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1.
Health Soc Care Community ; 28(1): 247-259, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595604

RESUMO

Previous research has found a negative linkage between neighbourhood social participation and depressive symptoms in Western countries, but the cross-sectional design of these studies limits the ability to infer causality. Little attention has been paid to socio-psychological pathways linking neighbourhood social participation to depressive symptoms among older adults in China. This study aimed to examine the impact of neighbourhood social participation on depressive symptoms among older adults in China. It also further explored the mediating roles of physical activity, social contact among neighbours, and contact with own children in the relationship between social participation and depressive symptoms. Data obtained through three waves (2011, 2013, and 2015) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were used. The sample consisted of 10,105 individuals aged 60 and above and 24,623 person-year records captured during these three waves. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiology Studies of Depression scale. Results showed that respondents' depression decreased with an increasing level of neighbourhood social participation, more time spent on physical activities, and a higher frequency of contact with neighbours and with own children. These factors were found to partly mediate the relationship between neighbourhood social participation and depression. The negative relationships between social contact and depression and contact with own children and depression were both strengthened by neighbourhood social participation. In conclusion, physical activity, social contact among neighbours and contact with own children are mechanisms through which neighbourhood social participation lowers the risk of depression among older adults in China.

2.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124640, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524609

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a kind of chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Due to its highly effective antimicrobial, TCS has been widely applied in personal-care products, which naturally poses a potential risk to the ecological system and human health since its release into water-ecological environment. Therefore, it urgently demands a selective, easily separated, recyclable, and low-cost adsorbent to remove the residues of TCS from aquatic environments. In this study, a novel magnetic molecularly imprinted nano-polymers (TMIPs) were prepared for selective adsorption and convenient collection of TCS in aquatic samples, based on a core-shell technique using TCS as template molecule and SiO2-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the support substrate. The functional groups, particle size, morphology and magnetic property of TMIPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The obtained TMIPs possessed excellent adsorption capacity (Qe = 53.12 mg g-1), speedy adsorption equilibrium time (2 min) and high selectivity (k' = 6.321) for TCS. Moreover, the pH-tolerance and stability tests manifested that the adsorption capacity of TMIPs for TCS was acid-resistance and could retain 94.2% of the maximum Qe after 5 times removal-regeneration cycles. The feature of magnetically susceptibility can simplify the procedures of sample handling in TCS determination, because the TMIPs of TCS are easy to be recycled from aquatic samples. As an application demonstration, the toxicity test in microalgae confirmed that a tiny amount of TMIPs could significantly eliminate the toxic effect of TCS on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via the efficient binding with TCS.

3.
Nurse Educ Today ; 85: 104301, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan's hospitals, English medical discourse underpins nursing and medical practice. Much patient care work is done through language work, by both text and talk. This means that when nurses start their nursing careers in the hospital context, where English medical discourse is shared to produce knowledge and engage in practice, knowledge of medical discourse and the ability to use it are prerequisites. In the process of learning and using such specialist language, the formation of professional identities is assumed. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore nurses' learning journeys relating to medical discourse and the development of their professional identities. METHODS: This research adopted a qualitative approach, using data from 10 nurses working in different hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS: The findings revealed that English medical discourse was employed in Taiwan's hospitals not only for fulfilling professional purposes but also for socialising nurses into the healthcare community. Nurses acquired it through interactions, small talk, relationships, discussions, and nursing tasks. Their professional identities were formed through engaging in meaningful nursing practice based on English medical discourse. However, in the learning process, they encountered difficulties in the areas of listening, speaking, and reading, which raised concerns about patient safety. CONCLUSION: Sufficient support is needed to ease nurses' difficulties in learning. We propose having primary and secondary preceptors, establishing a mentorship policy, and creating a learning environment that is supportive of nurses' learning experiences.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800219

