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4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 617-628, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the first epicentre of COVID-19 in the world, accounting for 80% of cases in China during the first wave. We aimed to assess household transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection in Wuhan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included the households of all laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases and laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections identified by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Dec 2, 2019, and April 18, 2020. We defined households as groups of family members and close relatives who did not necessarily live at the same address and considered households that shared common contacts as epidemiologically linked. We used a statistical transmission model to estimate household secondary attack rates and to quantify risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection, accounting for individual-level exposure history. We assessed how intervention policies affected the household reproductive number, defined as the mean number of household contacts a case can infect. FINDINGS: 27 101 households with 29 578 primary cases and 57 581 household contacts were identified. The secondary attack rate estimated with the transmission model was 15·6% (95% CI 15·2-16·0), assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days and a maximum infectious period of 22 days. Individuals aged 60 years or older were at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 than all other age groups. Infants aged 0-1 years were significantly more likely to be infected than children aged 2-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·40-3·44) and children aged 6-12 years (1·53, 1·01-2·34). Given the same exposure time, children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age were more likely to infect others than were adults aged 60 years or older (1·58, 1·28-1·95). Asymptomatic individuals were much less likely to infect others than were symptomatic cases (0·21, 0·14-0·31). Symptomatic cases were more likely to infect others before symptom onset than after (1·42, 1·30-1·55). After mass isolation of cases, quarantine of household contacts, and restriction of movement policies were implemented, household reproductive numbers declined by 52% among primary cases (from 0·25 [95% CI 0·24-0·26] to 0·12 [0·10-0·13]) and by 63% among secondary cases (from 0·17 [0·16-0·18] to 0·063 [0·057-0·070]). INTERPRETATION: Within households, children and adolescents were less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but were more infectious than older individuals. Presymptomatic cases were more infectious and individuals with asymptomatic infection less infectious than symptomatic cases. These findings have implications for devising interventions for blocking household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as timely vaccination of eligible children once resources become available. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Science Foundation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Allergy ; 76(2): 510-532, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has made widespread impact recently. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 children with different severities and allergic status. METHODS: Data extracted from the electronic medical records, including demographics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, laboratory and immunological results, and radiological images of 182 hospitalized COVID-19 children, were summarized and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age was 6 years, ranging from 3 days to 15 years, and there were more boys (male-female ratio about 2:1) within the studied 182 patients. Most of the children were infected by family members. Fever (43.4%) and dry cough (44.5%) were common symptoms, and gastrointestinal manifestations accounted for 11.0%, including diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and vomiting. 71.4% had abnormal chest computed tomography (CT) scan images, and typical signs of pneumonia were ground-glass opacity and local patchy shadowing on admission. Laboratory results were mostly within normal ranges, and only a small ratio of lymphopenia (3.9%) and eosinopenia (29.5%) were observed. The majority (97.8%) of infected children were not severe, and 24 (13.2%) of them had asymptomatic infections. Compared to children without pneumonia (manifested as asymptomatic and acute upper respiratory infection), children with pneumonia were associated with higher percentages of the comorbidity history, symptoms of fever and cough, and increased levels of serum procalcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, and serum interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. There were no differences in treatments, duration of hospitalization, time from first positive to first negative nucleic acid testing, and outcomes between children with mild pneumonia and without pneumonia. All the hospitalized COVID-19 children had recovered except one death due to intussusception and sepsis. In 43 allergic children with COVID-19, allergic rhinitis (83.7%) was the major disease, followed by drug allergy, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and asthma. Demographics and clinical features were not significantly different between allergic and nonallergic groups. Allergic patients showed less increase in acute phase reactants, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and aspartate aminotransferase levels compared with all patients. Immunological profiles including circulating T, B, and NK lymphocyte subsets, total immunoglobulin and complement levels, and serum cytokines did not show any difference in allergic and pneumonia groups. Neither eosinophil counts nor serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels showed a significant correlation with other immunological measures, such as other immunoglobulins, complements, lymphocyte subset numbers, and serum cytokine levels. CONCLUSION: Pediatric COVID-19 patients tended to have a mild clinical course. Patients with pneumonia had higher proportion of fever and cough and increased inflammatory biomarkers than those without pneumonia. There was no difference between allergic and nonallergic COVID-19 children in disease incidence, clinical features, and laboratory and immunological findings. Allergy was not a risk factor for developing and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hardly influenced the disease course of COVID-19 in children.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 260-266, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in children are different from those in adults. We aimed to describe the characteristics of infants under 1 year of age (excluding newborns) with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of 36 infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan Children's Hospital from January 26 to March 22, 2020. Clinical features, chest imaging findings, laboratory tests results, treatments and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the infected infants was 6.43 months, with a range of 2-12 months. 61.11% of the patients were males and 38.89% females. 86.11% of the infants were infected due to family clustering. Cough (77.78%) and fever (47.22%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Chest CT scan revealed 61.11% bilateral pneumonia and 36.11% unilateral pneumonia. 47.22% of the infants developed complications. Increased leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and thrombocytes were observed in 11.11, 8.33, 36.11 and 44.44% of infants, respectively. Decreased leucocytes, neutrophils, thrombocyte and hemoglobin were observed in 8.33, 19.44, 2.78 and 36.11% of infants, respectively. Increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and D-dimer were observed in 19.44, 67.74, 47.22, 19.44, 22.22 and 20.69% of infants, respectively. Only one infant had a high level of creatinine. Co-infections with other respiratory pathogens were observed in 62.86% of infants. CD3 (20.69%), CD4 (68.97%), CD19 (31.03%) and Th/Ts (44.83%) were elevated; CD8 (6.9%) and CD16+CD56 (48.28%) was reduced. IL-4 (7.69%), IL-6 (19.23%), IL-10 (50%), TNF-α (11.54%) and IFN-γ (19.23%) were elevated. Up to March 22, 97.22% of infants recovered, while a critical ill infant died. When the infant's condition deteriorates rapidly, lymphocytopenia was discovered. Meanwhile, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatinine, IL-6 and IL-10 increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In the cohort, we discovered that lymphocytosis, elevated CD4 and IL-10, and co-infections were common in infants with COVID-19, which were different from adults with COVID-19. Most infants with COVID-19 have mild clinical symptoms and good prognosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 232-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333248

