience with prenatal restoration of hindbrain herniation following in utero repair of myelomeningocele (MMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three consecutive patients with prenatally diagnosed MMC (between January 1, 2018 and September 30, 2018) were managed with open in utero surgery. As per institutional review board approval and following a protocol designed at the Mayo Clinic Maternal & Fetal Center, fetal intervention was offered between 19 0/7 and 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. Prenatal improvement of hindbrain herniation was the declared restorative end point. Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: Diagnosis of MMC was confirmed upon referral between 20 and 21 weeks' gestation by using fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In all cases reported here, the spinal defect was lumbosacral with evidence of hindbrain herniation. Open in utero MMC repair was performed between 24 and 25 weeks' gestation with no notable perioperative complications. Postprocedure fetal magnetic resonance imaging performed 6 weeks after in utero repair documented improvement of hindbrain herniation. Deliveries were at 37 weeks by cesarean section without complications. Most recent postnatal follow-ups were unremarkable at both 11 months (baby 1) and 3 months of age (baby 2), with mild ventriculomegaly. Antenatal and postnatal follow-up of baby 3 at 1 month of age was also unremarkable. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the prenatal restoration of hindbrain herniation following in utero MMC repair in all cases presented here as an example of a prenatal regenerative therapy program in our institution.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Departments of neurosurgery in the United States have had a long history of hosting international visitors for the advancement of their neurosurgical education. The goal of the present study was to determine if a geographic profile existed of international visitors for education purposes, both students and graduates, to the United States through the anecdotal experience of one department to explore the reach and worth of hosting such opportunities. METHODS: Administrative records were retrospectively reviewed for international visitors over the preceding 10 years, 2009-2019, were surveyed at one institution. Visitors were grouped as either medical students or graduates, visiting for either clinical or research purposes. Geographic trends were compared using Chi-squared test. RESULTS: 128 visitors from 33 countries were identified during the study period. The most common home countries were Italy (10%), China (9%), and India (7%). The cohort involved 62 (48%) students and 66 (52%) graduates, and 59 (46%) and 69 (54%) visited for clinical and research purposes respectively. The geographic distribution of student versus graduate visitors was statistically significant by region (P<0.01). However, the geographic distribution of clinical versus research visitors was not statistically different by region (P=0.62). CONCLUSION: There appears to be international appeal worldwide to participate in neurosurgical education in the United States. At our institution, every geographic region was represented in our most recent decade of experience. International visitor profiles appear to be associated with particular geographic patterns depending on their status as either a medical student or graduate.

8.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal clinical management and outcomes of rare pediatric spinal aneurysmal bone cysts (spABC) is largely anecdotal. Current practice is based on bigger adult series, although given the disparities in spine growth of adults versus children, what impact this difference may have on long-term outcomes has yet to be substantiated. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical course of all pediatric spABC cases managed at our institution to better understand this. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric spABC cases presenting to our institution between 1993 and 2017 was performed using a predetermined set of selection criteria. Primary outcomes of interest were treatment modalities and their outcomes, recurrence status, and functional status. RESULTS: A total of 24 pediatric spABC cases satisfied all criteria. Median age of diagnosis was 13.5 years, with 15 females and 9 males. Radicular pain was the presenting symptom in 21 (88%) cases. Diagnostic biopsy was pursued in 9 (38%) cases, pre-operative embolization in 8 (33%) cases, surgical intervention in 23 (96%) cases, and sclerotherapy in 2 (8%) cases. In terms of surgery, there were no intraoperative complications, and gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 14 of the 23 (61%) cases. Overall, there were 5 (21%) cases which experienced recurrence by a median time of 8 months after initial surgery, all of which had initial subtotal resection. Median follow-up was 5 years, by which all patients demonstrated excellent functional status. CONCLUSIONS: There are a number of feasible therapeutic modalities and combinations that can be utilized to maximize control of pediatric spABCs and optimize long-term function similar to that of adults, irrespective of developing versus developed spines. The incidence of recurrence is not negligible, and therefore, rigorous long-term surveillance is highly encouraged, particularly within the first post-operative year following mono-modal non-GTR treatment.

