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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 713502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722562

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of analysis mode selection on prediction accuracy of corneal astigmatism using Pentacam. Methods: Fifty-nine eyes of 59 patients implanted with toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) were included in the retrospective study. Preoperative corneal astigmatism (total refractive power) measured with Pentacam was analyzed based on 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-mm ring or zone mode either centered on corneal apex or pupil center. Actual corneal astigmatism was calculated based on residual astigmatism on the corneal plane, surgical-induced astigmatism, and effective toric power on the corneal plane. Prediction error, the difference between actual corneal astigmatism and measured astigmatism, was compared among different analysis modes. Influences of local topography on prediction error were also evaluated. Results: Based on the zone mode, prediction error was lower when centered on corneal apex than on pupil center at different diameters, whereas based on the ring mode, this difference was only seen at 2-mm cornea (all P < 0.05). When centered on the corneal apex, the zone mode showed lower prediction error than the ring mode at 4- and 5-mm corneas (both P < 0.001), regardless of asymmetric or symmetric astigmatism. In symmetric bowtie, the zone mode showed lower prediction error than the ring mode at 2-mm cornea of the small bowtie, and 4- and 5-mm corneas of the large bowtie (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: For toric IOL planning, the corneal apex may be a better reference center. At a cornea diameter ≥4 mm, the zone mode is more accurate than the ring mode. Local topography affects prediction accuracy in the symmetric bowtie.

2.
Waste Manag ; 137: 89-99, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749181

RESUMO

Conditioning can drastically improve the dewaterability of sewage sludge and is widely practiced in most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Sludge conditioning was also reported as a crucial step in sludge treatment to attenuate antibiotic resistance, but it remains unclear whether the attenuated antibiotic resistance by conditioning treatments would guarantee low abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the compost products of municipal sewage sludge. Herein, the impacts of three conditioning treatments, including bioleaching and chemical conditioning using Fe[III]/CaO or polyacrylamide (PAM), on the abundances of 20 ARGs and 4 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during conventional aerobic composting of dewatered sludge were investigated. It was found that the absolute and relative abundances of total ARGs in compost product of bioleached sludge accounted for only 13.8%-28.8% of that in compost products of un-conditioned, Fe[III]/CaO-conditioned, or PAM-conditioned sludges. Besides, bioleaching conditioning resulted in the lowest abundances of ARG subtypes and ARG-associated bacteria in the sludge compost product. The shift of ARG profiles in the bioleached sludge composting can be mainly ascribed to the ARG-associated bacteria, while the MGEs drove the ARG profiles during conventional composting of un-conditioned sludge and the two chemically conditioned sludge. Thus, bioleaching conditioning is superior to the chemical conditioning using Fe[III]/CaO or PAM in mitigating antibiotic resistance in sludge compost products, which was contributed by the pre-removal of ARGs prior to composting treatment and the potential limitation of ARGs transfer during conventional composting.

3.
Analyst ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816839

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted extensive attention for the development of colorimetric detection methods due to their ease of modification and high density of active sites. However, most of the reported colorimetric sensors based on MOFs show only a single nanozyme activity. Herein, the bifunctional enzyme activities of a hexagonal prism Cu MOF with fumaric acid as the ligand (Cu FMA), namely laccase-like activity under alkaline conditions (pH = 8) and peroxidase-like activity under acidic conditions (pH = 4), were verified. The specificity of Cu FMA at different pH values may be due to the presence of the Cu+ active center introduced by the weak reducibility of FMA. At pH = 8, Cu+ active centers are beneficial for dissociating the H-O bonds of phenolic compounds for the laccase system. In contrast, the dissociation of H-O is weakened at pH = 4, which prompts the breaking of the O-O bonds of H2O2 as a Fenton-like reaction for the peroxidase system. Based on the dual enzyme activities, Cu FMA sensors exhibit outstanding detectability for epinephrine and glucose with linear ranges of 2.7-54.6 µM and 0.01-0.8 mM and detection limits of 1.1 µM and 2.28 × 10-7 M, respectively. The Cu FMA colorimetric sensor can be applied for detecting and measuring glucose and epinephrine in human serum samples. This work paves the way for Cu MOFs to be used as the basis for rational regulation of the activity of dual nanozymes and for multifunctional applications under completely independent conditions.