RESUMO

Beyond its extraordinary genome editing ability, the CRISPR-Cas system has opened a new era of biosensing applications due to its high base resolution and isothermal signal amplification. However, the reported CRISPR-Cas sensors are largely only used for the detection of nucleic acids with limited application for non-nucleic acid targets. To realize the full potential of the CRISPR-Cas sensors and broaden their applications for detection and quantitation of non-nucleic acid targets, we herein re-port CRISPR-Cas12a sensors that are regulated by functional DNA (fDNA) molecules such as aptamers and DNAzymes that are selective for small organic molecule and metal ion detections. The sensor is based on the Cas12a dependent reporter sys-tem consisting of Cas12a, CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and its single stranded DNA substrate labeled with a fluorophore and quencher at each end (ssDNA-FQ), and fDNA molecules that can lock a DNA activator for Cas12a-crRNA, preventing the ssD-NA cleavage function of Cas12a in the absence of the fDNA targets. The presence of fDNA targets can trigger the unlocking of the DNA activator, which can then activate the cleavage of ssDNA-FQ by Cas12a, resulting in an increase of the fluorescent signal detectable by commercially available portable fluorimeters. Using this method, ATP and Na+ have been detected quan-titatively under ambient temperature (25 ℃) using a simple and fast detection workflow (two steps and <15 min), making the fDNA-regulated CRISPR system suitable for field tests or point-of-care diagnostics. Since fDNAs can be obtained to recog-nize a wide range of targets, the methods demonstrated here can expand this powerful CRISPR-Cas sensor system signifi-cantly to many other targets and thus provide a new toolbox to significantly expand the CRISPR-Cas system into many areas of bioanalytical and biomedical applications.

5.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788943

RESUMO

A highly sensitive and convenient electrochemical sensor, based on surface molecularly imprinted polymers and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, was successfully developed to detect chlorpyrifos in real samples. In order to solve the problems like uneven shapes, poor size accessibility and low imprinting capacity, the layer of the molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared on the surface of silica nanospheres. Moreover, the doping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrical properties of developed sensor. Under the optimal conductions, the electrochemical response of the sensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos in the range of 5.0 × 10-12 mol/L - 5.0 × 10-8 mol/L with a low detection limit of 8.1 × 10-13 mol/L. The prepared sensor exhibited multiple advantages such as low cost, simple preparation, convenient use, excellent selectivity, and good reproducibility. Finally, the prepared sensor was successfully used to detect chlorpyrifos in vegetable and fruit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently occurs in survivors of natural disasters, while symptom of depression is related mostly to interpersonal trauma. These conditions are highly correlated and strongly impact adolescent quality of life. This study aimed to explore the relationship among trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and/or depression symptoms in adolescent survivors of the 2013 Lushan (China) earthquake. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 2921 adolescents in the Longmenshan seismic fault zone was conducted three years after the Lushan earthquake. Participants were evaluated using the Earthquake Experience Scale, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (KADS-6). Stepwise regression was used to explore relationships between trauma exposure and PTSD or depression symptoms. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between PTSD and depression symptoms, with a 10.7% comorbidity. Earthquake-related exposure, negative life events, prior exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan (China) earthquake, and being left behind by parents all contributed to PTSD and depressive symptoms. Earthquake exposures contributed mainly to PTSD symptoms, while interpersonal traumas contributed mainly to depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: PTSD and depression symptoms strongly correlate in adolescent survivors of the 2013 Lushan earthquake. The high comorbidity between PTSD and depression symptoms may reflect shared risk factors. Natural disasters are more likely to cause PTSD symptoms, while interpersonal traumas are more likely to cause depression symptoms.

