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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1457-1465, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598027

RESUMO

Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is one of the promising cathode materials of lithium ion battery (LIB), but poor electrical conductivity restricts its electrochemical performance. Carbon coating can improve electrical conductivity of LFP without changing its intrinsic property. Uniform coating of carbon on LFP is significant to avoid charge congregation and unpreferable redox reactions. It is the first time to apply the commercial organic binder, Super P® (SP), as carbon source to achieve uniform coating on LFP as cathode material of LIB. The simple and economical mechanofusion method is firstly applied to coat different amounts of SP on LFP. The LIB with the cathode material of optimized SP-coated LFP shows the highest capacity of 165.6 mAh/g at 0.1C and 59.8 mAh/g at 10C, indicating its high capacity and excellent high-rate charge/discharge capability. SP is applied on other commercial LFP materials, M121 and M23, for carbon coating. Enhanced high-rate charge/discharge capabilities are also achieved for LIB with SP-coated M121 and M23 as cathode materials. This new material and technique for carbon coating is verified to be applicable on different LFP materials. This novel carbon coating method is expected to apply on other cathode materials of LIB with outstanding electrochemical performances.

2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132196, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517239

RESUMO

The intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) possesses an enhanced ability of recalcitrant contaminant removal and energy generation, owing to the compact communication between biotic components and photocatalysts during the system operation. The photocatalysts in the ICPB system could dispose of noxious contaminants to relieve the external pressure on microorganisms which could realize the mineralization of the photocatalytic degradation products. However, due to the complex components in the composite system, the mechanism of the ICPB system has not been completely understood. Moreover, the variable environmental conditions would play a significant role in the ICPB system performance. The further development of the ICPB scheme requires clarification on how to reach an accurate understanding of the system condition during the practical application. This review starts by offering detailed information on the system construction and recent progress in the system components' amelioration. We then describe the potential influences of relevant environmental factors on the system performance, and the analytical strategies applicable for comprehending the critical processes during the system operation are further summarized. Finally, we put forward the research gaps in the current system and envision the system's prospective application. This review provides a valuable reference for future researches that are devoted to assessing the environmental disturbance and exploring the reaction mechanisms during the practical application of the ICPB system.


Assuntos
Titânio , Biodegradação Ambiental
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150634, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597565

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the lipid interference effects of legacy PFASs, however, no studies on PFAS alternatives and blood lipids have been published. In this study, we explored the association between Cl-PFESAs, a typical PFASs alternative in China, and blood lipid profiles in 1336 Guangzhou community residents using linear and non-linear regression models. The results showed a deleterious effect of Cl-PFESAs and blood lipids: adjusted estimates (ß) for TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C per natural log unit increase of 6:2 Cl-PFESA were 0.029 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.038), 0.075 (95% CI: 0.049, 0.101), 0.035 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.049) and -0.071 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.058), respectively. The association between Cl-PFESAs and dyslipidemia was also positively significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a non-linear relationship was observed in Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels using a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model. In summary, our research suggested a negative impact of Cl-PFESAs on blood lipid patterns and a possible non-linear association.

4.
Environ Pollut ; : 118585, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848290

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular and frequently consumed leafy vegetables. It was found that atmospheric PM2.5-Pb contributes to Pb accumulation in the edible leaves of Chinese cabbage via stomata in North China during haze seasons with high concentrations of fine particulate matter in autumn and winter. However, it is unclear whether both stomata and trichomes co-regulate foliar transfer of PM2.5-Pb from atmospheric deposition to the leaf of Chinese cabbage genotypes with trichomes. Field and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar uptake of PM2.5-Pb on Pb accumulation in leaves using two genotypes of Chinese cabbage, one without trichomes and one with trichomes. It was verified that open stoma is a prominent pathway of foliar PM2.5-Pb transfer in the short-term exposure for 6 h, contributing 74.5% of Pb accumulation in leaves, whereas Pb concentrations in the leaves of with-trichome genotype in the rosette stage were 6.52- and 1.04-fold higher than that of without-trichome genotype in greenhouse and open field, respectively, which suggests that stomata and trichomes co-regulate foliar Pb uptake of from atmospheric PM2.5. Moreover, subcellular Pb in the leaves was distributed in the following order of cytoplasm (53.8%) > cell wall (38.5%)> organelle (7.8%), as confirmed through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The Leadmium™ Green AM dye manifested that Pb in PM2.5 entered cellular space of trichomes and accumulated in the basal compartment, enhancing foliar Pb uptake in the edible leaves of cabbage. The results of these experiments are evidence that both stomata and trichomes are important pathways in the regulation of foliar Pb uptake and translocation in Chinese cabbage.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 747914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745119

