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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 441, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower selection intensities in indigenous breeds of Chinese pig have resulted in obvious genetic and phenotypic divergence. One such breed, the Nanyang black pig, is renowned for its high lipid deposition and high genetic divergence, making it an ideal model in which to investigate lipid position trait mechanisms in pigs. An understanding of lipid deposition in pigs might improve pig meat traits in future breeding and promote the selection progress of pigs through modern molecular breeding techniques. Here, transcriptome and tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteome (TMT)-based proteome analyses were carried out using longissimus dorsi (LD) tissues from individual Nanyang black pigs that showed high levels of genetic variation. RESULTS: A large population of Nanyang black pigs was phenotyped using multi-production trait indexes, and six pigs were selected and divided into relatively high and low lipid deposition groups. The combined transcriptomic and proteomic data identified 15 candidate genes that determine lipid deposition genetic divergence. Among them, FASN, CAT, and SLC25A20 were the main causal candidate genes. The other genes could be divided into lipid deposition-related genes (BDH2, FASN, CAT, DHCR24, ACACA, GK, SQLE, ACSL4, and SCD), PPARA-centered fat metabolism regulatory factors (PPARA, UCP3), transcription or translation regulators (SLC25A20, PDK4, CEBPA), as well as integrin, structural proteins, and signal transduction-related genes (EGFR). CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omics data set has provided a valuable resource for future analysis of lipid deposition traits, which might improve pig meat traits in future breeding and promote the selection progress in pigs, especially in Nanyang black pigs.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650431

RESUMO

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is broadly used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, but its low ionic and electronic conductivity limit the rate performance. We report herein the synthesis of LiFePO4/graphite composites in which LiFePO4 nanoparticles were grown within a graphite matrix. The graphite matrix is porous, highly conductive, and mechanically robust, giving electrodes outstanding cycle performance and high rate capability. High-mass-loading electrodes with high reversible capacity (160 mA h g-1 under 0.2 C), ultrahigh rate capability (107 mA h g-1 under 60 C), and outstanding cycle performance (>95% reversible capacity retention over 2000 cycles) were achieved, providing a new strategy toward low-cost, long-life, and high-power batteries. Adoption of such material leads to electrodes with volumetric energy density as high as 427 W h L-1 under 60 C, which is of great interest for electric vehicles and other applications.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous applications of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapeutics, animal models available to test the therapeutic efficacy of new mAbs are limited. NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rg tm1Wjl /SzJ (NSG) mice are one of the most highly immunodeficient strains and are universally used as a model for testing cancer-targeting mAbs. However, this strain lacks several factors necessary to fully support antibody-mediated effector functions-including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC)-due to the absence of immune cells as well as a mutation in the Hc gene, which is needed for a functional complement system. METHODS: We have developed a humanized mouse model using a novel NSG strain, NOD.Cg-Hc1 Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG-Hc1), which contains the corrected mutation in the Hc gene to support CDC in addition to other mechanisms endowed by humanization. With this model, we reevaluated the anticancer efficacies of nanoencapsulated rituximab after xenograft of the human Burkitt lymphoma cell line 2F7-BR44. RESULTS: As expected, xenografted humanized NSG-Hc1 mice supported superior lymphoma clearance of native rituximab compared with the parental NSG strain. Nanoencapsulated rituximab with CXCL13 conjugation as a targeting ligand for lymphomas further enhanced antilymphoma activity in NSG-Hc1 mice and, more importantly, mediated antilymphoma cellular responses. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that NSG-Hc1 mice can serve as a feasible model for both studying antitumor treatment using cancer targeting as well as understanding induction mechanisms of antitumor cellular immune response.