7.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793769

RESUMO

DNA as a programmable molecule shows great potential in a wide variety of applications, with the dynamic DNA nanodevices such as DNA motors and walkers holding the most promise in controlled functions for biosensing and nanomedicine. However, a motor or walker that consists of DNA exclusively has not been shown to function within cells because of its susceptibility to endogenous nuclease-mediated degradation. In this contribution, we demonstrate a Y-shaped backbone-rigidified triangular DNA scaffold (YTDS)-directed DNAzyme walker that functions inside living cells to detect microRNAs (miRNAs) with high sensitivity. A novel Y-shaped backbone offers access to geometrically well-defined configurations and increases the rigidity of DNA assemblies, providing a unique, circular, and rigid DNA track within living cells without non-nucleic acid auxiliary materials and enabling the stepwise movement of DNAzyme in an inchworm fashion. This strategy is extended to the construction of larger rigid planar geometric polygon-based DNA walkers, demonstrating unprecedented opportunities to build dynamic DNA nanostructures with precise geometry and versatile functionality.

8.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755481

RESUMO

Compared to normal tissues, unique conditions in the tumor microenvironment, such as a lower pH, can induce accurate release of a drug into specific lesions. This strategy provides an efficient approach to overcome the issues of unexpected drug leakage and poor circulation stability, thereby reducing the side effects and enhancing the effect of cancer treatment. In this study, we designed a class of acid activatable supramolecular nano-prodrugs (DOM@DOX) with a bottlebrush architecture based on the dextran (DEX) polysaccharide, which connects with a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol chain by atom transfer radical polymerization and further conjugates with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) at the backbone of the copolymer via an acidity-responsive hydrazine bond. Furthermore, the DOM@DOX prodrug has a high drug loading up to 48 wt% for DOX, and the prodrug can maintain a stable nano-sized spherical shape in aqueous solution by a self-assembly strategy. In an acidic environment inside tumor cells, the hydrazine bond of the prodrug breaks, leading to the release of DOX from parental micelles. Owing to the small size of the carrier, the prodrug exhibits good intratumoral permeability, good circulation stability and significant tumor suppression efficiency in tumor-bearing mouse models, which is beneficial for the development of new generation nanomedicine for enhanced chemotherapy.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712719

RESUMO

A high proportion of those with schizophrenia experience treatment non-response, placing them at higher risk for mortality and suicide attempts, compared to treatment responders. The clinical, social, and economic burden of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are substantial. Previous genomic and epidemiological studies of TRS were often limited by sample size or lack of comprehensive genomic data. We aimed to systematically understand the clinical, demographic, and genomic correlates of TRS using epidemiological and genetic epidemiological modelling in a Swedish national population sample (n = 24,706) and then in a subgroup with common variant genetic risk scores, rare copy-number variant burden, and rare exonic burden (n = 4936). Population-based analyses identified increasing schizophrenia family history to be significantly associated with TRS (highest quartile of familial burden vs. lowest: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.31, P = 4.8 × 10-8). In males, a decrease of premorbid IQ of one standard deviation was significantly associated with greater risk of TRS (minimal aOR: 0.94, P = 0.002). In a subset of cases with extensive genomic data, we found no significant association between the genetic risk scores of four psychiatric disorders and two cognitive traits with TRS (schizophrenia genetic risk score: aOR = 1.07, P = 0.067). The association between copy number variant and rare variant burden measures and TRS did not reach the pre-defined statistical significance threshold (all P ≥ 0.005). In conclusion, direct measures of genomic risk were not associated with TRS; however, premorbid IQ in males and schizophrenia family history were significantly correlated with TRS and points to new insights into the architecture of TRS.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736338

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth common malignant tumor worldwide but current efficient and convenient screening methods remain lacking. This study aimed to discover a diagnostic or a screening biomarker from the urine of HBV-related HCC patients. We used iTRAQ coupled with mass spectrometry to identify candidate urinary proteins in a discovery cohort (n=40). The selected proteins were confirmed using ELISA in a validation cohort (n=140). Diagnostic performance of the selected proteins was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and qualitative diagnostic analysis. A total of 96 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Urinary alpha-fetoprotein (u-AFP) and orosomucoid 1 (u-ORM1) were selected as target proteins by bioinformatics analysis and were significantly higher in HCC than in non-HCC patients as validated by western blot and ELISA. U-AFP had a strong correlation with serum AFP-L3 (Pearson r =0.944, p < 0.0001), indicating that u-AFP may be derived from circulating blood. The AUC of u-AFP was 0.795 with a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 95.4%, which showed no significantly difference with serum AFP (se-AFP). The AUC was 0.864 as u-AFP and u-ORM1 were combined, and performed much better than u-AFP or u-ORM1 alone. Qualitative diagnostic analysis showed that the positive predictive value of u-AFP was 90.1% and the diagnostic sensitivity of parallel combination of u-AFP and u-ORM1 was 85.1%. Taken together, AFP and ORM1 in the urine may be used as a diagnostic or screening biomarker of HCC and studies on large samples are needed to validate the result.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696999