9.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140720

RESUMO

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the neurosurgical literature have surged in popularity over the last decade. It is our concern that, without a renewed effort to critically interpret and appraise these studies as high or low quality, we run the risk of the quality and value of evidence-based medicine in neurosurgery being misinterpreted. Correspondingly, we have outlined 4 major domains to target in interpreting neurosurgical systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on the lessons learned by a collaboration of clinicians and academics summarized as 4 pearls. The domains of (1) heterogeneity, (2) modeling, (3) certainty, and (4) bias in neurosurgical systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified as aspects in which the authors' approaches have changed over time to improve robustness and transparency. Examples of how and why these pearls were adapted were provided in areas of cranial neuralgia, spine, pediatric, and neuro-oncology to demonstrate how neurosurgical readers and writers may improve their interpretation of these domains. The incorporation of these pearls into practice will empower neurosurgical academics to effectively interpret systematic reviews and meta-analyses, enhancing the quality of our evidence-based medicine literature while maintaining a critical focus on the needs of the individual patients in neurosurgery.

10.
J Neurooncol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is an emerging radiation therapy to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. To date, its use is limited to a few centers around the world, and there has been no attempt to systematically evaluate survival and toxicity outcomes reported in the literature. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess these outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases from inception to November 2019 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Outcomes were then pooled by random-effects meta-analyses of proportions. RESULTS: A total of nine studies provided unique metadata for assessment, with six originating from Heidelberg, Germany. The surveyed cohort size was 632 patients, with 389 (62%) chordomas and 243 (38%) chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Across all studies, median cohort age at therapy and female proportion were 46 years and 51% respectively. Estimates of local control incidence at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 99%, 80%, and 56%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 89%, and 88%. Estimates of overall survival probability at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 100%, 94%, and 78%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 95%, and 79%. The incidence of early and late toxicity (Grade ≥ 3) ranged from 0 to 4% across all study groups. CONCLUSIONS: The emerging use of CIRT to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas appear promising with regard to tumor control, overall survival, and risk profile of early and late toxicity. The current literature suffers from the fact only a few centers in the world currently employ this technology.

11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 191: 105707, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018117