4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(3): e23682, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of malignancy risk for pulmonary lesions with pleural effusion improves early diagnosis of lung cancer. This study aimed to develop and validate a model to predict lung cancer. METHODS: Clinical data of 536 patients with pulmonary diseases were collected. The risk factors were identified by regression analysis. Three prediction models were developed. The predictive performances of the models were measured by the area under the curves (AUCs) and calibrated with 1000 bootstrap samples to minimize the over-fitting bias. The net benefits of the models were evaluated by decision curve analysis. Finally, a separate cohort of 134 patients was used to validate the models externally. RESULTS: Seven independent risk factors were identified from 18 clinical variables, which included the pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), serum cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1), the ratio of CEA in the pleural fluid to serum, extrathoracic cancer history (>5 years), tumor size, vessel convergence, and lobulation. The AUCs of the three models were 0.976, 0.927, and 0.944 in the training set and 0.930, 0.845, and 0.944 in the external set, respectively. The accuracies of the three models were 89.6%, 81.4%, and 88.8%. Model 1 showed the best iteration fit (R2  = 0.84, 0.68, and 0.73) and a higher net benefit on decision curve analysis when compared to the other two models. CONCLUSION: The advantageous model could assess the risk of lung cancer in patients with pleural effusion and act as a useful tool for early identification of lung cancer.

5.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether seizure onset zone can be accurately localized prior to surgical planning in focal epilepsy patients, we performed non-invasive EEG recordings and source localization analyses on 39 patients. METHODS: In a total of 39 focal epilepsy patients, we recorded and extracted 138 seizures and 1,325 interictal epileptic discharges using high-density EEG. We have investigated a novel approach for directly imaging sources of seizures and interictal spikes from high density EEG recordings, and rigorously validated it for noninvasive localization of seizure onset zone (SOZ) determined from intracranial EEG findings and surgical resection volume. Conventional source imaging analyses were also performed for comparison. RESULTS: Ictal source imaging showed a concordance rate of 95% when compared to intracranial EEG or resection results. The average distance from estimation to seizure onset (intracranial) electrodes is 1.35 cm in patients with concordant results, and 0.74 cm to surgical resection boundary in patients with successful surgery. About 41% of the patients were found to have multiple types of interictal activities; coincidentally, a lower concordance rate and a significantly worse performance in localizing SOZ were observed in these patients. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ictal source imaging with high-density EEG recording can provide highly concordant results with clinical decisions obtained by invasive monitoring or confirmed by resective surgery. By means of direct seizure imaging using high-density scalp EEG recordings, the added value of ictal source imaging is particularly high in patients with complex interictal activity patterns, who may represent the most challenging cases with poor prognosis.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5215, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060606

RESUMO

The sluggish electrochemical kinetics of sulfur species has impeded the wide adoption of lithium-sulfur battery, which is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage system. Here, we present the electronic and geometric structures of all possible sulfur species and construct an electronic energy diagram to unveil their reaction pathways in batteries, as well as the molecular origin of their sluggish kinetics. By decoupling the contradictory requirements of accelerating charging and discharging processes, we select two pseudocapacitive oxides as electron-ion source and drain to enable the efficient transport of electron/Li+ to and from sulfur intermediates respectively. After incorporating dual oxides, the electrochemical kinetics of sulfur cathode is significantly accelerated. This strategy, which couples a fast-electrochemical reaction with a spontaneous chemical reaction to bypass a slow-electrochemical reaction pathway, offers a solution to accelerate an electrochemical reaction, providing new perspectives for the development of high-energy battery systems.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(43): 48495-48510, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050703

RESUMO

The development of highly efficient and low-cost bifunctional noble metal-free electrocatalysts for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is an effective strategy for improving efficiency. Herein, novel three-dimensional (3D) bimetallic metal-organic frameworks containing Ni and V with adjustable stoichiometry were synthesized on nickel foam successfully. Notably, Ni2V-MOFs@NF only require rather low overpotentials of 244 and 89 mV for the OER and HER, respectively, and expedites overall water splitting with 1.55 V at 10 mA cm-2 with robust durability during the 80 h test. The high efficiency of the novel obtained electrocatalysts should be attributed to the particular morphological design of the two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin nanosheets self-assembling into a 3D nanoflower and the electronic structure regulation resulting from the synergetic interaction between nickel and vanadium. Subsequent theoretical calculations reveal the following conclusions: (I) the exceptional electronic conductivity of Ni2V-MOFs shows enhanced optimization as a result of electronic structure reconstruction, (II) the energy barrier reduction of the rate-limiting step is responsible for the enhanced dynamics of Ni2V-MOFs for the OER, and (III) the facilitation of the adsorption of H+ and H2O plays a key role in progressing the HER catalytic activity of Ni2V-MOFs.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(88): 13603-13606, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057502