5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 7692447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805412

RESUMO

Reports indicate the increasing prevalence of liver disorders in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Clinically, it has also been revealed that the existence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) enhances the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while T2DM exacerbates NAFLD to extremely severe forms of steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. This implies the coexistence and bidirectional nature of NAFLD and T2DM, which function synergistically to drive adverse consequences in clinical practice. For treatment of such comorbid state, though the existing practices such as lifestyle management, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and pharmaceuticals have offered somewhat relief, the debate continues about the optimal therapeutic impacts. Recent developments in the field of tissue engineering have led to a renewed interest in novel biomaterial alternatives such as stem cells. This might be attributable to their differentiation potential towards hepatic and pancreatic lineage. These cellular therapies could be further complemented by platelet-derived biomaterials, TCM formulations, or any specific drug. Based on these abovementioned approaches, we aimed to comprehensively analyze various preclinical and clinical studies from traditional to regenerative therapeutic approaches in managing concomitant NAFLD and T2DM.

6.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1594-1606, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808067

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Xiaoyaosan decoction (XYS), a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is used to treat liver fibrosis in clinics. OBJECTIVE: This study explores defined compound combinations from XYS decoction to treat liver fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology combined with transcriptomics analysis was used to analyze the XYS decoction and liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome liver fibrosis. From the constructed XYS-Syndrome-liver fibrosis network, the top 10 active formulas were developed by topological analysis according to network stability. The most active formula was determined by in vitro study. The anti-fibrosis effect was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. RESULTS: According to the network XYS-Syndrome-liver fibrosis network, 8 key compounds and 255 combinations were predicted from in XYS. Luteolin, licochalcone A, aloe-emodin and acacetin formula (LLAAF) had a synergistic effect on the proliferation inhibition of hepatic stellate cells compared to individual compounds alone. The treatment of XYS and LLAAF showed a similar anti-liver fibrotic effect that reduced histopathological changes of liver fibrosis, Hyp content and levels of α-SMA and collagen I in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Transcriptomics analysis revealed LLAAF regulated PI3K-Akt, AMPK, FoxO, Jak-STAT3, P53, cell cycle, focal adhesion, and PPAR signalling. Furthermore, LLAAF was confirmed to regulate Jak-STAT and PI3K-Akt-FoxO signalling in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed a novel anti-liver formula LLAAF from XYS, and demonstrated its anti-liver fibrotic activity which may be involved in the regulation of Jak-STAT and PI3K-Akt-FoxO signalling.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770353

RESUMO

Climacteric fruits are harvested before they are ripened to avoid adverse damages during transport. The unripe fruits can undergo ripening processes associated with rind color changes on exposure to ethanol vapors. Although rind coloration is a common indicator showing fruit maturity, the attribute does not provide reliable assessment of maturity especially for melons. Herein, we report the achievement of sensitive and reversible melon maturity detection using macroporous hydrogel photonic crystals self-assembled by a roll-to-roll compatible doctor-blade-coating technology. The consumption of applied ethanol vapor during melon ripening results in less condensation of ethanol vapor in the pores (250 nm in diameter), leading to a distinct blue-shift of the optical stop band from 572 to 501 nm and an obvious visual colorimetric readout from yellow green to blue. Moreover, the dependence of the color change on Brix value within the melon has also been evaluated in the study.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Frutas
8.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the leading causes of death in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) would be helpful to inform doctors, patients, and healthcare providers on disease management. This study aimed to comprehensively study the leading causes of death in these survivors. METHODS: We investigated the trends of risk factors for major causes of death in patients with HNSCC. Causes of death in HNSCC were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. We characterized trends in the 5-year cumulative mortality as well as risk factors associated with the ten leading causes of death. RESULTS: Among 48 297 deaths identified, the ten leading causes were as follows: HNSCC, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cerebrovascular disease, pneumonia & influenza, accidents & adverse effects, esophagus cancer, chronic liver diseases, and septicemia. Non-HNSCC deaths surpassed HNSCC deaths 4 years after cancer diagnosis. There was a significant decline in the 5-year cumulative mortality from HNSCC, heart disease, lung cancer, COPD, cerebrovascular disease, and esophagus cancer. The risks of mortality from the ten leading causes varied with patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a useful picture of mortality patterns in HNSCC survivors, which might help when planning personalized HNSCC care.