RESUMO

The human body and its microbiome constitute a highly delicate system. The gut microbiome participates in the absorption of the host's nutrients and metabolism, maintains the microcirculation, and modulates the immune response. Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiome dysbiosis in the body not only affects the occurrence and development of tumors but also tumor prognosis and treatment. Microbiome have been implicated in tumor control in patients undergoing anti- angiogenesis therapy and immunotherapy. In cases with unsatisfactory responses to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, appropriate adjustment of microbes abundance is considered to enhance the treatment response. Here, we review the current research progress in cancer immunotherapy and anti- angiogenesis therapy, as well as the unlimited potential of their combination, especially focusing on how the interaction between intestinal microbiota and the immune system affects cancer pathogenesis and treatment. In addition, we discuss the effects of microbiota on anti-cancer immune response and anti- angiogenesis therapy, and the potential value of these interactions in promoting further research in this field.

6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24100, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore clinical indexes for management of severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, influenza A H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia by comparing hematological and radiological characteristics. METHODS: Severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, hematological parameters, and radiological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: In this study, 16 cases of COVID-19, 10 cases of H7N9, and 13 cases of H1N1 who met severe/critically ill criteria were included. Compared with COVID-19, H7N9 and H1N1 groups had more chronic diseases (80% and 92.3% vs. 25%, p < 0.05), higher APACHE Ⅱ scores (16.00 ± 8.63 and 15.08 ± 6.24, vs. 5.50 ± 2.58, p < 0.05), higher mortality rates (40% and 46.2% vs. 0%, p < 0.05), significant lymphocytopenia (0.59 ± 0.31 × 109 /L and 0.56 ± 0.35 × 109 /L vs. 0.97 ± 0.33 × 109 /L, p < 0.05), and elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 14.67 ± 6.10 and 14.64 ± 10.36 vs. 6.29 ± 3.72, p < 0.05). Compared with the H7N9 group, ground-glass opacity (GGO) on chest CT was common in the COVID-19 group (p = 0.028), while pleural effusion was rare (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The NLR can be used as a clinical parameter for the predication of risk stratification and outcome in COVID-19 and influenza A pneumonia. Manifestations of pleural effusion or GGO in chest CT may be helpful for the identification of different viral pneumonia.

7.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797042

RESUMO

Smart sensors are expected to be sustainable, stretchable, biocomfortable, and tactile over time, either in terms of mechanical performance, reconfigurability, or energy supply. Here, a biocompatible piezoelectric electronic skin (PENG) is demonstrated on the base of PZT-SEBS (lead zirconate titanate and styrene ethylene butylene styrene) composite elastomer. The highly elastic (with an elasticity of about 950%) PENG can not only harvest mechanical energy from ambient environment, but also show low toxicity and excellent sensing performance toward multiple external stimuli. The synchronous and independent sensing performance toward motion capture, temperature, voice identification, and especially the dual-dimensional force perception promotes its wide application in physiological, sound restoration, and other intelligent systems.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 7037786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804370

RESUMO

Pathological angiogenesis, as exhibited by aberrant vascular structure and function, has been well deemed to be a hallmark of cancer and various ischemic diseases. Therefore, strategies to normalize vasculature are of potential therapeutic interest in these diseases. Recently, identifying bioactive compounds from medicinal plant extracts to reverse abnormal vasculature has been gaining increasing attention. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to play significant roles in improving blood circulation and delaying tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of Tan IIA are not fully understood. Herein, we established animal models of HT-29 human colon cancer xenograft and hind limb ischemia to investigate the role of Tan IIA in regulating abnormal vasculature. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that Tan IIA could significantly promote the blood flow, alleviate the hypoxia, improve the muscle quality, and ameliorate the pathological damage after ischemic insult. Meanwhile, we also revealed that Tan IIA promoted the integrity of vascular structure, reduced vascular leakage, and attenuated the hypoxia in HT-29 tumors. Moreover, the circulating angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), which is extremely high in these two pathological states, was substantially depleted in the presence of Tan IIA. Also, the activation of Tie2 was potentiated by Tan IIA, resulting in decreased vascular permeability and elevated vascular integrity. Mechanistically, we uncovered that Tan IIA maintained vascular stability by targeting the Ang2-Tie2-AKT-MLCK cascade. Collectively, our data suggest that Tan IIA normalizes vessels in tumors and ischemic injury via regulating the Ang2/Tie2 signaling pathway.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 108377, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836795

