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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659440

RESUMO

Acupuncture and moxibustion have definite clinical effects on treating ulcerative colitis (UC), but their mechanism is still unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we applied herb-partitioned moxibustion or electroacupuncture at the Tianshu (ST25) points on UC rats and used RNA sequencing to identify molecular consequences. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups randomly: the normal control (NC) group, the control + herb-partitioned moxibustion (NCHM) group, the control + electroacupuncture (NCEA) group, the model (UC) group, the model + herb-partitioned moxibustion (UCHM) group, and the model + electroacupuncture (UCEA) group. Compared to the UC group, HE staining in the UCHM group and UCEA group indicated that colitis was relieved, the histopathological score and MPO were both significantly reduced, and the serum hs-CRP concentration was decreased significantly. The results of RNA-seq suggested that, compared to the NC group, 206 upregulated genes and 167 downregulated genes were identified in colon tissues from the UC group; compared to the UC group, the expression levels of some genes were both affected in the UCHM group and the UCEA group (684 differentially expressed genes were identified in the UCHM group, and 1182 differentially expressed genes were identified in the UCEA group). KEGG signal pathway analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes in the UCHM group were associated with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and cell adhesion molecule (CAM); the differentially expressed genes in the UCEA group were associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway, the toll-like receptor signaling pathways, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the MAPK signaling pathway, and the Wnt signaling pathway. This is the first study to reveal the gene expression characteristics of the anti-inflammatory effect of UC rats from the perspective of acupuncture and moxibustion control, which provide a clue for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of UC treatment by acupuncture and moxibustion.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 761582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692550

RESUMO

Noncoding ribonucleic acids (ncRNAs) are closely associated with tumor initiation, growth, and progress in lung cancer. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), as one of the three subclasses of ncRNAs, play important roles in chromatin modification, transcription, and post-transcriptional processing. Various lncRNAs have recently been reported to be dysfunctional or dysregulated in cancers and have pro- or anti-tumor potential. Importantly, as a new class of cancer biomarkers, studies have demonstrated the plausibility of using certain subsets of lncRNAs as promising diagnostic, therapeutic, or prognostic strategies to manage cancers. This review focuses on lncRNAs associated with hallmarks of lung cancer, especially those discovered in the last five years. The expression levels of these lncRNAs in tumor samples are discussed, alongside their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, and potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers for lung cancer.

5.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(11): 3117-3118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651074

RESUMO

Carex agglomerata C. B. Clarke is a sedge with excellent ornamental characters, it is an important ecosystem stabilizer. Here we report the complete chloroplast genome of C. agglomerata to provide a foundation for further phylogenetic studies on the Cyperaceae. The chloroplast (cp) genome is 184,157 bp in size and consists of a large single-copy (LSC) region 106,654 bp in length, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 36,099 bp, two inverted repeats (IR) regions each 20,702 bp. The total GC content of the cp genome is 33.9% with the LSC, SSC, and IR regions 32, 32.5, and 42.9%, respectively. The cp genome contains 128 genes, including 80 protein-coding, 40 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed C. agglomerata is in a clade with Carex neurocarpa Maxim and Carex siderosticta Hance. This study provides a basis for further phylogenetic studies of Carex.