RESUMO

To assess the spectrum of pediatric clinical phenotypes in TJP2 disease, we reviewed records of our seven patients in whom intrahepatic cholestasis was associated with biallelic TJP2 variants (13; 12 novel) and correlated clinical manifestations with mutation type. The effect of a splicing variant was analyzed with a minigene assay. The effects of three missense variants were analyzed with protein expression in vitro. Our patients had both remitting and persistent cholestasis. Three exhibited growth retardation. Six responded to treatment with cholestyramine, ursodeoxycholic acid, or both. Two had cholecystolithiasis. None required liver transplantation or developed hepatocellular or cholangiocellular malignancy. None manifested extrahepatic disease not attributable to effects of cholestasis. The variant c.2180-5T>G resulted in exon 15 skipping with in-frame deletion of 32 amino acid residues in TJP2. The three missense variants decreased but did not abolish TJP2 expression. Patients with truncating or canonical splice-site variants had clinically more severe disease. TJP2 disease in children includes a full clinical spectrum of severity, with mild or intermittent forms as well as the severe and minimal forms hitherto described. Biallelic TJP2 variants must be considered in children with clinically intermittent or resolved intrahepatic cholestasis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746514

RESUMO

Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used for metal ion detections by combining fluorescent proteins with metal-binding proteins or peptides. However, their applications are largely restricted to a limited number of metal ions, such as Ca2+ and Zn2+, due to the lack of available metal-binding proteins or peptides that can be fused to fluorescent proteins and the difficulty in transforming the binding of metal ions into a change of fluorescent signal. To overcome these limitations, we report herein the use of Mg2+-specific 10-23 or Zn2+-specific 8-17 RNA-cleaving DNAzymes to regulate the expression of fluorescent proteins as a new class of ratiometric fluorescent sensors for metal ions. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of DNAzymes to suppress the expression of Clover2, a variant of the green fluorescent protein, by cleaving the mRNA of Clover2, while the expression of Ruby2, a mutant of the red fluorescent protein, is not affected. The Mg2+ or Zn2+ in Hela cells can be detected using both fluorescent confocal imaging and flow cytometry. Since a wide variety of metal-specific DNAzymes, such as for Mg2+, Na+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Ag+, and UO22+, can be obtained through in vitro selection, and the resulting DNAzymes often share a similar secondary structure and reaction mechanism, the method described in this work can likely be applied to imaging many other metal ions and thus significantly expand beyond the range of the current genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins, allowing this class of sensors to be even more powerful in providing deeper understanding of the roles of metal ions in biology.

13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172822, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760068

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays important roles in regulating energy homeostasis and combating obesity. Accordingly, increasing the abundance and/or activating BAT would be effective and promising approaches to combat obesity and obesity-relative diseases. Our previous data in vitro have shown that osteopontin (OPN) induces the brown adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells via a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. However, it is currently unknown whether OPN exerts such an effect on animals in vivo. Therefore, in the study we sought to investigate the pro-browning effects of OPN and to explore its underlying mechanisms by transfecting with Ad-GFP-aP2-OPN-shRNA to specifically down-regulate the OPN of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice. Our present results show that downregulation of OPN in WAT exacerbates obesity and inhibits WAT-browning. Moreover, immunohistochemical results also exhibit that the downregulation of OPN significantly diminishes the expression and sub-cellular localization of UCP-1, PRDM16 and PGC-1α. Besides, the western blotting results reveal that the expression levels of PI3K, AKT-pS473 and PPARγ markedly reduce. Consequently, we conclude that the downregulation of OPN inhibits the browning of WAT through inhibiting the expression of PPARγ mediated by the PI3K-AKT pathway. The findings suggest that OPN is involved in regulation of WAT-browning and regulating its expression would become a potential strategy to combat obesity and obesity-relative metabolic diseases.