RESUMO

Adding particles of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into liquid electrolytes leads to semiliquid electrolytes, where nanoporous MOFs enclose anions while facilitating lithium-ion conduction. The improved transport efficiency of lithium-ions in semiliquid electrolytes boosts effective reaction kinetics, mitigates polarization, and produces affinitive electrolyte-electrode interfaces, which afford enhanced cycle durability for high-rate lithium batteries.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(39): 43824-43832, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896128

RESUMO

A new family of solid-like electrolytes was developed by infiltrating MIL-100(Al), an electrochemically stable metal-organic-framework (MOF) material, with liquid electrolytes that contain cations from the 3rd period (Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+) and the 1st group (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+). The anions were immobilized within the MOF scaffolds upon complexing with the open metal sites, allowing effective transport of the cations in the nanoporous channels with high conductivity (up to 1 mS cm-1) and low activation energy (down to 0.2 eV). This general approach enables the fabrication of superior conductive solid-like electrolytes beyond lithium ions.

10.
Adv Mater ; 32(43): e2004901, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924219

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on people worldwide, and there are currently no specific antivirus drugs or vaccines. Herein it is a therapeutic based on catalase, an antioxidant enzyme that can effectively breakdown hydrogen peroxide and minimize the downstream reactive oxygen species, which are excessively produced resulting from the infection and inflammatory process, is reported. Catalase assists to regulate production of cytokines, protect oxidative injury, and repress replication of SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated in human leukocytes and alveolar epithelial cells, and rhesus macaques, without noticeable toxicity. Such a therapeutic can be readily manufactured at low cost as a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Catalase/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(35): 9287-9298, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786824

RESUMO

3-Chlorogentisate is a key intermediate in the catabolism of the herbicide dicamba in R. dicambivorans Ndbn-20. In this study, we identified two gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases (GDOs), DsmD and GtdA, from Ndbn-20. The amino acid sequence similarity between DsmD and GtdA is 51%. Both of them are dimers and showed activities to gentisate and 3-chlorogentisate but not 3,6-dichlorogentisate (3,6-DCGA) or 6-chlorogentisate in vitro. The kcat/Km of DsmD for 3-chlorogentisate was 28.7 times higher than that of GtdA, whereas the kcat/Km of DsmD for gentisate was only one-fourth of that of GtdA. Transcription of dsmD was dramatically induced by 3-chlorogentisate but not gentisate, whereas gtdA was not induced. Disruption of dsmD resulted in a significant decline in the degradation rates of 3-chlorogentisate and dicamba but had no effect on the degradation of gentisate, whereas the result of disruption of gtdA was converse; the disruption of both dsmD and gtdA led to the inability to degrade 3-chlorogentisate and gentisate. This study revealed that 3-chlorogentisate but not gentisate or 3,6-DCGA is the ring-cleavage substrate in the dicamba degradation pathway in R. dicambivorans Ndbn-20; DsmD is specifically responsible for cleavage of 3-chlorogentisate, whereas GtdA is a general GDO involved in the catabolism of various natural aromatic compounds.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(35): 39127-39134, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805915

RESUMO

Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and low cost. However, significant capacity fading caused by severe structural degradation during cycling limits its practical implication. To overcome this barrier, we design a covalently bonded nanocomposite of silicon and poly(vinyl alcohol) (Si-PVA) by high-energy ball-milling of a mixture of micron-sized Si and PVA. The obtained Si nanoparticles are wrapped by resilient PVA coatings that covalently bond to the Si particles. In such nanostructures, the soft PVA coatings can accommodate the volume change of the Si particles during repeated lithiation and delithiation. Simultaneously, as formed covalent bonds enhance the mechanical strength of the coatings. Due to the significantly improved structural stability, the Si-PVA composite delivers a lifespan of 100 cycles with a high capacity of 1526 mAh g-1. In addition, a high initial Coulombic efficiency of over 86% and an average value of 99.2% in subsequent cycles can be achieved. This reactive ball-milling strategy provides a low-cost and scalable route to fabricate high-performance anode materials.