RESUMO

Neuro-inflammation is an immune response of the central nervous system (CNS) to pathogens, and it is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial cells are the main category of macrophages in the CNS parenchyma, and they represent one of the most important cellular drivers and regulators of neuroinflammation. In this study, nine new organoselenium compounds based on the hybridization of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) skeleton and organoselenium motif (-SeCN and -SeCF3) were synthesized and their potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects were evaluated using LPS-induced BV2 mouse microglia. The cells were first treated with the organoselenium compounds and the extent of oxidative stress and inflammatory response of the cells was determined by measuring the levels of NO, ROS, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Among the nine compounds, 1-39 and 1A-38 exhibited the most significant effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Subsequent studies carried out with 1-39 and 1A-38 showed that both compounds could reduce the production of ROS in the cells, probably through down-regulating NOX2 and its downstream targets, including TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein) and NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor protein 3). In addition, 1-39 and 1A-38 also suppressed the ability of the cells to secret IL-18 and IL-1ß, which greatly dampened the response of the cells to LPS-induced inflammation. Our finding demonstrated that organoselenium compounds derived from NSAID might play an important role in the protection of brain microglia against inflammation-related neurodegenerative disease by potentially down-regulating the NOX2/NLRP3 signaling axis.

10.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846160

RESUMO

Isochorismatase domain-containing 1 (ISOC1) plays a carcinogenic role in various tumors. However, its expression and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been elucidated. This is the first study to investigate the involvement of ISOC1 in HCC growth and migration. ISOC1 expression was analyzed using public databases and clinical samples, and clinical specimens were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. ISOC1 was also overexpressed in two HCC cell lines (Huh7 and HepG2) to explore how ISOC1 affects HCC cells. Finally, a nude mouse xenograft tumor model was used to investigate the role of ISOC1 in HCC cell tumorigenicity. ISOC1 was downregulated in HCC tissues compared to that in matched paracancerous tissues, and low ISOC1 expression was associated with a poor prognosis. The proliferation and single-cell colony-forming ability of the ISOC1-overexpressing cell lines Huh7 and HepG2 were significantly inhibited. Moreover, ISOC1 overexpression suppressed the migration and invasion abilities of HCC cells in vitro, and ISOC1 upregulation hindered tumor growth in the xenograft tumor model in vivo. Therefore, ISOC1 is a potential HCC suppressor protein.

11.
Leuk Res ; 110: 106710, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619433

RESUMO

In order to investigate the efficacy of lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (VRD) induction chemotherapy regimen combined with tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in treating multi-hit multiple myeloma (MM), we analyzed 252 cases of newly diagnosed MM treated with the bortezomib-containing induction chemotherapy from June 2016 to June 2019. According to the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results on diagnosis, the patients were divided into multi-hit MM group (47 cases), single-hit MM group (81 cases), and standard-risk group (124 cases). Our analysis showed that R-ISS stageⅢ in transplantation group and R-ISS stageⅢ, multi-hit and VGPR or above was not achieved at the fourth cycle of chemotherapy in non-transplantation group were independent factors for poor prognosis by univariate and multivariate analyses. Moreover, the overall response rate (ORR) of VRD induction chemotherapy group was significantly higher than that of the non-VRD group in the single-hit and multi-hit groups (P = 0.021, P = 0.032); In terms of ASCT, tandem-ASCT can significantly improve the 2-year PFS (77.8 ± 3.9 %) and OS (83.3 ± 5.6 %) of multi-hit MM (P = 0.024, P = 0.037), while single-ASCT only has a limited effect on PFS (61.5 ± 3.0 %) and OS (71.9 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.115, P = 0.155).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Quimioterapia de Indução/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Autólogo
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 493-503, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626991

RESUMO

Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF67) derivatives are considered as promising active materials for energy storage owing to the possible formation of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite. Cobalt oxide has multiple redox states for generating redox reactions for charge storage, while N-doped graphite can provide high electrical conductivity for charge transfer. In this study, it is the first time to synthesize binder-free electrodes composed of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite derived from ZIF67 on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor (SC). Successive oxidation and carbonization along with additional coverage of ZIF67 derivatives are applied to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives composed of cobalt oxide, N-doped graphite and cobalt oxide/N-doped graphite composites with different layer compositions. The highest specific capacitance (CF) of 90.0F/g at 20 mV/s is obtained for the oxidized ZIF67/carbonized ZIF67/carbon cloth (O67/C67/CC) electrode, due to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity benefitted from preferable morphology and growing sequence of Co3O4 and N-doped graphite. The symmetric SC composed of O67/C67/CC electrodes shows the maximum energy density of 2.53 Wh/kg at the power density of 50 W/kg. Cycling stability with CF retention of 70% and Coulombic efficiency of 65% after 6000 times repeatedly charge/discharge process is also obtained for this symmetric SC.