14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738013

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a virulent infectious disease of pigs. As there is no effective vaccine and treatment method at present, it poses a great threat to the pig industry once it breaks out. In this paper, we used ASF outbreak data and the WorldClim database meteorological data and selected the CfsSubset Evaluator-Best First feature selection method combined with the random forest algorithms to construct an African swine fever outbreak prediction model. Subsequently, we also established a test set for data other than modelling, and the accuracy accuracy value range of the model on the independent test set was 76.02%-84.64%, which indicated that the modelling effect was better and the prediction accuracy was higher than previous estimates. In addition, logistic regression analysis was conducted on 12 features used for modelling and the ROC curves were drawn. The results showed that the bio14 features (precipitation of driest month) had the largest contribution to the outbreak of ASF, and it was speculated that the outbreak of the epidemic was significantly related to precipitation. Finally, we used this qualitative prediction model to build a global online prediction system for ASF outbreaks, in the hope that this study will help to decision-makers who can then take the relevant prevention and control measures in order to prevent the further spread of future epidemics of the disease.

15.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 14(21): 2853-2871, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752574

RESUMO

Aim: Oat protein-shellac nanoparticles (NPs) were developed as a delivery system for resveratrol to improve bioavailability. Materials & methods: The NPs were prepared from w/w emulsion followed by cold-gelation. In vitro release and cell uptake mechanism of NPs were estimated by HPLC and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vivo bioavailability and hepatoprotective activity of encapsulated resveratrol were studied using rat models. Results & conclusion: NPs (90-300 nm) protected resveratrol in gastric fluid, while allowing controlled release into small intestine in vitro. The optimized NPs showed improvement in resveratrol cell uptake and transport when compared with free resveratrol. NP-100S increased resveratrol bioavailability up to 72.4%, and the absorbed resveratrol effectively prevented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress.

16.
Science ; 366(6469): 1095-1098, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780551

RESUMO

The creation of nanostructures with precise chemistries on material surfaces is of importance in a wide variety of areas such as lithography, superhydrophobicity, and cell adhesion. We describe a platform for surface functionalization that involves the fabrication of cylindrical micellar brushes on a silicon wafer through seeded growth of crystallizable block copolymers at the termini of immobilized, surface-confined crystallite seeds. The density, length, and coronal chemistry of the micellar brushes can be precisely tuned, and post-growth decoration with nanoparticles enables applications in catalysis and antibacterial surface modification. The micellar brushes can also be grown on ultrathin two-dimensional materials such as graphene oxide nanosheets and further assembled into a membrane for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions and gold nanoparticles.

17.
Andrology ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular related disease is poorly defined. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to explore the relationship between ADT and the risk of cardiac events. METHOD: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases from inception to April 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) or observational studies that reported data on ADT administration and cardiac events incidence. The connection was evaluated through estimating relative risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULT: A significantly increased acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was detected in ADT group compared with control group; (RR = 1.19; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.02-1.39; P < .05). Significant difference between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ADT was also observed, with summary RR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40; P < .05. Furthermore, our study also suggested ADT was not related to increased incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). (RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 0.92-1.38; P = .24); AMI and CVD were not connected with the duration of ADT. (AMI: RR = 1.31, 95%CI, 0.66-2.63, P = .44 for > 5 year group; CVD: RR = 1.12, 95% CI, 0.97-1.30; P = .12 for > 5 year group). In addition, the RR for risk of CVD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01-1.62 P < .05) for men with PCa on new hormonal agents. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled result demonstrated that ADT could significantly increase the risk of CVD and AMI, but not SCD. Various ADT modalities have different impact on cardiovascular disease risk in different level. Our meta-analysis also indicated that the long-term application of ADT is not associated with increased risk of AMI and CVD. Abiraterone and enzalutamide could significantly increase the incidence of cardiac events in patients who suffered from prostate cancer.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729826