RESUMO

Intervention (surgery, embolization, and radiosurgery) is critical in maximizing outcomes of pediatric arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Although short-term functional outcomes following intervention have been stablished to be favorable, long-term outcomes have yet to be thoroughly consolidated. Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to April 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Favorable functional were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores ranging from 0 to 2, and the incidences were extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions. Fourteen pertinent studies were identified describing outcomes of 699 pAVM patients, with median 75 % presenting with hemorrhage. Surgery, embolization and radiosurgery use were reported by 12 (86 %), 14 (100 %) and 10 (71 %) studies respectively. By median study follow-up time of 4.1 years, a favorable functional outcome was estimated to occur in 87 % (95 % CI, 82-91 %) of subjects respectively. Hemorrhagic versus non-hemorrhagic presentations did not statistically differ in incidence of this long-term outcome, 78 % (95 % CI, 67-87 %) and 91 % (95 % CI, 80-98 %) respectively. This study demonstrates that favorable long-term functional outlook of pAVM subjects after intervention can persist for many years after initial intervention. The certainty of achieving this outcome is moderate, irrespective of hemorrhagic presentation or intervention modality. Long-term functional deficit risk should not be the sole factor in deciding if intervention should be pursued.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e221-e241, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the healthy spine, the spinal cord moves unimpeded with spinal fluid pulsation in the rostral and caudal directions. When a portion of the spinal cord becomes attached to lesions within the spinal column, excess strain can cause signs and symptoms such as pain, motor deficits, sensory deficits, bladder dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction. This condition is termed tethered cord syndrome. There are no clear guidelines for offering surgical intervention, although there is a general consensus that worsening signs and symptoms increase the likelihood that patients will need surgery. METHODS: In this article, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis for all available literature within the Ovid (MEDLINE), PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to evaluate common symptoms among patients with tethered cord and to examine how surgery affects symptoms. RESULTS: Within the cohort of 730 patients, 708 (97%) were treated surgically by a detethering procedure. The most common preoperative sign or symptom was pain (81%), followed by motor deficits (63%), sensory deficits (61%), bladder dysfunction (56%), and bowel dysfunction (15%). One percent of patients had no deficit or symptom. Pain was the symptom that was most responsive to surgery, with 81% of patients reporting that their pain improved after detethering. CONCLUSIONS: Tethered cord syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with back or leg pain, somatosensory symptoms of the lower extremities, muscular weakness, urodynamic dysfunction, or bowel dysfunction. After a definitive diagnosis is made, patients should be counseled about surgical detethering as an option.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e383-e388, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery residency in the United States is highly sought after by many international medical graduates (IMGs), and the geographic distribution of IMG candidates who have successfully matched has not been quantitatively explored to date. The aim of this study was to highlight the countries in which successfully matched IMG residents obtained their medical degrees and the states of their respective residency destinations. METHODS: All available resident lists of approved neurosurgical residency programs within the United States with at least 7 years of history were reviewed for IMGs in the most currently updated rosters. Demographic and geographic characteristics were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 1393 current neurosurgical residents in U.S. residency programs were identified from 99 programs across 39 states. Of 1393 residents, 87 were IMGs (6%). The IMG contingent originated from 39 countries, the most common of which was Lebanon (n = 14/87 [16%]). The Middle East was the most represented geographic region (n = 23/87 [26%]). The states with the highest number of IMGs were Kentucky, New York, and Texas (all n = 7/87 [8%]). CONCLUSIONS: IMGs constitute a small but appreciable portion of current neurosurgical residents in U.S. training programs. Particular countries have contributed more IMGs to neurosurgical programs than others, and particular states have higher counts and proportions of IMG residents than others. These outcomes are not geographically homogeneous, and the mechanisms by which IMG applicants successfully match to U.S. neurosurgery programs require more biographic granularity to elucidate.

14.
World Neurosurg ; 137: 429-434.e13, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome that was characterized several decades ago; however, its optimal diagnosis and management remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate citation and bibliometric characteristics of the 100 most cited articles about NPH to better understand the state of research efforts in the field and where improvements may arise. METHODS: Elsevier's Scopus database was searched for the 100 most cited articles that focused on NPH. Articles were characterized and various bibliometric parameters were compared. Categorical data were analyzed using Pearson χ2, and continuous data were analyzed using either linear regression or a Student t test. RESULTS: The 100 most cited articles were published between 1965 and 2014, from 16 unique countries in 38 unique journals. The most common outcome types of these articles were clinical (n = 77). Median number of citations and rate of citations were 114 citations and 5.9 citations/year since publication, respectively, with a significant inverse linear relationship between the 2 parameters (P < 0.01). The most common year of publication was 2002 (n = 10), and the most common country of origin was the United States (n = 40). Higher citation rates were associated with more recent articles (P < 0.01) and more authors (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the 100 most cited articles about NPH, there has been a distinct shift toward a more globalized effort in recent decades. The lack of more impactful articles in recent decades highlights that particular classic studies still penetrate practice and the possible need to reconsider our contemporary views on NPH to further advance the field.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual evidence suggests that multiple modalities can be used to treat entrapment pathology by Morton's neuroma, including injection, neurolysis, and neurectomy. However, their impacts on patient pain and satisfaction have yet to be fully defined or elucidated. Correspondingly, our aim was to pool systematically identified metadata and substantiate the impact of these different modalities in treating Morton's neuroma with respect to these outcomes. METHODS: Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to October 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. The incidences of outcomes were extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles satisfied all criteria, reporting a total of 2998 patients with Morton's neuroma managed by one of the three modalities. Incidence of complete pain relief after injection (43%; 95% CI, 23-64%) was significantly lower than neurolysis (68%; 95% CI, 51-84%) and neurectomy (74%; 95% CI, 66-82%) (P = 0.02). Incidence of complete satisfaction after injection (35%; 95% CI, 21-50%) was significantly lower than neurolysis (63%; 95% CI, 50-74%) and neurectomy (57%; 95% CI, 47-67%) (P < 0.01). The need to proceed to further surgery was significantly greater following injection (15%; 95% CI, 9-23%) versus neurolysis (2%; 95% CI, 0-4%) or neurectomy (5%; 95% CI, 3-7%) (P < 0.01). Incidence of procedural complications did not differ between modalities (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Although all interventions demonstrated favorable procedural complication incidences, surgical interventions by either neurolysis or neurectomy appear to trend towards greater incidences of complete pain relief and complete patient satisfaction outcomes compared to injection treatment. The optimal decision-making algorithm for treatment for Morton's neuroma should incorporate these findings to better form and meet the expectations of patients.