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3385-3396, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658226

RESUMO

Plant-plant interactions is one of the key field in ecology, which is important for the efficient nutrient utilization, productivity improvement, and plant community assembly. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important plant mutualistic microorganisms that connect plant roots to form common mycelial networks (CMNs), which play major roles in transferring nutrients and water and regu-lating plant community dynamics. Recent studies demonstrated that these CMNs could act as conduits for transmitting disease and aphid-induced signals among plants, and activating chemical defence in uninfested neighboring plants. In this review, we introduced recent research advances on the contribution of CMNs on plant interaction, the main factors that influences the functions of CMNs, and the role of CMNs transfer and redistribute nutrients and water among plant. In addition, the mechanism underlying underground chemical signal communication, seedling establishment and plants community assembly were summarized. Finally, we proposed challenges facing CMNs in plant-plant interactions and the practical problems. It would provide reference for further understanding the ecological functions of CMNs in plant-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Plântula , Simbiose
15.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 10(12): 663-670, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546088

RESUMO

Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health problem. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy may be beneficial for TBI because it improves cerebral blood flow into tissues exhibiting low blood flow. This was done to observe the clinical therapeutic effect of different intensities of rehabilitation training and HBO therapy in early stages of TBI. Approach: In this multicenter, randomized, stratified case-controlled prospective clinical trial, we selected 158 patients with moderate-severe TBI and assigned them into (1) a control group receiving routine once-daily (1/d) rehabilitation training without HBO, (2) study group A receiving routine 1/d rehabilitation training with HBO, (3) study group B receiving twice-daily (2/d) intensified rehabilitation training with HBO, and (4) study group C receiving 2/d intensified rehabilitation training without HBO, all for 3 months. The cognitive ability, activities of daily life (ADL), and movement ability were assessed before and after training with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: FIM, FMA, MBI, and MMSE scores were improved significantly after 1-, 2-, and 3-month rehabilitation training in all TBI patients (p < 0.01), and this improvement was especially remarkable in patients who received 2/d intensified rehabilitation training with HBO (p < 0.01). Innovation: With extensive and intensive research on TBI rehabilitation, it was proved that TBI rehabilitation intervention should be initiated as early as possible. Conclusion: Early intensified rehabilitation training in combination with HBO is more beneficial to the recovery of cognitive, ADL, and movement abilities of TBI patients.

16.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153718, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longstanding, successful use of combinations of phytopharmaceuticals in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has caught the attention of several pharmacologists to natural medicines. However, the development and popularisation of TCM is mainly limited because of the unavailability of reports clarifying the mechanisms of action and pharmacologically active ingredients in such formulations. Previous studies on natural medicines have mostly focused on their dominant components using forward pharmacology which often neglects trace components. It is necessary to assess the pharmacological and therapeutic superiority of many such trace components in comparison with single constituents. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to propose a new pharmacological research strategy for TCM. In particular, we presented the possibility that the effective mechanism of action of trace components of TCM is based on synthetic lethality. We sincerely hope to explore this theory further. METHOD: We obtained retrieve published research information related to synthetic lethality, phytochemicals and Chinese medicine from PubMed and Google scholar. Based on the inclusion criteria, 71 studies were selected and discussed in this review. RESULTS: As an interaction among genes, synthetic lethality can amplify co-regulatory biological effects exponentially. Synthetic strategies have been successfully applied for research and development of anti-tumour agents, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors and clinical combination of chemotherapeutic agents for efficacy enhancement and toxicity reduction. TCM drugs contain several secondary metabolites to combat environmental stresses, providing a multi-component basis for corresponding synergistic targets. Therefore, we aimed to study whether this method could be used to identify active components present in trace amounts in TCM drugs. Based on a reverse concept of target-component-effect and identified synergistic targets, we explored the mechanisms of action of weakly active components present in trace amounts in TCM drugs to assess combinations of potential synergistic components. CONCLUSION: This pattern of synthetic lethality not only elucidated the mechanisms of action of TCM drugs from a new perspective but also inspired future studies on discovering naturally occurring active components.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
17.
Water Res ; 204: 117632, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536686