9.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(11): 6262-6273, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760256

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the clinical treatment of cancer, but its use is limited due to its cardiotoxic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to explore natural compounds that are effective in protecting against the cardiotoxicity caused by DOX. Neutral Morchella conica polysaccharides-2 (NMCP-2) is a natural polysaccharide with antioxidant activity that was isolated and purified from Morchella conica in our laboratory's previous study. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of NMCP-2 on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the potential underlying mechanisms. The model of DOX-induced H9C2 cells and the model of DOX-induced mice were used in this study. In in vitro studies of H9C2 myocardial cells, NMCP-2 effectively increased the activity of H9C2 cells, reducing the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In the mouse model of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity, NMCP-2 significantly reduced the cardiac index, reduced the release of serum cardiac enzymes, and improved the pathology of murine myocardial tissues, thereby alleviating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Further mechanism studies showed that pretreatment with NMCP-2 counteracted the oxidative stress induced by DOX, as indicated by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production decreased. In addition, we observed NMCP-2 inhibited the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and regulated the disordered expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in the myocardial tissues of DOX-treated mice. These findings indicated that NMCP-2, a natural bioactive compound, could potentially be used as a food supplement to reduce the cardiotoxicity caused by DOX.

10.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766896

RESUMO

There are various differences in the response to different antipsychotics and antioxidant defense system (ADS) by sex. Previous studies have shown that several ADS enzymes are closely related to the treatment response of patients with antipsychotics-naïve first-episode (ANFE) schizophrenia. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to assess the sex difference in the relationship between changes in ADS enzyme activities and risperidone response. The plasma activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in 218 patients and 152 healthy controls. Patients were treated with risperidone for 3 months, and we measured PANSS for psychopathological symptoms and ADS biomarkers at baseline and at the end of 3 months of treatment. We compared sex-specific group differences between 50 non-responders and 168 responders at baseline and at the end of the three months of treatment. We found that female patients responded better to risperidone treatment than male patients. At baseline and 3-month follow-up, there were no significant sex differences in TAS levels and three ADS enzyme activities. Interestingly, only in female patients, after 12 weeks of risperidone treatment, the GPx activity of responders was higher than that of non-responders. These results indicate that after treatment with risperidone, changes in GPx activity were associated with treatment response, suggesting that changes in GPx may be a predictor of response to risperidone treatment in female patients with ANFE schizophrenia.

11.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Different categories of hospitals in China have varying levels of patient education. Stroke recognition and emergency medical services (EMS) usage in patients appears to be closely associated with patient education in hospital. This study aimed to explore the effect of hospital classification in China on a patient's ability to recognise stroke symptoms and the likelihood of using the EMS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted from January to May 2017, and 1,426 residents who had previously been hospitalised were analysed. The patients involved in the study were from 69 administrative areas in China. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed separately for primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals to identify the associations between hospital grades and patient stroke recognition or the prospects of them using the EMS. RESULTS: Among the 1,426 patients studied, 725 had been admitted to tertiary hospitals, 448 to secondary hospitals, and 253 to primary hospitals. According to univariate analysis, tertiary hospital patients were more likely to use the EMS than patients in primary and secondary hospitals. The difference therein was still significant after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in tertiary hospitals were significantly more likely to use the EMS promptly compared to patients in primary or secondary hospitals. Therefore, patient education on timely EMS usage at stroke onset should be enhanced in primary and secondary hospitals in China.