13.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120940271, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no consensus methods to evaluate the high-risk factors and prognosis for managing the personalized treatment schedule of patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) before treatment. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is regarded as a kind of technique to assess heterogeneity of malignant tumor. PURPOSE: To explore the role of ADC value in assessing the high-risk factors and prognosis of EC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made on 185 patients with EC who underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean ADC (mADC), minimum ADC (minADC), and maximum ADC (maxADC) were measured and compared in different groups. RESULTS: Among the 185 patients with EC, the mADC and maxADC values in those with high-risk factors (type 2, deep myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastasis) were significantly lower than in those without. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the areas under the curve (AUC) were significant for mADC, minADC, and maxADC predicting high-risk factors. Furthermore, the AUCs were significant for mADC and maxADC predicting lymph node metastasis but were not significant for minADC. Patients with lower mADC were associated with worse overall survival and disease-free survival; the opposite was true for patients with higher mADC. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that ADC values could be applied to assess the high-risk factors of EC before treatment and might significantly relate to the prognosis of EC. It might contribute to managing initial individualized treatment schedule and improve outcome in patients with EC.

14.
Nanoscale ; 12(26): 13918-13925, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588865

RESUMO

Particular recent interest has been given to the Li2TiSiO5 (LTSO) anode material owing to its low lithiation potential (0.28 V vs. Li/Li+) and decent theoretical capacity (308 mA h g-1). However, its poor electronic conductivity (∼10-7 S m-1) fundamentally limits the utilization of this material, and current strategies fail to tackle such issues in practical ways. Herein, a hierarchical microparticulate LTSO-carbon composite (LTSO/C) is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), where microsized LTSO/C particles assembled from nanospheres guarantee a practical tap density of ∼1.3 g mL-1. Meanwhile, significantly elevated conductivity of LTSO/C (∼103 S m-1) is achieved by a thin layer (15 nm) of graphitic carbon growth on LTSO, which is theoretically catalyzed by the surface functional groups on the parent LTSO. The electrochemical characterization of LTSO/C reveals a superior graphite-like volumetric capacity of 441.1 mA h cm-3 and Li4Ti5O12-like rate capability (120.1 mA h cm-3 at 4.5 A g-1), providing inspiring guidance for designing analogous Ti or Si-based compounds for ultrafast lithium storage materials.

15.
Nano Lett ; 20(7): 5435-5442, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491862

RESUMO

High-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) demand efficient and selective transport of lithium ions. Inspired by ion channels in biology systems, lithium-ion channels are constructed by chemically modifying the nanoporous channels of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with negatively charged sulfonate groups. Analogous to the biological ion channels, such pendant anionic moieties repel free anions while allowing efficient transport of cations through the pore channels. Implementing such MOFs as an electrolyte membrane doubly enhances the lithium-ion transference number, alleviates concentration polarization, and affords striking durability of high-rate LIBs. This work demonstrates an ion-selective material design that effectively tunes the ion-transport behavior and could assist with more efficient operation of LIBs.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 577: 48-53, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464338

RESUMO

Porous carbon materials are promising candidates for anode materials in rechargeable potassium-ion batteries. However, their high surface area and low crystallinity usually cause side reactions with electrolytes and slanted charge/discharge profiles. Herein, we report the synthesis of porous carbon microspheres with highly graphitized structure and enhanced potassium-ion storage properties. The prepared carbon microspheres exhibit a low working potential of ~0.2 V, high Coulombic efficiency, and a stable reversible capacity of 292.0 mAh/g after 100 cycles, which is significantly higher than that of commercial graphite (137.5 mAh/g after 100 cycles). These desirable performances are attributed to the high crystallinity of carbon and its porous structure, which provide active sites for potassium-ion storage and alleviate the stress caused by the large volume change during the insertion and extraction of potassium ions.