6.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Access to acute cardiovascular care has improved and health services capacity has increased over the past decades. We assessed national changes in (1) patient characteristics, (2) in-hospital management and (3) patient outcomes among patients presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 2011-2015 in China. METHODS: In a nationally representative sample of hospitals in China, we created two random cohorts of patients in 2011 and 2015 separately. We weighted our findings to estimate nationally representative numbers and assessed changes from 2011 to 2015. Data were abstracted from medical charts centrally using standardised definitions. RESULTS: While the proportion of patients with STEMI among all patients with acute myocardial infarction decreased over time from 82.5% (95% CI 81.7 to 83.3) in 2011 to 68.5% (95% CI 67.7 to 69.3) in 2015 (p<0.0001), the weighted national estimate of patients with STEMI increased from 210 000 to 380 000. The rate of reperfusion eligibility among patients with STEMI decreased from 49.3% (95% CI 48.1 to 50.5) to 42.2% (95% CI 41.1 to 43.4) in 2015 (p<0.0001); ineligibility was principally driven by larger proportions with prehospital delay exceeding 12 hours (67.4%-76.7%, p<0.0001). Among eligible patients, the proportion receiving reperfusion therapies increased from 54% (95% CI 52.3 to 55.7) to 59.7% (95% CI 57.9 to 61.4) (p<0.0001). Crude and risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital death did not differ significantly between 2011 and 2015. CONCLUSIONS: In this most recent nationally representative study of STEMI in China, the use of acute reperfusion increased, but no significant improvement occurred in outcomes. There is a need to continue efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases, to monitor changes in in-hospital treatments and outcomes, and to reduce prehospital delay.

7.
Cell Signal ; 88: 110168, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634453

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic syndrome occurring in pregnant women and increases the risk of placental dysplasia. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may play a critical role in placental dysplasia. NETosis (neutrophil cell death by NET release) depends on NADPH/ROS pathway. In view of the adiponectin which is widely believed to be reduced in GDM patients suppresses NADPH oxidase and ROS generation of neutrophil. We speculate that increased NET release is associated with hypoadiponectinemia. Trophoblast apoptosis is significantly increased in GDM patients, but it is not clear whether NETs promotes cell apoptosis. This study aims to reveal the mechanism of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps generation and their role in trophoblast apoptosis in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. We investigated the generation of NETs by cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) quantification, live-cell imaging, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signalling pathway proteins were detected by western blotting. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to explore the effects of NETs on trophoblast apoptosis. We found that adiponectin inhibited NET release by suppressing ROS production, and p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 proteins were involved in the process. Further, NETs promoted trophoblast apoptosis by activating the ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway, which is mediated by ERK1/2 signalling. The current study demonstrated that hypoadiponectinemia is the cause of NETs formation and NETs promoting trophoblast apoptosis.

8.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211038441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596444

RESUMO

Destabilization of blood vessels by the activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been considered the main causes of aggravated secondary brain injury. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor superfamily-15 (TNFSF15; also known as vascular endothelial growth inhibitor), an inhibitor of VEGF-induced vascular hyper-permeability, when overexpressed in transgenic mice, exhibits a neuroprotective function post-ICH. In this study, we set-up a collagenase-induced ICH model with TNFSF15-transgenic mice and their transgene-negative littermates. We observed less lesion volume and neural function perturbations, together with less severe secondary injuries in the acute phase that are associated with brain edema and inflammation, including vascular permeability, oxidative stress, microglia/macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration, and neuron degeneration, in the TNFSF15 group compared with the littermate group. Additionally, we show that there is an inhibition of VEGF-induced elevation of MMP-9 in the perihematomal blood vessels of the TNFSF15 mice following ICH, concomitant with enhanced pericyte coverage of the perihematomal blood vessels. These findings are consistent with the view that TNFSF15 may have a potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of secondary injuries in the early phase of ICH.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617215

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that exposure to ambient airborne pollutants is associated with inflammatory skin diseases, but the epidemiological evidence regarding the association between air pollution and acne vulgaris is limited. To address that, a hospital-based time-series analysis was conducted in Xi'an, a metropolitan in northwest China. A total of 71,625 outpatient visits for acne from 2010 to 2013 were identified. The mean daily concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were 142.6 µg/m3, 44.7 µg/m3, and 48.5 µg/m3, and all were higher than WHO air quality guidelines. A generalized additive model was used to analyze the relationship between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and outpatient visits for acne. The gender- and age-specific analyses were conducted as well. The results showed that the increase of SO2 and NO2 concentrations corresponded to a significant rise in the number of outpatient visits for acne at lag 0 in both single-lag and cumulative exposure models. Both SO2 and NO2 were positively associated with acne outpatient visits for both males and females. In age-specific analyses, the effect estimate of PM10 was only significant for adults over 30 years old; SO2 was significantly associated with acne visits in children and adolescents (<21 years) and young adults (21-30 years); and NO2 was significantly associated with acne visits in all age subgroups. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants (PM10, SO2, or NO2) with the average levels above WHO limits was associated with increased risk of outpatient visits for both teenage acne and adult acne. Moreover, the effects of air pollutants may vary with age.