12.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7885-7894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785937

RESUMO

Background: Identifying patients at high risk of developing chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is of extreme importance in order to help launch appropriate therapeutic strategies and intensive initiation of pain management. Aim: In this study, we aimed to conduct a multi-center retrospective cohort study to establish a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the risks of CPSP in elderly patients who underwent hip arthroplasty at 6 months postoperatively. Methods: We collected data from 736 patients aged >65 years who had undergone hip arthroplasty from October 1, 2016 to September, 30, 2018 at multiple tertiary referral centers in Guangzhou, China. All data were randomly stratified into a training set and a testing set at a ratio of 8:2. Data were analyzed via multiple logistic regression analysis with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and areas under the curve. This model was further validated by estimating calibration and discrimination. A nomogram was ultimately developed. Results: A total of 736 eligible patients were enrolled, 27.20% of whom developed CPSP within 6 months postoperatively. Preoperative pain in the surgical area (OR=2.456, 95% CI:1.814-3.327, P<0.001), preoperative depression state (OR=1.256, 95% CI:1.146-1.378, P<0.001), surgical type (OR=7.138, 95% CI:3.548-14.364, P<0.001), acute postoperative numerical rating scale score (OR=5.537, 95% CI:3.607-8.499, P<0.001) and analgesic type (patient-controlled epidural analgesia: OR=0.129, 95% CI:0.055-0.299, P<0.001; patient-controlled intravenous analgesia: OR=0.033, 95% CI:0.011-0.097, P<0.001) were identified as independent significant factors associated with CPSP. A prognostic model was established and further validated. An ROC curve confirmed the predictive ability of this model with a high sensitivity value of 92.12% (95% CI:86.90-95.74) and specificity value of 91.72% (95% CI:88.77-94.11). A nomogram was developed to simplify the use of the predictive model in clinical practice. Conclusion: This prognostic model could be of great value in clinical practice, serving as the basis for early personalized analgesic management of elderly patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

13.
PhytoKeys ; 184: 111-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785975

RESUMO

As the supplement of the flora of Zhejiang, East China, two new species were described with illustrations. Cerastiumhuadingense Y.F.Lu, W.Y.Xie & X.F.Jin (Caryophyllaceae) differs from C.qingliangfengicum in having sterile stems absent, leaves sessile, petals slightly longer than sepals, and stamens slightly shorter than sepals. Ixeridiumdimorphifolium Y.L.Xu, Y.F.Lu & X.Cai (Asteraceae) differs from I.beauverdianum in having plant stoloniferous, basal leaves dimorphic, involucre 8‒10 mm long, inner phyllaries 8, and florets 7‒10. Paraphlomissetulosa C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li (Lamiaceae) was reviewed and morphological characters of the corolla and stamens of its type and the specimens collected in the field survey were critically examined. With barbate anthers and strongly divergent anther cells, Paraphlomissetulosa was transferred to Sinopogonanthera, and S.setulosa (C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li) H.W.Zhang & X.F.Jin was consequently combined.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770032