17.
Small ; 16(24): e2000794, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419375

RESUMO

The development of lithium metal anodes capable of sustaining large volume changes, avoiding lithium dendrite formation, and remaining stable in ambient air is crucial for commercially viable lithium metal batteries. Toward this goal, the fabrication of porous and lithiophilic copper scaffolds via a powder metallurgy strategy is reported. Infiltrating the scaffolds with molten lithium followed by exposure to Freon R134a produces lithium metal anodes with dramatically improved rate performance and cycling stability. This work provides a simple yet effective route for the fabrication of safe, low-cost lithium metal batteries with high energy density.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(39): 17182-17186, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463933

RESUMO

Highly effective photocatalysts for the hydrogen-evolution reaction were developed by conferring the linkers of NH2 -MIL-125(Ti), a metal-organic framework (MOF) constructed from TiOx clusters and 2-aminoterephthalic acid (linkers), with active copper centers. This design enables effective transfer of electrons from the linkers to the transient Cu2+ /Cu+ centers, leading to 7000-fold and 27-fold increase of carrier density and lifetime of photogenerated charges, respectively, as well as high-rate production of H2 under visible-light irradiation. This work provides a novel design of a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution using non-noble Cu2+ /Cu+ as co-catalysts.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1191, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132527

RESUMO

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have been regarded as the most promising candidate for fuel cell vehicles and tools. Their broader adaption, however, has been impeded by cost and lifetime. By integrating a thin layer of tungsten oxide within the anode, which serves as a rapid-response hydrogen reservoir, oxygen scavenger, sensor for power demand, and regulator for hydrogen-disassociation reaction, we herein report proton exchange membrane fuel cells with significantly enhanced power performance for transient operation and low humidified conditions, as well as improved durability against adverse operating conditions. Meanwhile, the enhanced power performance minimizes the use of auxiliary energy-storage systems and reduces costs. Scale fabrication of such devices can be readily achieved based on the current fabrication techniques with negligible extra expense. This work provides proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced power performance, improved durability, prolonged lifetime, and reduced cost for automotive and other applications.

20.
Anal Chem ; 92(8): 5830-5837, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202407

RESUMO

The present study demonstrates the use of highly stable single-molecule enzyme nanocapsules (SMENs) instead of traditional native enzyme as biorecognition element in enzyme-based biosensors. The main purpose of this study is to resolve the major obstacle and challenge in the biosensor field, i.e., the poor stability of enzyme-based biosensors, including thermal stability, organic solvent tolerance, long-term operational stability, etc. Highly active and robust SMENs of glucose oxidase (GOx, as a model enzyme) were synthesized (nGOx) using an in situ polymerization strategy in an aqueous environment. The particle-size distribution, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images, and UV-vis spectral characterization revealed the formation of a thin polymer layer around each enzyme molecule. The polymer shell effectively stabilized the GOx enzyme core while enabling rapid substrate transportation, resulting in a new class of biocatalytic nanocapsules. Multiple covalent attachments between a thin polymer layer and an enzyme molecule strengthened the encapsulated GOx molecule. Encapsulation created a favorable microenvironment to avoid any structural dissociation at high temperature and helped to retain essential water during the organic solvent operation. The present work reports a study implementing nGOx SMENs as highly stable nano(bio)sensors for point-of-care diagnostic applications. Prepared nGOx SMENs manifested significantly improved thermal stability (even at 65 °C) and organic solvent tolerance without any compromise in biocatalytic activity. For example, the native GOx-based biosensor lost its catalytic activity for glucose after 4 h of incubation at high temperature (65 °C), while the nGOx/N-CNTs-Chi/GCE nano(bio)sensor maintained ∼56% of its original catalytic activity for glucose oxidation. The proposed SMENs-based nano(bio)sensors with robust stability in variable working environment could promote the development and applications of biosensors in point-of care diagnostics, biomedical detection, wearable devices, implantable equipment, and biofuel cells.

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