RESUMO

In the early February, 2020, we called up an experts' committee with more than 30 Chinese experts from 11 national medical academic organizations to formulate the first edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which has been published in this journal. With accumulated experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children, we have updated the consensus statement and released the second edition recently. The current version in English is a condensed version of the second edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in children. In the current version, diagnosis and treatement criteria have been optimized, and early identification of severe and critical cases is highlighted. The early warning indicators for severe pediatric cases have been summarized which is utmost important for clinical practice. This version of experts consensus will be valuable for better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 251-259, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei, China. People of all ages are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No information on severe pediatric patients with COVID-19 has been reported. We aimed to describe the clinical features of severe pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included eight severe or critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were treated at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Wuhan Children's Hospital from January 24 to February 24. We collected information including demographic data, symptoms, imaging data, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes of the patients with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: The onset age of the eight patients ranged from 2 months to 15 years; six were boys. The most common symptoms were polypnea (8/8), followed by fever (6/8) and cough (6/8). Chest imaging showed multiple patch-like shadows in seven patients and ground-glass opacity in six. Laboratory findings revealed normal or increased whole blood counts (7/8), increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and lactate dehydrogenase (6/8), and abnormal liver function (4/8). Other findings included decreased CD16 + CD56 (4/8) and Th/Ts*(1/8), increased CD3 (2/8), CD4 (4/8) and CD8 (1/8), IL-6 (2/8), IL-10 (5/8) and IFN-γ (2/8). Treatment modalities were focused on symptomatic and respiratory support. Two critically ill patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Up to February 24, 2020, three patients remained under treatment in ICU, the other five recovered and were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of severe pediatric patients in Wuhan, polypnea was the most common symptom, followed by fever and cough. Common imaging changes included multiple patch-like shadows and ground-glass opacity; and a cytokine storm was found in these patients, which appeared more serious in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Allergy ; 75(7): 1699-1709, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has recently spread worldwide and been declared a pandemic. We aim to describe here the various clinical presentations of this disease by examining eleven cases. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 11 patients with COVID-19 were collected, and demographics, clinical manifestations, outcomes, key laboratory results, and radiological images are discussed. RESULTS: The clinical course of the eleven cases demonstrated the complexity of the COVID-19 profile with different clinical presentations. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases to patients with mild and severe symptoms, with or without pneumonia. Laboratory detection of the viral nucleic acid can yield false-negative results, and serological testing of virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies should be used as an alternative for diagnosis. Patients with common allergic diseases did not develop distinct symptoms and severe courses. Cases with a pre-existing condition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or complicated with a secondary bacterial pneumonia were more severe. CONCLUSION: All different clinical characteristics of COVID-19 should be taken into consideration to identify patients that need to be in strict quarantine for the efficient containment of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , COVID-19 , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 275-280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207032