RESUMO

This study explored the important factors affecting drunk car/motorbike drivers' willingness to use and pay for alcohol interlocks. Data were obtained through a survey upon choice-based sampling conducted in central Taiwan. Questionnaires were distributed to the participants of drunk driving and road safety education courses from 17 August to 26 October 2020. All drunk drivers whose driver's licenses are revoked for drunk driving are mandated to participate in this course. Prior to the survey, the researchers explained the questionnaires, instructed the participants to complete the questionnaires, and then collected all the questionnaires. The socioeconomic characteristics of drunk drivers, awareness of alcohol interlocks and drunk driving, drinking patterns and health self-assessment before and after drunk driving ban enforcement, and changes in the number of trips were investigated. This study applied the double-hurdle model for data analysis to estimate the variables affecting drunk car/motorbike drivers. Results indicate that the respondents who were classified by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test as high-risk drinkers before and after drunk driving ban enforcement were more willing to use alcohol interlocks and to pay higher prices. Additionally, the respondents with declined health self-assessments were also more willing to use alcohol interlocks and pay higher prices. This study suggests offering subsidies for alcohol interlocks to families with financial difficulties, in order to increase the alcohol interlock installation rate. Moreover, since the current duration of license suspension and withdrawal is considerably long, drunk drivers avoid using and installing alcohol interlocks by reducing the number of trips. In other words, the willingness to install alcohol interlocks may be increased by reducing the duration of license suspension and withdrawal.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Condução de Veículo , Veículos Off-Road , Acidentes de Trânsito , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Automóveis , Humanos , Taiwan
15.
Liver Int ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biallelic pathogenic variants in MYO5B cause microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), or familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIC). The reported FIC patients are scarce and so the genotype-phenotype correlation has not been fully characterized. This study aimed to report more MYO5B-associated FIC patients and correlate genotypes to phenotypes in more detail. METHODS: The phenotype and genetic data of 12 newly diagnosed MYO5B-associated (including 11 FIC) patients, as well as 118 previously reported patients with available genotypes, were summarized. Only patients with biallelic MYO5B variants were enrolled. Nonsense, frameshift, canonical splice sites, initiation codon loss, and single exon or multiexon deletion were defined as null MYO5B variants. RESULTS: Phenotypically, 50 were isolated MVID, 47 involved both liver and intestine (combined), and 33 were isolated FIC (9 persistent, 15 recurrent, 3 transient, and 6 un-sub-classified) patients. The severity of intestinal manifestation was positively correlated to an increased number of null variants (rho=0.299, p=0.001). All FIC patients carried at least one non-null variant, and the severity of cholestasis was correlated to the presence of a null variant (rho=0.420, p=0.029). The proportion of FIC patients (16/29, 55%) harboring missense/in-frame variants affecting the non-motor regions of MYO5B was significantly higher than that of MVID (3/25, 12%, p=0.001) and combined patients (3/31, 10%, p=0.000). 10 of the 29 FIC patients harbored missense/in-frame variants at the IQ motifs comparing to none in the 56 MVID and combined patients (P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of MYO5B deficiency was associated with MYO5B genotypes, the nullity or the domain affected.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102669, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739188

RESUMO

Lipid metabolism is essential for stemness maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation of stem cells, however, the regulatory function of cholesterol metabolism in erythroid differentiation is poorly studied. In the present study, a critical role for cholesterol homeostasis in terminal erythropoiesis is uncovered. The master transcriptional factor GATA1 binds to Sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) to downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis, leading to a gradual reduction in intracellular cholesterol levels. It is further shown that reduced cholesterol functions to block erythroid proliferation via the cholesterol/mTORC1/ribosome biogenesis axis, which coordinates cell cycle exit in the late stages of erythroid differentiation. The interaction of GATA1 and SREBP2 also provides a feedback loop for regulating globin expression through the transcriptional control of NFE2 by SREBP2. Importantly, it is shown that disrupting intracellular cholesterol hemostasis resulted in defect of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. These findings demonstrate that fine-tuning of cholesterol homeostasis emerges as a key mechanism for regulating erythropoiesis.

17.
Cent Eur J Immunol ; 46(2): 217-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764790

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC) complicated with severe sepsis (SS) leads to HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-associated immunosuppression is involved in both LC and SS. This study aimed to examine the expression and clinical relevance of PD-L1 on peripheral CD14+ monocytes in sepsis-induced HBV-ACLF. Material and methods: PD-L1 expression on peripheral CD14+ monocytes among the healthy control (HC), LC and LC + SS groups was examined using flow cytometry analysis and compared. In the LC + SS group, an SS-induced ACLF subgroup was identified. LC + SS patients were followed up for 28 days. The correlations between monocytic PD-L1 expression and illness severity scores and the prognostic value of monocytic PD-L1 expression in SS-induced HBV-ACLF patients was examined. Results: There were 17, 30 and 70 participants in the HC, LC and LC + SS groups, respectively. The monocytic PD-L1 expression was higher in the LC group compared with the HC group and in the LC + SS group compared with the LC group. The monocytic PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with the illness severity scores in LC + SS patients and predicted 28-day mortality of SS-induced HBV-ACLF patients (n = 59). Conclusions: Severe sepsis exhibits a superimposed effect of monocytic PD-L1 up-regulation on the basis of liver cirrhosis, and monocytic PD-L1 expression predicts 28-day mortality of SS-induced HBV-ACLF.

