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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17475, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060734

RESUMO

Observational studies have found associations between urinary sodium (UNa) with obesity, body shape and composition; but the findings may be biased by residual confounding. The objective of this two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was to analyze their causal associations in both sex-combined and sex-specific models. Genome-wide association studies of UNa, body mass index (BMI), BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat (BF) percentage and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were identified. We initially extracted fifty SNPs associated with UNa at significance level of 5 × 10-8, but further removed those SNPs with potential horizontal pleiotropy. Univariable and multivariable MR with adjustment for eGFR were performed. Inverse-variance weighted MR was performed as the primary analysis, with MR-Egger methods as sensitivity analysis. The potential bidirectional association between BMI and UNa was investigated. All exposure and outcomes were continuous, and the effect measure was regression coefficients (beta) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The total sample size was up to 322 154. UNa was causally associated with increased BMI in both men [eGFR-adjusted beta 0.443 (0.163-0.724)] and women [0.594 (0.333-0.855)]. UNa caused BF percentage increase in men [0.622 (0.268-0.976)] and women [0.334 (0.007-0.662)]. UNa significantly elevated BMI-adjusted WHR in men [0.321 (0.094-0.548)], but not in women [0.170 (- 0.052 to 0.391)]. Additionally, we found that BMI causally increased UNa [0.043 (0.023-0.063)]. UNa increased BMI and BF percentage. Salt intake affects male body shape by increasing BMI-adjusted WHR, but showed no effects on female body shape. The bidirectional association between BMI and UNa suggested that salt reduction measures and weight reduction measures should be implemented simultaneously to break the vicious cycle and gain more health benefits.

2.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2806-2818, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917775

RESUMO

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare LEP mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in LEP, ZNF800, KLHL31, and ACTL9, and one intergenic variant near KLF14. The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in LEP was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry (P = 2 × 10-16, n = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.

3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(4): 675-681, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917362

RESUMO

Hearing loss is the most prevalent hereditary sensory disorder in children. Approximately 2 in 1000 infants are affected by genetic hearing loss. The PJVK gene, which encodes the pejvakin protein, has been linked to autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB59. Previous clinical studies have revealed that PJVK mutations might be associated with a wide spectrum of auditory manifestations, ranging from hearing loss of pure cochlear origin to that involving the retrocochlear central auditory pathway. The phenotypic variety makes the pathogenesis of this disease difficult to determine. Similarly, mouse models carrying different Pjvk defects show phenotypic variability and inconsistency. In this study, we generated a knockin mouse model carrying the c.874G > A (p.G292R) variant to model and investigate the auditory and vestibular phenotypes of DFNB59.

4.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 18: 493-500, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775487

RESUMO

Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the most common sensory disorders worldwide. Recent advances in vector design have paved the way for investigations into the use of adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) for hearing disorder gene therapy. Numerous AAV serotypes have been discovered to be applicable to inner ears, constituting a key advance for gene therapy for sensorineural hearing loss, where transduction efficiency of AAV in inner ear cells is critical for success. One such viral vector, AAV2/Anc80L65, has been shown to yield high expression in the inner ears of mice treated as neonates or adults. Here, to evaluate the feasibility of prenatal gene therapy for deafness, we assessed the transduction efficiency of AAV2/Anc80L65-eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) after microinjection into otocysts in utero. This embryonic delivery method achieved high transduction efficiency in both inner and outer hair cells of the cochlea. Additionally, the transduction efficiency was high in the hair cells of the vestibules and semicircular canals and in spiral ganglion neurons. Our results support the potential of Anc80L65 as a gene therapy vehicle for prenatal inner ear disorders.

5.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(3): pkaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596635

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic risk variants in many loci associated with multiple cancers. We sought to systematically evaluate the utility of these risk variants in identifying high-risk individuals for eight common cancers. Methods: We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using genome-wide association studies-identified risk variants for each cancer. Using data from 400 812 participants of European descent in a population-based cohort study, UK Biobank, we estimated hazard ratios associated with PRS using Cox proportional hazard models and evaluated the performance of the PRS in cancer risk prediction and their ability to identify individuals at more than a twofold elevated risk, a risk level comparable to a moderate-penetrance mutation in known cancer predisposition genes. Results: During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 14 584 incident case patients of cancers were identified (ranging from 358 epithelial ovarian cancer case patients to 4430 prostate cancer case patients). Compared with those at an average risk, individuals among the highest 5% of the PRS had a two- to threefold elevated risk for cancer of the prostate, breast, pancreas, colorectal, or ovary, and an approximately 1.5-fold elevated risk of cancer of the lung, bladder, or kidney. The areas under the curve ranged from 0.567 to 0.662. Using PRS, 40.4% of the study participants can be classified as having more than a twofold elevated risk for at least one site-specific cancer. Conclusions: A large proportion of the general population can be identified at an elevated cancer risk by PRS, supporting the potential clinical utility of PRS for personalized cancer risk prediction.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
7.
Stem Cell Res ; 45: 101795, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388442