16.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(1): E2, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) and osmotic pump delivery both have been promoted as promising techniques to deliver drugs to pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs). Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to understand how infusate molecular weight (MW), duration of delivery, and mechanism of delivery (CED or osmotic pump) affect volume of distribution (Vd) in the brainstem, to better inform drug selection and delivery in future DIPG investigations. METHODS: A series of in vivo experiments were conducted using rat models. CED and osmotic pump delivery systems were surgically implanted in the brainstem, and different MW fluorescent dextran beads were infused either once (acute) or daily for 5 days (chronic) in a volume infused (Vi). Brainstems were harvested after the last infusion, and Vd was quantified using serial sectioning and fluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Fluorescence imaging showed infusate uptake within the brainstem for both systems without complication. A significant inverse relationship was observed between infusate MW and Vd in all settings, which was distinctly exponential in nature in the setting of acute delivery across the 570-Da to 150-kDa range. Chronic duration and CED technique resulted in significantly greater Vd compared to acute duration or osmotic pump delivery, respectively. When accounting for Vi, acute infusion yielded significantly greater Vd/Vi than chronic infusion. The distribution in CED versus osmotic pump delivery was significantly affected by infusate MW at higher weights. CONCLUSIONS: Here the authors demonstrate that infusate MW, duration of infusion, and infusion mechanism all impact the Vd of an infused agent and should be considered when selecting drugs and infusion parameters for novel investigations to treat DIPGs.

17.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 37(2): 341-352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950392

RESUMO

Brain metastases are the most common malignant tumors of the brain. Leptomeningeal dissemination is a late-stage complication of intracranial metastasis and portends an extremely poor prognosis. An increased risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) from metastatic breast cancer compared to other cancer types after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been reported. Validation of this observation has significant public health ramifications. The aim of this study was to determine the consistency of this association in the available literature via formal meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. Searches of seven electronic databases from inception to August 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines and appropriate selection criteria. Prognostic hazard ratios (HRs) for LMD in breast cancer brain metastases derived from multivariate regression analysis were analyzed using meta-analysis of proportions. Our search strategy identified 8 studies meeting inclusion criteria which provided data on 2555 unique brain metastases patients treated with SRS. The risk of LMD in the setting of breast cancer brain metastasis was significantly greater compared to other histologic cancer types (pooled HR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.69-2.93; P < 0.001). Statistical assessment of small studies bias and heterogeneity were negative. Outcome certainty was low. Breast cancer brain metastases are associated with an increased risk of LMD compared to other cancer types after SRS. The certainty of this outcome will be improved with future prospective studies. Providers should factor this increased susceptibility for LMD in breast cancer brain metastasis to allow for appropriate risk stratification and the development of appropriate surveillance paradigms.