RESUMO

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 38(6): 765-768, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the components of airway resistance and severity of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: A total of 234 patients with snoring during sleep underwent full-night polysomnography in our center between January, 2015 and September, 2017. According to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scores, the patients were divided into non-OSAHS group (AHI scores <5), mild or moderate OSAHS group (5-30) group, and severe OSAHS group (>30). The pulmonary function and respiratory resistance of the patients were assessed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry, respectively, and the correlation between the parameters of respiratory resistance and the severity of AHI were analyzed. RESULTS: The non-OSAHS, mild or moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups consisted of 31, 90 and 113 patients, respectively. The patients with severe OSAHS had significantly higher levels of respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5) and 20 Hz (R20), FEF50% and MMEF than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Bivariate correlation analysis identified positive correlations of R5 (r=0.259, P=0.000), R20 (r=0.298, P=0.000) and FEF50% (r=0.176, P=0.007) with AHI scores of the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with OSAHS have increased respiratory resistance in the large airways and compensatory reduction in small airway resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Ronco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polissonografia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/classificação , Espirometria
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(11): 4747-4755, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965420

RESUMO

Fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH) is a polyfluoalkyl substance that has been widely used in industry and consumer products in recent years, causing potential harm to the environment. However, currently the impact of 6:2 FTOH and its degradation products on microbial communities in sediment is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the biodegradation of 6:2 FTOH on bacterial community structures in surface sediment based on gene analysis. Surface sediment and river water were collected from Hai river, Tianjin, and a microcosm experiment was performed in the laboratory. The concentration of 6:2 FTOH and its degradation products were analyzed by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that 6:2 FTOH could be degraded by microorganisms (half-life was less than 3 d), producing transient products such as 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FTUCA) and stable products such as 5:2 fluorotelomer (FT) ketone, 5:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (sFTOH), perfluorohexanoic acid(PFHxA), perfluoro-n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and 5:3 polyfluorinated acid. At different stages of 6:2 FTOH degradation, a change of bacteria and the predominant population became somewhat different. Based on the experimental results for 100 d, at the Phylum level, the biodegradation of 6:2 FTOH greatly increases the abundance of Chloroflexi (+24.8%) and decreases the abundance of Proteobacteria (-17.8%) and Firmicutes (-15.9%). At the Class level, due to the biodegradation of 6:2 FTOH, bacteria with notable increases included Anaerolineae (+19.6%) and δ-Proteobacteria (+4.3%), while bacteria with notable decreases included ε-Proteobacteria (-20.0%), Clostridia (-10.1%), Bacilli (-5.8%) and γ-Proteobacteria (- 4.2%). At the Genus level, due to the biodegradation of 6:2 FTOH, bacteria with notable increases included Anaerolineaceae_(uncultured) (+19.1%) and Thioalkalispira (+13.3%), while bacteria with notable decreases included Vibrio (-14.1%), Sulfurimonas (-13.2%), Bacillus (-5.1%), Sulfurovum (-4.2%) and Fusibacter (-4.1%). These results are helpful for predicting the response of bacteria to the contamination of polyfluoalkyl substances and isolating the bacteria capable of the biodegradation of polyfluoalkyl substances.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Etanol/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Rios , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Biodegradation ; 27(4-6): 223-236, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351716