RESUMO

Gap junction protein beta 2 gene (GJB2) mutations are the most frequent cause of hereditary hearing impairment. The recessive c.235delC mutation in the GJB2 gene is the most common mutation causing severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in the Asian population. The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated using the integration-free Sendai virus method from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a hearing-impaired patient with homozygous GJB2 c.235delC mutation. This cell line may serve as a cellular model for studying the pathogenic mechanisms of deafness caused by GJB2 mutations.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1117-1131, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional epidemiologic studies have evaluated associations between circulating lipid levels and breast cancer risk, but results have been inconsistent. As Mendelian randomization analyses may provide evidence for causal inference, we sought to evaluate potentially unbiased associations between breast cancer risk and four genetically predicted lipid traits. METHODS: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 164 discrete variants associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and total cholesterol. We used 162 of these unique variants to construct weighted genetic scores (wGSs) for a total of 101 424 breast cancer cases and 80 253 controls of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between per standard deviation increase in genetically predicted lipid traits and breast cancer risk. Additional Mendelian randomization analysis approaches and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess pleiotropy and instrument validity. RESULTS: Corresponding to approximately 15 mg/dL, one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted HDL-C was associated with a 12% increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16). Findings were consistent after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors and were robust in several sensitivity analyses. Associations with genetically predicted triglycerides and total cholesterol were inconsistent, and no association for genetically predicted LDL-C was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence that circulating HDL-C may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas LDL-C may not be related to breast cancer risk.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14554, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601870

RESUMO

Betel quid is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances, and is consumed by approximately 10% of the world's population. In addition to its carcinogenicity, betel quid has also been reported to affect many organs, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive organs. As betel quid contains several neurotoxic ingredients, we hypothesize that it also possesses ototoxicity and may lead to sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI). In this study, we investigated the contribution of betel quid consumption to SNHI in a large clinical cohort, and validated the pathogenetic mechanisms in ex vivo tissue explants. We enrolled a total of 2364 volunteers, and determined their audiologic results based on Z-scores converted from their original frequency-specific hearing thresholds. Using generalized linear regression, we identified a positive correlation between betel quid consumption and the Z-scores across different frequencies. Subsequently, we explored the toxicity of arecoline, the main neuroactive component of betel quid, on tissue explants from murine cochleae. Arecoline reduced cell activity in the explant cultures and induced apoptosis in the hair cells, probably through the effects of oxidative stress. These findings have expanded the potential hazards of betel quid to common neurological disorders, and provide insights into preventive strategies against SNHI caused by neurotoxic substances.


Assuntos
Areca/efeitos adversos , Arecolina/toxicidade , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Apoptose , Audiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101524, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415960

RESUMO

SLC26A4 is the second most frequent gene implicated in congenital hearing loss after GJB2 mutations. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), from a patient who was carrying a homozygous c.919-2A>G variant in the SLC26A4 gene. This is the most common variant of SLC26A4 gene in the Chinese population and the second most prevalent one in other Asian countries. The established patient-derived iPSC displayed all the features of pluripotent stem cell markers and had the ability to differentiate into all of the three germ layers and possessed a normal karyotype.


Assuntos
Bócio Nodular/patologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Feminino , Bócio Nodular/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Cariótipo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Saúde da Mulher , Estatura/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genética Médica/métodos , Equidade em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
16.
Neuroscience ; 412: 94-104, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185255

RESUMO

Ghrelin is an important orexigenic brain-gut hormone that regulates feeding, metabolism and glucose homeostasis in human and rodents at multiple levels. Ghrelin functions by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), which is widely expressed both inside and outside of the brain. Both acute and chronic calorie restrictions (CRs) were reported to increase endogenous ghrelin levels and lead to beneficial effects on brain functions, including anti-anxiety effects, anti-depressive effects, and memory improvement. However, the causal relationship and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we introduced acute or chronic CR to both GHS-R1a KO (Ghsr-/-) mice and WT (Ghsr+/+) littermates, and investigated anxiety- and despair-related behaviors in the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF) and forced swimming (FS) tests. We found that acute and chronic CR produced similar anxiolytic and anti-despair responses in Ghsr+/+ mice but opposite responses in Ghsr-/- mice. In particular, acute CR enhanced while chronic CR reduced anxiety- and despair-like behaviors in Ghsr-/- mice. Acute CR triggered anxiolytic and anti-despair responses in Ghsr+/+ mice. This effect was abolished by a GHS-R1a antagonist, suggesting a GHS-R1a dependent mechanism. Ad-libitum refeeding masked behavioral responses induced by acute CR in both Ghsr-/- and Ghsr+/+ mice. Altogether, our findings indicate that acute and chronic CRs mitigate anxiety- and despair-like behaviors with different physiological mechanisms, with the former being dependent on endogenous ghrelin release and GHS-R1a signaling, while the latter may not be.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipídeos/análise , Obesidade/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(15): 2615-2633, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

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