10.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(27): 8186-8191, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus poisoning (OP) is one of the common critical conditions in emergency departments in China, which is usually caused by suicide by taking oral drugs. Patients with severe OP have disturbance of consciousness, respiratory failure, toxic shock, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and so on. As far as we know, the perforation of the duodenum caused by OP has not been reported yet. CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old male patient suffered from acute severe OP, associated with abdominal pain. Multiple computed tomography scans of the upper abdomen showed no evidence of intestinal perforation. However, retrograde digital subtraction angiography, performed via an abdominal drainage tube, revealed duodenal perforation. After conservative treatment, the symptoms eased and the patient was discharged from hospital. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should pay close attention to gastrointestinal dysfunction and abdominal signs in patients with severe OP. If clinical manifestation and vital signs cannot be explained by common complications, stress duodenal ulcer or perforation should be highly suspected.

11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 717536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513956

RESUMO

With the globally increasing prevalence, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the leading cause of mortality. The transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) holds a great promise due to their potential for vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and protective cytokine release, whose mechanisms are essential for CVD therapies. In reality, many investigations have attributed the therapeutic effects of EPC transplantation to the secretion of paracrine factors rather than the differentiation function. Of note, previous studies have suggested that EPCs could also release exosomes (diameter range of 30-150 nm), which carry various lipids and proteins and are abundant in microRNAs. The EPC-derived exosomes (EPC-EXs) were reported to act on the heart and blood vessels and were implicated in anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, the inhibition of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), and cardiac fibrosis, as well as anti-vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, which were considered as protective effects against CVDs. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on using EPC-EXs as therapeutic agents and provide a detailed description of their identified mechanisms of action to promote the prognosis of CVDs.

12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e29413, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harnessing health-related data posted on social media in real time can offer insights into how the pandemic impacts the mental health and general well-being of individuals and populations over time. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to obtain information on symptoms and medical conditions self-reported by non-Twitter social media users during the COVID-19 pandemic, to determine how discussion of these symptoms and medical conditions changed over time, and to identify correlations between frequency of the top 5 commonly mentioned symptoms post and daily COVID-19 statistics (new cases, new deaths, new active cases, and new recovered cases) in the United States. METHODS: We used natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to identify symptom- and medical condition-related topics being discussed on social media between June 14 and December 13, 2020. The sample posts were geotagged by NetBase, a third-party data provider. We calculated the positive predictive value and sensitivity to validate the classification of posts. We also assessed the frequency of health-related discussions on social media over time during the study period, and used Pearson correlation coefficients to identify statistically significant correlations between the frequency of the 5 most commonly mentioned symptoms and fluctuation of daily US COVID-19 statistics. RESULTS: Within a total of 9,807,813 posts (nearly 70% were sourced from the United States), we identified a discussion of 120 symptom-related topics and 1542 medical condition-related topics. Our classification of the health-related posts had a positive predictive value of over 80% and an average classification rate of 92% sensitivity. The 5 most commonly mentioned symptoms on social media during the study period were anxiety (in 201,303 posts or 12.2% of the total posts mentioning symptoms), generalized pain (189,673, 11.5%), weight loss (95,793, 5.8%), fatigue (91,252, 5.5%), and coughing (86,235, 5.2%). The 5 most discussed medical conditions were COVID-19 (in 5,420,276 posts or 66.4% of the total posts mentioning medical conditions), unspecified infectious disease (469,356, 5.8%), influenza (270,166, 3.3%), unspecified disorders of the central nervous system (253,407, 3.1%), and depression (151,752, 1.9%). Changes in posts in the frequency of anxiety, generalized pain, and weight loss were significant but negatively correlated with daily new COVID-19 cases in the United States (r=-0.49, r=-0.46, and r=-0.39, respectively; P<.05). Posts on the frequency of anxiety, generalized pain, weight loss, fatigue, and the changes in fatigue positively and significantly correlated with daily changes in both new deaths and new active cases in the United States (r ranged=0.39-0.48; P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and symptoms of anxiety were the 2 most commonly discussed health-related topics on social media from June 14 to December 13, 2020. Real-time monitoring of social media posts on symptoms and medical conditions may help assess the population's mental health status and enhance public health surveillance for infectious disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13802-13811, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586798