RESUMO

Site in a former chemical manufacture plant in China was found contaminated with high level of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The major contaminants chloroform (CF), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) in groundwater were up to 4.49 × 104, 2.76 × 106 and 4.35 × 104 µg/L, respectively. Ethene and methane were at concentrations up to 2219.80 and 165.85 µg/L, respectively. To test the hypothesis that the CVOCs in groundwater at this site could be removed via biodegradation, biomarker analyses and microcosm studies were conducted. Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene and VC-reductase gene vcrA at densities up to 1.5 × 104 and 3.2 × 104 copies/L were detected in some of the groundwater samples, providing strong evidence that dechlorinating bacteria were present in the aquifer. Results from the microcosm studies showed that at moderate concentrations (CF about 4000 µg/L and 1,2-DCA about 100 µg/L), CF was recalcitrant under natural condition but was degraded under biostimulation and bioaugmentation, while 1,2-DCA was degraded under all the three conditions. At high concentration (CF about 1,000,000 µg/L and 1,2-DCA about 20,000 µg/L), CF was recalcitrant under all the three treatments and 1,2-DCA was only degraded under bioaugmentation, indicating that high concentrations of contaminants were inhibitory to the bacteria. Electron donors had influence on the degradation of contaminants. Of the four fatty acids (pyruvate, acetate, propionate and lactate) examined, all could stimulate the degradation of 1,2-DCA at both moderate and high concentrations, whereas only pyruvate and acetate could stimulate the degradation of CF at moderate concentration. In the microcosms, the observed first-order degradation rates of CF and 1,2-DCA were up to 0.12 and 0.11/day, respectively. Results from the present study provided scientific basis for remediating CVOCs contaminated groundwater at the site.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofórmio/isolamento & purificação , Clorofórmio/metabolismo , Dicloretos de Etileno/isolamento & purificação , Dicloretos de Etileno/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
14.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 17(12): 1301-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26695669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of the levels of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of children with asthma whose have different serum levels of 25-hydroxyl-vitamin D3[25(OH)D3]. METHODS: Fifty children with asthma between January 2013 and December 2014 were enrolled as the asthma group, and they were classified into 25(OH)D3sufficient (n=7), insufficient (n=12) and deficient subgroups (n=31) according to the serum levels of 25(OH)D3. Twenty children with abnormal airway or tracheal foreign bodies served as the control group. The levels of 25(OH)D3, Gal-3 and total IgE in serum and Gal-3 levels in BALF were measured using ELISA. RESULT: The serum levels of 25(OH)D3in the asthma group were lower than in the control group (P<0.05). The 25(OH)D3deficient subgroup displayed the highest percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils and epithelial cells in BALF, followed by the 25(OH)D3insufficient subgroup and the 25(OH)D3sufficient subgroup (P<0.05). The percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils and epithelial cells in BALF in the three subgroups were all higher than in the control group (P<0.05). In children with asthma, serum levels of 25(OH)D3were negatively correlated with the percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils and epithelial cells in BALF (r=-0.683, -0.795 and -0.670 respectively; P<0.05); and a negative correlation was also seen between serum 25(OH)D3levels and serum Gal-3 and total IgE levels (r=-0.759 and -0.875 respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The children with asthma have low serum levels of 25(OH)D3. 25(OH)D3and Gal-3 may be involved in the airway inflammation and the development of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Galectina 3/análise , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Asma/etiologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Galectina 3/sangue , Galectina 3/fisiologia , Galectinas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/fisiologia
15.
Epigenetics ; 9(6): 896-909, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699858

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays a critical role during the development of acquired chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify candidate DNA methylation drivers of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. Gene expression and methylation profiling were determined by high-throughput microarrays. Relationship of methylation status and DDP response was validated in primary tumor cell culture and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and response to DDP were determined in vitro and in vivo. A total of 372 genes showed hypermethylation and downregulation in A549/DDP cells, and these genes were involved in most fundamental biological processes. Ten candidate genes (S100P, GDA, WISP2, LOXL1, TIMP4, ICAM1, CLMP, HSP8, GAS1, BMP2) were selected, and exhibited varying degrees of association with DDP resistance. Low dose combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) reversed drug resistance of A549/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo, along with demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes (GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2). Forced expression of GAS1 in A549/DDP cells by gene transfection contributed to increased sensitivity to DDP, proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis enhancement, and in vivo growth retardation. Together, our study demonstrated that a panel of candidate genes downregulated by DNA methylation induced DDP resistance in NSCLC, and showed that epigenetic therapy resensitized cells to DDP.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Azacitidina/análogos & derivados , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Decitabina , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 16(3): 281-4, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24661522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes, clinical features, therapy and treatment outcomes of recurrent hemoptysis in children and to improve the skills of pediatricians in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of recurrent hemoptysis in children. METHODS: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of 39 children with recurrent hemoptysis between January 1996 and February 2013 were collected to retrospectively analyze the age of onset, etiology, amount of hemoptysis, imaging changes, treatment methods, and follow-up outcomes. RESULTS: In the 39 children, including idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (16 cases, 41%), pulmonary vascular malformation (8 cases, 21%), pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (7 cases, 18%), bronchiectasis (3 cases, 8%), pulmonary tuberculosis (2 cases, 5%), pulmonary cystic fibrosis (2 cases, 5%), and lung tumor (1 case, 3%). The contrast-enhanced lung CT scans and pulmonary and bronchial arteriography revealed varying degrees of lung imaging changes in 35 cases. Of all cases, 51% were classified as degree I, 28% as degree II, and 21% as degree III. All children were treated according to the etiology, with the disease controlled. During 0.5-5 years of follow-up, 3 patients with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis were lost to follow-up, and the other cases did not develop hemoptysis again. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is the main cause of recurrent hemoptysis in children. Contrast-enhanced lung CT scans and pulmonary and bronchial arteriography are important methods for the etiological diagnosis of recurrent hemoptysis in children. Treatment methods should be selected according to the etiology.