RESUMO

Functional nucleic acid (FNA) nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field between nucleic acid biochemistry and nanotechnology that focuses on the study of interactions between FNAs and nanomaterials and explores the particular advantages and applications of FNA-nanomaterials. With the goal of building the next-generation biomaterials that combine the advantages of FNA and nanomaterials, the interactions between FNAs and nanomaterials as well as FNA self-assembly technologies have established themselves as hot research areas, where the target recognition, response, and self-assembly ability, combined with the plasmon property, stability, stimuli-response, and delivery ability of various nanomaterials can give rise to a variety of novel fascinating applications. As research on the structural and functional group features of FNAs and nanomaterials develop rapidly, many laboratories have reported numerous preparation methods to construct FNA-nanomaterials. In this review, we first introduce some widely used FNAs and nanomaterials along with their classification, structure, and application features, then we discuss the most successful methods of employing FNAs and nanomaterials as elements for creating advanced FNA-nanomaterials. At the end, we review the extensive applications of FNA-nanomaterials in bioimaging, biosensing, biomedicine, and other important fields, with their own advantages and drawbacks, and provide our perspective about the issues and developing trends of the FNA nanotechnology field.

19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of the early transient intraocular pressure (IOP) spike after cataract surgery in eyes with highly myopic cataract (HMC) and associated risk factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated with phacoemulsification were recruited. IOP was measured before and 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Axial length (AL) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were recorded, and optic disc tilt, rotation and beta-zone peripapillary atrophy (ß-PPA) were measured from fundus photographs taken 1 week after surgery. Backward stepwise multiple linear regression was used to investigate the risk factors for early transient IOP spike in the HMC group. RESULTS: Finally, 94 eyes of 94 HMC patients and 67 eyes of 67 age-related cataract (ARC) controls were included in analysis. The incidence of early IOP spike was 10% in the ARC group and 28% in the HMC group (OR=3.277, p<0.05) at 1 day after surgery. In the HMC group with IOP spikes, more males were seen and affected eyes showed longer AL, shallower ACD, greater optic disc tilt, and larger ß-PPA than those without (all p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that sex, AL, ACD, and area of ß-PPA were significantly associated with an early transient IOP spike in HMC eyes (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Highly myopic eyes are more susceptible to early transient IOP spike after cataract surgery, and male sex, longer AL, shallower ACD, and greater ß-PPA are associated risk factors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02182921.

20.
ANZ J Surg ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pioneering study is aimed to design training models for robotic pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) and to assess their usefulness using quality improvement exercise in the dry lab. METHODS: Three dry lab models were developed including the anastomosis model of a transected silicon pancreatic stent (model 1), a rough model (model 2) simulating PJ, and an advanced three-dimensional printed model (model 3) more vividly simulating PJ. Three surgeons (A, B, C) with same specialty and levels of expertise in surgery were enrolled in the training which was divided into three rounds of tasks. In the first round, all three surgeons (A, B, C) participated in the training on basic technical tasks before moved on to the next rounds. While surgeons A, B participated in the second round on model 1, only surgeon A worked on model 2 in the third round. Their proficiency of performance was evaluated on model 3. RESULTS: The results of the first and second rounds between surgeons are similar. Surgeon A practiced with model 2 for 6 h, completing 10 cases. In model 3, the times of attempts before achieving a consecutively three times of satisfactory anastomosis procedures were compared, for surgeon A, six cases, 20 for B and 25 for C. CONCLUSIONS: The specifically designed series of dry lab training models may be a potential training tool for advancing the robotic PJ through quality improvement exercise in dry lab. Further larger and well-designed studies are warranted to validate this issue.

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