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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 603-608, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018184

RESUMO

ß2-Microglobulin (ß2M), a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, is associated with aging-related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Although upregulation of ß2M is considered to be highly related to ischemic stroke, the specific role and underlying mechanistic action of ß2M are poorly understood. In this study, we established a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. We found that ß2M levels in the cerebral spinal fluid, serum, and brain tissue were significantly increased in the acute period but gradually decreased during the recovery period. RNA interference was used to inhibit ß2M expression in the acute period of cerebral stroke. Tissue staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and evaluation of cognitive function using the Morris water maze test demonstrated that decreased ß2M expression in the ischemic penumbra reduced infarct volume and alleviated cognitive deficits, respectively. Notably, glial cell, caspase-1 (p20), and Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation as well as production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were also effectively inhibited by ß2M silencing. These findings suggest that ß2M participates in brain injury and cognitive impairment in a rat model of ischemic stroke through activation of neuroinflammation associated with the NLRP3 inflammasome.

2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 19(9): 983-988, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years). According to the onset season, all children were divided into spring group (March to May, 120 children), summer group (June to August, 93 children), autumn group (September to November, 105 children), and winter group (December to February, 204 children). Sputum specimens from the deep airway were collected from all patients. The phoenix-100 automatic bacterial identification system was used for bacterial identification and drug sensitivity test. The direct immunofluorescence assay was used to detect seven common respiratory viruses. The quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). RESULTS: Of all the 522 children with severe CAP, 419 (80.3%) were found to have pathogens, among whom 190 (45.3%) had mixed infection. A total of 681 strains of pathogens were identified, including 371 bacterial strains (54.5%), 259 viral strains (38.0%), 12 fungal strains (1.8%), 15 MP strains (2.2%), and 24 CT strains (3.5%). There were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial, viral, MP, and fungal infections between different age groups (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the incidence rate of viral infection between different season groups (P<0.05), with the highest incidence rate in winter. The drug-resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin reached above 85%, and the drug-resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin were above 50%; they were all sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. The drug-resistance rates of Haemophilus influenzae to cefaclor and cefuroxime were above 60%, but it was sensitive to cefotaxime. The drug-resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone were above 60%, but they were sensitive to carbapenems and compound preparation of enzyme inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria are the main pathogens in children with severe CAP and mixed infection is prevalent. The drug-resistance rates of these pathogenic bacteria are high.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Adolescente , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
3.
Springerplus ; 5: 315, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27066346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linear headache (LH) has recently been described as a paroxysmal or continuous head pain restricted in a linear trajectory of 5-10 mm in width, linking one endpoint in occipital or occipitocervical region with another endpoint in ipsilateral nasion or forehead region. The sagittal line-shaped pain area of LH is close and parallel to a sagittal venous sinus, the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). For some patients, the LH had some features resembling the pattern of migraine without aura. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45 year-old woman complained with a distinct headache for more than half years. The pain trajectory of the headache is confined to a coronal line-shaped area of 5-10 mm in width linking the two points in the bilateral temporal regions with the occipital protuberance. This coronal line-shaped pain area is close and parallel to a coronal cambered venous sinus complex, the combination of the confluences of sinus and the bilateral cavernous sinus (CS), superior petrosal sinus (SPS) linking the CS with transverse sinus (TS) and TS into which the SPS feeds. The patient had a past history of migraine without aura for 10 years and her son had a benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV) for 12 years. Both of her coronal line-shaped headache and her son's vertigo had well response to sodium valproate. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Its clinical characteristics were distinctly different from those of other two headache entities defined with topographical criteria, nummular headache and epicrania fugax, and different from other existing headache entities except for migraine without aura. CONCLUSION: The distinct coronal line-shaped headache is suggestive of a variant of LH, a coronal LH, and probably belongs to a subtype of migraine without aura as proposed for LH. This coronal LH reinforces the proposal of LH as a new headache syndrome or a subtype of a previously known headache syndrome, probably of migraine.

4.
Springerplus ; 5: 347, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linear headache (LH) has recently been described as a paroxysmal or continuous fixed head pain restricted in a linear trajectory of 5-10 mm in width, linking one endpoint in occipital or occipitocervical region with another endpoint in ipsilateral nasion or forehead region. For some patients, this headache had some features resembling migraine without aura. METHODS: We made a prospective search of patients presenting with a clinical picture comprised under the heading of LH and we have accessed eight new cases. A detailed clinical feature of the headache was obtained in all cases to differentiate with cranial neuralgia, paroxysmal hemicrania, cervicogenic headache, nummular headache and migraine. RESULTS: The eight LH patients complained of a recurrent moderate to severe, distending, pulsating, or pressure-like pain within a strictly unilateral line-shaped area. The headache duration would be ranged from 1 h to 2 days or persistent for 1-6 months with recurrent worsening of headaches. For some patients, this headache had couple of features similar to that of migraine pattern, such as accompaniments of nausea, vomiting, and phonophobia, diziness, triggering factors of noise, bright night, resting after physical activity, fatigue, menstruation, and response to anti-migraine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This description reinforces the proposal of LH as a new headache syndrome or a new variant of a previously known headache syndrome, probably of migraine.

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