18.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brachial plexus injuries (BPI) with complete root avulsions remains a clinical challenge due to a paucity of nerves available for nerve transfer and innervation of free functioning muscle transfers (FFMT). The hypoglossal and hemihypoglossal nerve has not been studied as a donor nerve option for FFMTs in brachial plexus reconstruction, despite successful outcomes of hypoglossal nerve transfers in facial reanimation surgery. We hypothesized that the hypoglossal nerve could be an appropriate candidate for surgical repair of BPI using FFMT. METHODS: A cadaveric study was performed to determine the anatomic feasibility of using the hypoglossal and hemihypoglossal nerves as donor nerves to neurotize the gracilis or latissimus dorsi muscle in an FFMT to restore elbow flexion. Twelve cadavers (6 males and 6 females) were studied. The hypoglossal nerve, thoracodorsal nerve, and obturator nerve branches to the gracilis muscle were dissected, measured, and analyzed. RESULTS: The average length of the hypoglossal nerve was 6.3 ± 0.5 cm in both sexes. The average distance between the lowest point of the hypoglossal nerve and the lateral clavicle was 8.4 ± 1.3 cm in males and 7.7 ± 0.8 cm in females. When the hypoglossal nerve was transected distally, the average distance to the clavicle was 4.5 ± 1.6 cm in males and 3.8 ± 1.5 cm in females. CONCLUSIONS: The maximum theoretical length of the donor nerve required to perform an adequate FFMT using the hypoglossal nerve was 8.9 ± 1.2 cm, which was well exceeded by the lengths of the thoracodorsal nerve (14.5 ± 1.3 cm) and nerve to the gracilis muscle (12.7 ± 1.7 cm). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This cadaveric study demonstrated that the hypoglossal or hemihypoglossal nerves may be used as potential motor donor nerves to innervate a free gracilis or latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for the restoration of elbow flexion via a direct nerve transfer without the need for nerve grafting.

19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 758219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630125

RESUMO

Litchi seeds have been traditionally used in Chinese herbal formula for urologic neoplasms including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the effective components of Litchi seeds and the mechanisms of their actions on PCa cell growth and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the Total Flavonoid of Litchi Seed (TFLS) in PCa PC3 and DU145 cell lines. We found that TFLS significantly inhibited the PCa cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and prevented cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we observed that TFLS upregulated the expression of epithelial biomarker E-cadherin and downregulated mesenchymal biomarker Vimentin. TFLS also increased the expression of cleaved-PRAP and Bax, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in both PC3 and DU145 cells. Besides, TFLS inhibited AKT signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of AKT and activities of downstream signal transducers including mTOR, IκBα and NF-kB. Finally, TFLS treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor size without toxicity in major organs in vivo. These results indicated that TFLS could suppress PCa cell growth in vivo and inhibit PCa cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro through induction of apoptosis and phenotypic reversal of EMT, which may be achieved by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the role of TFLS as a novel potent anti-cancer agent for the treatment of PCa.

20.
Chem Sci ; 12(35): 11740-11747, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659710

RESUMO

Nucleic acid sensors have realized much success in detecting positively charged and neutral molecules, but have rarely been applied for measuring negatively charged molecules, such as fluoride, even though an effective sensor is needed to promote dental health while preventing osteofluorosis and other diseases. To address this issue, we herein report a quantitative fluoride sensor with a portable fluorometer readout based on fluoride riboswitch-regulated transcription coupled with CRISPR-Cas13-based signal amplification. This tandem sensor utilizes the fluoride riboswitch to regulate in vitro transcription and generate full-length transcribed RNA that can be recognized by CRISPR-Cas13a, triggering the collateral cleavage of the fluorophore-quencher labeled RNA probe and generating a fluorescence signal output. This tandem sensor can quantitatively detect fluoride at ambient temperature in aqueous solution with high sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) ≈ 1.7 µM), high selectivity against other common anions, a wide dynamic range (0-800 µM) and a short sample-to-answer time (30 min). This work expands the application of nucleic acid sensors to negatively charged targets and demonstrates their potential for the on-site and real-time detection of fluoride in environmental monitoring and point-of-care diagnostics.

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