RESUMO

A landfill is an important sink of plastic waste and potential sources of microplastics (MPs) when mineralized refuse is reused. However, limitations are still present in quantifying MPs in mineralized refuse and assessing their degradation degree. In this study, laser direct infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify MPs of mineralized refuse from a landfill. Although 25-113 items/g MPs were detected in particles subjected to flotation, 37.9-674 µg/g polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 0.0716-1.01 µg/g polycarbonate (PC) were detected in the residual solids by LC-MS/MS, indicating a great amount of plastic polymers still presented in the residue. This suggests that the commonly used flotation-counting method will lead to significant underestimation of MP pollution in mineralized refuse, which might be due to the aging and aggregation process caused by the long-term landfill process. The ratio of "bisphenol A/PC" and "plasticizer/MPs" was found to be positively correlated and negatively correlated with the landfill age, respectively. Therefore, in addition to the spectral index such as the carbonyl index, new indexes based on the concentrations of polymers, free monomers, and plasticizers were proposed to characterize the degradation degree of MPs in a landfill.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4833-4840, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581095

RESUMO

A detection method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) was established to detect concentrations of isoorientin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin and kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside in H9 c2 cells and applied to the pharmacokinetic study of Polygonum orientale extract in the cells. H9 c2 cells were treated with 100 µg·mL~(-1) P. orientale extract and then they and the corresponding nuclei, mitochondria and Golgi bodies were collected at the set time. After protein precipitation, UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine concentrations of isoorientin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin and kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside in the whole cells and subcellular structures. Also, related pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the peak time was 8 h for all these components. Orientin, vitexin, quercetin and isoorientin have high affinities to nuclei and mitochondria, while the affinity of kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside is higher with mitochondria compared to nuclei. It is suggested that these chemical components of P. orientale may mainly act on nuclei or mitochondria to exert pharmacological effects of protecting cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Polygonum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 48, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aidi Injection (ADI), a Chinese herbal preparation with anti-cancer activity, is used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several clinical studies have shown that co-administration of ADI with doxorubicin (DOX) is associated with reduced toxicity of chemotherapy, enhanced clinical efficacy and improved quality of life for patients. However, limited information is available about the herb-drug interactions between ADI and DOX. The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic mechanism of herb-drug interactions between ADI and DOX in a rat model of HCC. METHODS: Experimental HCC was induced in rats by oral administration of diethylnitrosamine. The HCC rats were pretreated with ADI (10 mL/kg, intraperitoneal injection) for 14 consecutive days prior to administration of DOX (7 mg/kg, intravenous injection) to investigate pharmacokinetic interactions. Plasma concentrations of DOX and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol (DOXol), were determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: Preadministration of ADI significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of DOX in HCC rats, leading to increased plasma concentrations of both DOX and DOXol. The area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUCs) of DOX and DOXol in rats pretreated with ADI were 3.79-fold and 2.92-fold higher, respectively, than those in control rats that did not receive ADI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of DOX and DOXol were found in the plasma of HCC rats pretreated with ADI.