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and potential sources, as well as the ecological/health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were systematically investigated in seawater, sediment, and fish from Xiangshan Bay, China, one of the most important and oldest domestic marine aquaculture bases. The average concentrations of ΣPAHs in seawater, sediment and fish were 150 ± 70.0 ng/L, 276 ± 271 µg/kg (dry weight, dw), and 434 ± 151 µg/kg (dw), respectively. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and pyrene were the dominant contaminants in all samples. The highest PAH concentrations in the seawater and sediment samples occurred in the inner bay where the mariculture and industry are clustered. Seasonal differences were observed in the seawater samples but not in the sediment samples. Among all 15 fish species, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (775 µg/kg (dw)), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) (749 µg/kg (dw)), and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) (637 µg/kg (dw)) had relatively high PAH accumulation concentrations in muscle tissue. According to the molecular diagnostic ratio method, the PAHs in seawater mainly originated from a mixed source of petroleum and combustion, whereas biomass/coal combustion sources were identified for sediment. The results obtained from the risk quotient (for seawater), sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalence quotients (for seawater and sediment) methods showed that the ecological risks posed by PAHs were generally at a low to moderate level. Potentially toxic effects existed from PAH-contaminated fish consumption, and the resulting potential carcinogenic risk was also slightly higher than the recommended guidelines (10-6).


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 626045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568308

RESUMO

The role of gut microbiota in the development of various tumors has been a rising topic of public interest, and in recent years, many studies have reported a close relationship between microbial groups and tumor development. Gut microbiota play a role in host metabolism, and the positive and negative alterations of these microbiota have an effect on tumor treatment. The microbiota directly promote, eliminate, and coordinate the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs and the toxicity of adjuvant drugs, and enhance the ability of patients to respond to tumors in adjuvant immunotherapy. In this review, we outline the significance of gut microbiota in tumor development, reveal its impacts on chemotherapy and immunotherapy, and discover various potential mechanisms whereby they influence tumor treatment. This review demonstrates the importance of intestinal microbiota-related research for clinical tumor treatment and provides additional strategy for clinical assistance in cancer treatment.

19.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 56, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NRXN1 deletions are identified as one of major rare risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. ASD has 30% co-morbidity with epilepsy, and the latter is associated with excessive neuronal firing. NRXN1 encodes hundreds of presynaptic neuro-adhesion proteins categorized as NRXN1α/ß/γ. Previous studies on cultured cells show that the short NRXN1ß primarily exerts excitation effect, whereas the long NRXN1α which is more commonly deleted in patients involves in both excitation and inhibition. However, patient-derived models are essential for understanding functional consequences of NRXN1α deletions in human neurons. We recently derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from five controls and three ASD patients carrying NRXN1α+/- and showed increased calcium transients in patient neurons. METHODS: In this study we investigated the electrophysiological properties of iPSC-derived cortical neurons in control and ASD patients carrying NRXN1α+/- using patch clamping. Whole genome RNA sequencing was carried out to further understand the potential underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS: NRXN1α+/- cortical neurons were shown to display larger sodium currents, higher AP amplitude and accelerated depolarization time. RNASeq analyses revealed transcriptomic changes with significant upregulation glutamatergic synapse and ion channels/transporter activity including voltage-gated potassium channels (GRIN1, GRIN3B, SLC17A6, CACNG3, CACNA1A, SHANK1), which are likely to couple with the increased excitability in NRXN1α+/- cortical neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Together with recent evidence of increased calcium transients, our results showed that human NRXN1α+/- isoform deletions altered neuronal excitability and non-synaptic function, and NRXN1α+/- patient iPSCs may be used as an ASD model for therapeutic development with calcium transients and excitability as readouts.

20.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 143: 107948, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563856

RESUMO

Prolactin (PRL) is produced by the pituitary gland and plays a vital role in the production of milk after a baby is born. PRL levels are normally elevated in pregnant and nursing women, and high levels of PRL in the human body cause hyperprolactinemia, infertility, galactorrhea, infrequent or irregular periods, amenorrhea, breast pain, and loss of libido. Accordingly, herein, a novel label-free immunosensor using a bismuth sulfide/polypyrrole (Bi2S3/PPy)-modified screen-printed electrode (SPE) for the fast and facile detection of the peptide hormone PRL. Bi2S3 nanorods were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal technique, and PPy was prepared by chemical polymerization method. Subsequently, the Bi2S3/PPy/ SPE was modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and EDC/NHS. Owing to the cross-linking effect of EDC/NHS, antibody-PRL (anti-PRL) was firmly stabilized on the modified SPE surface. These layer-by-layer modifications enhanced the conducting properties, anti-PRL loading capacity, and sensitivity of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the PRL immunosensor demonstrated a broad linear range of approximately 1-250 ng/mL, a low detection limit of approximately 0.130 ng/mL (3 × SD/b), good specificity, reproducibility, and stability. PRL was successfully evaluated in human and mouse serum samples, and the corresponding outcomes were compared with those of the electrochemical and ELISA methods.

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