Assuntos
Hemoptise/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoptise/diagnóstico , Hemoptise/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 34(5): 1945-50, 2013 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23914552

RESUMO

By isolating a bacterial strain from the activated sludge of Gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant of Beijing and investigating its degradation property as well as the proteins involved in the degradation, this study aimed at elucidating the mechanism of microbial degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) under aerobic condition. The streak plate method was employed in the isolation of the bacteria. The 16S rDNA of the isolated bacterium had maximum similarity of 90% to Acintobacter sp.. The degradation of BDE-47 by the isolated bacterium was studied in 250 mL conical flasks. At the initial concentration of 146 microg x L(-1), the bacterium degraded 45.44% BDE-47 after 63 d, the major product was 4-OH-BDE, and the bacterial mass was increased about seven times. BDE-47 and yeast extract were respectively used as the sole carbon source to enrich the bacterium for two weeks and then the proteins were extracted from the enrichments. Some specific proteins related to the degradation of BDE-47 were identified by analysis via the two dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric detection. This study indicated that under aerobic condition BDE-47 can be degraded by bacteria as carbon source and multiple proteins are involved in the process.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/microbiologia , Aerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo
18.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 33(4): 479-484, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23904364

RESUMO

This study investigated the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and T cell immunoglobulin mucin and domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic mice and the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on these factors. Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, asthmatic group and DEX group. The mouse model of asthma was established by sensitization with ovalbumin in both the asthmatic and DEX groups. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-ß were measured in BALF by enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression level of Tim-3 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ratio of Tim-3+CD4+ cells to total CD4+ cells in BALF was determined by flow cytometry. Differential inflammatory cells in BALF were detected. The correlations among IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, Tim-3 and inflammatory cells were analyzed. The results showed that the levels of IL-17, IL-6 and Tim-3 were substantially increased and the IL-10 level decreased in BALF in the asthmatic mice, which was significantly reversed by DEX treatment. IL-17 expression was positively correlated with IL-6 and Tim-3 expression and the number of inflammatory cells but negatively with IL-10 expression. These results indicate that the increased expression of IL-17 and Tim-3 in BALF may be implicated in the occurrence and development of asthmatic inflammation; the mechanism by which DEX suppresses asthmatic airway inflammation involves down-regulation of IL-17 and Tim-3 levels.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Interleucina-17/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores Virais/genética
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 34(3): 914-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23745394

RESUMO

To provide a cost-effective method for the remediation of nitrate-polluted groundwater, column experiments were performed to study the removal of nitrate by permeable reactive barrier filled with fermented mulch and sand (biowall), and the mechanisms and influence factors were explored. The experimental results showed that the environmental condition in the simulated biowall became highly reduced after three days of operation (oxidation-reduction potential was below - 100 mV), which was favorable for the reduction of nitrate. During the 15 days of operation, the removal rate of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N) by the simulated biowall was 80%-90% (NO3(-)-N was reduced from 20 mg x L(-1) in the inlet water to 1.6 mg x L(-1) in the outlet water); the concentration of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) in the outlet water was below 2.5 mg x L(-1); the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was low in the first two days but increased to about 12 mg x L(-1) since day three. The major mechanisms involved in the removal of nitrate nitrogen were adsorption and biodegradation. When increasing the water flow velocity in the simulated biowall, the removal rate of NO3(-) -N was reduced and the concentration of NH4(+) -N in the outlet water was significantly reduced. A simulated zeolite wall was set up following the simulated biowall and 98% of the NH4(+) -N could be removed from the water.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/análise , Nitratos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Simulação por Computador , Fermentação , Nitratos/análise , Permeabilidade , Dióxido de Silício , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 15(4): 302-7, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23607956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of down-regulating Tim-3 gene in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an asthmatic mouse model by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and to explore the effect of Tim-3 on Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. METHODS: An asthmatic murine model was established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. PBMCs were isolated from asthmatic mice and transfected by shRNA targeting Tim-3 gene. The mRNA and protein expressions of Tim-3 were detected by quantitative PCR and Western blot. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine the levels of Th1 and Th17, and ELISA was performed to determine concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 in the supernatant. RESULTS: Tim-3 mRNA expression in PBMCs was significantly increased in asthmatic mice. The mRNA and protein expression of Tim-3 decreased significantly in the shRNA group. Compared with the negative groups, Th1 cell levels increased and Th17 cell levels decreased significantly in the asthmatic groups after Tim-3 shRNA interference. In the Tim-3 shRNA interference groups concentrations of IFN-γ increased significantly while IL-17 decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Specific Tim-3 shRNA effectively silences the expression of Tim-3 and change in Tim-3 expression could affect T cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Diferenciação Celular , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores
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