16.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an impedance cardiography (ICG) guided treatment strategy on improving blood pressure (BP) control in real-world clinical practice. DESIGN: A single-centre, pragmatic randomised trial. SETTING: A hypertension clinic of the Peking University People's Hospital in Beijing, China. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who sought outpatient care for hypertension in the hypertension clinic at the Peking University People's Hospital between June and December 2019. INTERVENTIONS: A computerised clinical decision support of recommending treatment choices to providers based on patients' haemodynamic profiles measured by ICG. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) levels at the follow-up visit 4-12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included achievement of BP goal of <140/90 mm Hg and the changes in BP by baseline BP, age, sex and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: A total of 102 adults (mean age was 54±14 years; 41% were women) completed the study. The mean baseline SBP was 150.9 (SD of 11.5) mm Hg and mean baseline DBP was 91.1 (11.3) mm Hg. At the follow-up visit, the mean SBP and DBP decreased by 19.9 and 11.3 mm Hg in the haemodynamic group, as compared with 12.0 and 4.9 mm Hg in the standard care group (p value for difference between groups <0.001). The proportion of patients achieving BP goal of <140/90 mm Hg in the haemodynamic group was 67%, as compared with 41% in the standard care group (p=0.017). The haemodynamic group had a larger effect on BP reduction consistently across subgroups by age, sex, BMI and baseline BP. CONCLUSIONS: An ICG-guided treatment strategy led to greater reductions in BP levels than were observed with standard care in a real-world population of outpatients with hypertension. There is a need for further validation of this strategy for improving blood pressure treatment selection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04715698.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2127573, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586366

RESUMO

Importance: Dyslipidemia, the prevalence of which historically has been low in China, is emerging as the second leading yet often unaddressed factor associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, recent national data on the prevalence, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia are lacking. Objective: To assess the prevalence, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in community residents and the availability of lipid-lowering medications in primary care institutions in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the China-PEACE (Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) Million Persons Project, which enrolled 2 660 666 community residents aged 35 to 75 years from all 31 provinces in China between December 2014 and May 2019, and the China-PEACE primary health care survey of 3041 primary care institutions. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to March 2021. Exposures: Study period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the prevalence of dyslipidemia, which was defined as total cholesterol greater than or equal to 240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than or equal to 160 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) less than 40 mg/dL, triglycerides greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL, or self-reported use of lipid-lowering medications, in accordance with the 2016 Chinese Adult Dyslipidemia Prevention Guideline. Results: This study included 2 314 538 participants with lipid measurements (1 389 322 women [60.0%]; mean [SD] age, 55.8 [9.8] years). Among them, 781 865 participants (33.8%) had dyslipidemia. Of 71 785 participants (3.2%) who had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and were recommended by guidelines for lipid-lowering medications regardless of LDL-C levels, 10 120 (14.1%) were treated. The overall control rate of LDL-C (≤70 mg/dL) among adults with established ASCVD was 26.6% (19 087 participants), with the control rate being 44.8% (4535 participants) among those who were treated and 23.6% (14 552 participants) among those not treated. Of 236 579 participants (10.2%) with high risk of ASCVD, 101 474 (42.9%) achieved LDL-C less than or equal to 100 mg/dL. Among participants with established ASCVD, advanced age (age 65-75 years, odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.56-0.70), female sex (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.53-0.58), lower income (reference category), smoking (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94), alcohol consumption (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.83-0.92), and not having diabetes (reference category) were associated with lower control of LDL-C. Among participants with high risk of ASCVD, younger age (reference category) and female sex (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.56-0.59) were associated with lower control of LDL-C. Of 3041 primary care institutions surveyed, 1512 (49.7%) stocked statin and 584 (19.2%) stocked nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs. Village clinics in rural areas had the lowest statin availability. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that dyslipidemia has become a major public health problem in China and is often inadequately treated and uncontrolled. Statins were available in less than one-half of the primary care institutions. Strategies aimed at detection, prevention, and treatment are needed.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43562-43572, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468117