18.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(1): 39-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal high-grade pediatric brainstem tumor without a cure. Despite numerous clinical trials over the last decades, the prognosis has remained poor. The aim of this update was to report on the status and outcomes of all clinical trials for DIPG performed to better understand the landscape of research efforts for this diagnosis to date. METHODS: The ClinicalTrials.gov database was reviewed in May 2019 for all possible interventional clinical trials that included DIPG as a diagnosis of primary investigation. These were then screened against selection criteria to identify pertinent clinical trials. RESULTS: Ninety-five clinical trials satisfied all inclusion criteria, with 55 (58%) trials specific to the DIPG diagnosis only. In terms of the most prevalent design features, 42 (44%) were phase I trials, with median expected start and completion years in 2011 (range, 1994-2020) and 2018 (range, 2005-2047), respectively. Median target number of patients to enroll was 38 (range, 1-1500), and the most common primary outcome was safety and toxicity (56%). There were 69 (73%) trials originating from the USA, with 49 (52%) of them being single institutional. Only 10 (11%) trials have reported results to date. CONCLUSIONS: To date, 95 clinical trials investigating DIPG with specific emphasis have been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. There were only a small number of trials that had study results available, and they uniformly reported non-significant improvement to prognosis. Given the rarity and lethality of DIPG, which limits the accumulation of large cohorts, our results mandate the need for more robust, systematic clinical trial design to minimize redundancies and maximize yield in the future.

19.
Radiother Oncol ; 142: 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudoprogression (PsP) following radiation therapy (RT) for low grade glioma (LGG, WHO grade I and II), including both photon-based intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT), has been described. However, its incidence has yet to be consolidated. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to pool the current literature and establish the incidence of PsP in these groups to better inform surveillance protocols in the future. METHODS: Searches of 4 electronic databases from inception to April 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. The incidence of outcomes was then extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions. RESULTS: A total of 5 pediatric and 4 adult cohort studies describing 517 and 424 LGG subjects respectively satisfied all selection criteria. The estimated incidences of PsP in pediatric subjects following IMRT and PBT were 33% (95% CI, 20-47%) and 34% (95% CI, 23-45%) respectively, with no difference between modalities. The estimated incidences of PsP in adult subjects following IMRT and PBT were 18% (95% CI, 12-25%) and 30% (95% CI, 21-39%) respectively, with PsP significantly less common following IMRT than PBT (P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Median time from radiation initiation to first detection of PsP ranged from 6 to 12 months across all modalities and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PsP following both IMRT and PBT in the management of pediatric and adult LGG is not negligible, and should therefore be recognized as a pertinent sequala within the first year at least following treatment. However, a lack of accountability in the current literature for the differences in PsP interpretation, radiation modality, radiobiology and molecular biology of LGGs precludes any firm surveillance recommendations at this time.

20.
Laryngoscope ; 130(3): 575-583, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Achieving optimal intraoperative surgical field visibility and minimizing blood loss are two important parameters in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare two total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalational anesthesia (IA) to determine if either conferred superior outcomes of these and other parameters based on randomized control trials (RCTs) only. METHODS: The recommended Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed, and searches of electronic databases from inception to September 2018 identified 157 articles for screening. Data were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis of proportions. RESULTS: In total, we identified 15 RCTs that satisfied our selection criteria. There were 828 ESS cases described, with 391 (47%) and 437 (53%) being managed by TIVA and IA, respectively. Pooled analysis demonstrated significantly superior visibility scores for TIVA compared to IA based on 10-point grading scores (P = 0.049, visual analog scale; P = 0.009, Wormald scale) and 5-point grading scores (P = 0.002, Boezaart scale). Blood loss was significantly less following TIVA (P = 0.003), with no significant difference in intraoperative heart rate (P = 0.70) or mean arterial pressure (P = 0.96). Additionally, duration of surgery (P = 0.16) and anesthesia (P = 0.39) were comparable between the two approaches. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicates that TIVA has the potential to confer superior surgical field visibility and reduce intraoperative blood loss compared to IA in ESS. Currently, there are significant heterogeneity concerns in this meta-analysis, which temper any expectations that either approach is absolutely superior to the other. Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results until further validation can be achieved. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1A Laryngoscope, 130:575-583, 2020.

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