RESUMO

As a typical correlated metal oxide, vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows specific metal-insulator transition (MIT) properties and demonstrates great potential applications in ultrafast optoelectronic switch, resistive memory, and neuromorphic devices. Effective control of the MIT process is essential for improving the device performance. In the current study, we have first proposed a photoassisted ion-doping method to modulate the phase transition of the VO2 layer based on the photovoltaic effect and electron-ion synergic doping in acid solution. Experimental results show that, for the prepared n-VO2/p-GaN nanojunction, this photoassisted strategy can effectively dope the n-VO2 layer by H+, Al3+, or Mg2+ ions under light radiation and trigger consecutive insulator-metal-insulator transitions. If combined with standard lithography or electron beam etching processes, selective doping with nanoscale size area can also be achieved. This photoassisted doping method not only shows a facile route for MIT modulation via a doping route under ambient conditions but also supplies some clues for photosensitive detection in the future.

19.
Vet Microbiol ; 261: 109187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399296

RESUMO

Chicken colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), and results in huge economic losses to the poultry industry. With the investigation of the gut-lung axis, more studies have demonstrated the important role of gut microbiota in lung inflammation. The precise role of the gut microbiota in chickens-associated colibacillosis, however, is unknown. Thus, this study assessed the function of the gut microbiota in the chicken defense against APEC infection. Chicken gut microbiota was depleted by drinking water with a mixture of antibiotics (Abx), and subsequently, a model of colibacillosis was established by the intranasal perfusion of APEC. The results showed that gut microbiota protects the chicken challenge by APEC from aggravated lung histopathologic injury, up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and increased bacterial load in lung tissues compared with controls. In addition, the air-blood barrier permeability was significantly increased in gut microbiota-depleted chickens compared to the control chickens after challenge with APEC. Furthermore, feeding acetate significantly inhibited the lung inflammatory response and the reduced air-blood permeability induced by APEC infection. The expression of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), a receptor for acetate, was also increased in the lung after treatment with acetate. In conclusion, depletion of the gut microbiota resulted in increased susceptibility of chickens to APEC challenge, and gut microbiota derived acetate acted as a protective mediator during the APEC challenge. Novel therapeutic targets that focus on the gut microbiota may be effective in controlling colibacillosis in poultry.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e020554, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350769

RESUMO

Background Adventitial remodeling is a pathological hallmark of hypertension that results in target organ damage. Activated adventitial fibroblasts have emerged as critical regulators in this process, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Methods and Results Interleukin 11 (IL-11) knockout and wild-type mice were subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion to establish models of hypertension-associated vascular remodeling. IL-11 mRNA and protein were increased especially in the adventitia in response to Ang II. Compared with wild-type mice, Ang II-treated IL-11 knockout mice showed amelioration of vascular hypertrophy, adventitial fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, and inflammatory factor expression. Recombination mouse IL-11 exacerbated adventitial fibrosis in Ang II-infused wild-type mice. Interestingly, IL-11 neutralizing antibody attenuated adventitial fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, and inflammatory factor expression after Ang II infusion for 7 days. Mechanistically, in primary cultured adventitial fibroblasts, Krüppel-like factor 15 negatively regulated Ang II-induced IL-11 expression. Ang II increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation, especially in adventitia, and caused biphasic extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in adventitial fibroblasts. A rapid and early activation increased IL-11 production through decreasing Krüppel-like factor 15 expression, which, in turn, induced the second extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation, resulting in posttranscriptional profibrotic gene expression. Conclusions These results demonstrate that extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation is important for Krüppel-like factor 15-mediated IL-11 expression in adventitial fibroblasts to promote adventitial remodeling in Ang II-induced hypertension. Therefore, targeting the Krüppel-like factor 15/IL-11 axis might serve as a new therapeutic strategy for vascular diseases.

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