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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0217521, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818103

RESUMO

Mature vinegar culture has usually been used as a type of autochthonous starter for rapidly initiate initiating the next batch of acetic acid fermentation (AAF) and maintaining the batch-to-batch uniformity of AAF in the production of traditional cereal vinegar. However, the vitality and dominance of functional microbes in autochthonous starters remain unclear, which hinders further improvement of fermentation yield and production. Here, based on metagenomic (MG), metatranscriptomic (MT), and 16S rRNA gene sequencings, 11 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significant metabolic activity (MT/MG ratio >1) and dominance (relative abundance >1%) were targeted in the autochthonous vinegar starter, all of which were assigned to 4 species (Acetobacter pasteurianus, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, L. helveticus, Acetilactobacillus jinshanensis). Then, we evaluated the successions and interactions of these 11 bacterial OTUs at different AAF stages. Last, a defined starter was constructed with 4 core species isolated from the autochthonous starter (A. pasteurianus, L. acetotolerans, L. helveticus, Ac. jinshanensis). The defined starter culture could rapidly initiate the AAF in a sterile or unsterilized environment and similar dynamics of metabolites (ethanol, titratable acidity, acetic acid, lactic acid, and volatile compounds) and environmental indexes (temperature, pH) of fermentation were observed as compared with that of autochthonous starter (P > 0.05). This work provides a method to construct a defined microbiota from a complex system while preserving its metabolic function. IMPORTANCE Complex microorganisms are beneficial to the flavor formation in natural food fermentation, but they also pose challenges to the mass production of standardized products. It is attractive to construct a defined starter to rapidly initiate fermentation process and significantly improve fermentation yield. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of vital and dominant species in the autochthonous vinegar starter via multi-omics, and designs a defined microbial community for the efficient fermentation of cereal vinegar.

2.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(11): 2796-2807, 2021 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738786

RESUMO

Chromosomal integration of exogenous genes is preferred for industrially related fermentation, as plasmid-mediated fermentation leads to extra metabolic burden and genetic instability. Moreover, with the development and advancement of genome engineering and gene editing technologies, inserting genes into chromosomes has become more convenient; integration expression is extensively utilized in microorganisms for industrial bioproduction and expected to become the trend of recombinant protein expression. However, in actual research and application, it is important to enhance the expression of heterologous genes at the host genome level. Herein, we summarized the basic principles and characteristics of genomic integration; furthermore, we highlighted strategies to improve the expression of chromosomal integration of genes and pathways in host strains from three aspects, including chassis cell optimization, regulation of expression elements in gene expression cassettes, optimization of gene dose level and integration sites on chromosomes. Moreover, we reviewed and summarized the relevant studies on the application of integrated expression in the exploration of gene function and the various types of industrial microorganism production. Consequently, this review would serve as a reference for the better application of integrated expression.

3.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2001227, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699119

RESUMO

SCOPE: Cereal vinegar sediment (CVS) is precipitation generated during the preservation of vinegar. It has various functions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic. This study evaluates the effects of CVS on spontaneous colitis in Il-10-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: CVS (1 g kg-1 body weight) is administered to mice for 42 days. CVS alleviated epithelium damage, inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, decreased gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf )-a, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Inos), Interleukin(Il-23) in colon tissues is found. CVS also inhibited secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), Interferon (IFN)-γ, and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Presumably Secreted (RANTES) in serum. While CVS enhanced Regenerating Family Member 3 Gamma (Reg3γ), Mucin (Muc2, Muc3, and Muc4 gene expression, promoted intestinal epithelial cells to secrete Muc-2, and increased the content of acetic acid in intestinal tract of Il-10-/- mice. Additionally, CVS altered the composition of the gut microbiota by promoting the abundance of Akkermansia, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus, while inhibiting Desulfovibrio and Clostridium sensu stricto 1. These changes may be related to the regulation of steroid, fatty acids, and bile acid biosynthesis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that CVS ameliorates spontaneous ulcerative colitis in Il-10-/- mice, which suggests CVS supplementation may serve as a protective dietary nutrient against colitis.

4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705622

RESUMO

A novel Gram-positive, non-motile, non-flagellated, strictly anaerobic, non-spore-forming and dumbbell-shaped, coccoid- or chain-shaped bacterium, designated strain LZLJ-3T, was isolated from a mud fermentation cellar which has been used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor for over 100 years. Strain LZLJ-3T grew at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and with NaCl concentrations up to 1 % (w/v; optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic trees established based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain LZLJ-3T belonged to the genus Blautia of the family Lachnospiraceae, with the highest sequence similarity to Blautia stercoris GAM6-1T (91.7 %) and Blautia faecicola KGMB01111T (91.7 %). Comparative genome analysis showed that the orthologous average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) values between strain LZLJ-3T and B. stercoris GAM6-1T were respectively 69.1 and 22.9 %; the OrthoANI and GGD values between strain LZLJ-3T and B. faecicola KGMB01111T were respectively 70.86 and 36 % . The DNA G+C content of strain LZLJ-3T genome was 42.1 mol%. The predominant celluar fatty acids (>10 %) of strain LZLJ-3T were C16 : 0 FAME (27.9 %), C14 : 0 FAME (17.6 %) and C16 : 0 DMA (13.0 %). Arabinose, glucose and maltose could be utilized by strain LZLJ-3T as sole carbon sources for growth, with weak utilization of raffinose and l-fucose. API ZYM analysis gave positive reactions with α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, α-glucosidase and ß-glucosidase. The major end product of glucose fermentation was acetic acid. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain LZLJ-3T is considered to represent a novel species of Blautia, for which the name Blautia liquoris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LZLJ-3T (=KCTC 25163T=CGMCC 1.5299T=JCM 34225T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499596

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain JN500902T, was isolated from the mud in a fermentation cellar used continuously over 30 years for Chinese strong-flavour baijiu production. Colonies were white, circular, convex and smooth-edged. Growth was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 5.0-10 (optimum, pH 7.5), with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and with 0-4 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay demonstrated positive reactions of strain JN500902T in the metabolism of l-fucose and pyruvate. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) consisted of C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The major end metabolites of strain JN500902T were acetic acid and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in liquid reinforced clostridial medium. Acetate was the major organic acid end product. The complete genome size of strain JN500902T was 3 420 321 bp with 3327 identified genes. The G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain JN500902T with the family Lachnospiraceae, having low sequence similarity (92.8 %) to the nearest type strain, Syntrophococcus sucromutans DSM 3224T and forming a clearly distinct branch. Core genome phylogenetic analysis of the isolate and 134 strains belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae also revealed that strain JN500902T was well-separated from other genera of this family as a monophyletic clade. The average nucleotide identity and amino acid identity values between strain JN500902T and 134 Lachnospiraceae strains were less than 74 and 65 %, respectively. Considering its polyphasic characteristics, strain JN500902T represents a novel genus and species within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Novisyntrophococcus fermenticellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500902T (=CICC 24502T=JCM 33939T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fermentação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110533, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507779

RESUMO

Although the microbial diversity and structure in bean-based fermented foods have been widely studied, systematic studies on functional microbiota and mechanism of community forms in multi-microbial fermentation systems were still lacking. In this work, the metabolic pathway and functional potential of microbial community in broad bean paste (BBP) were investigated by metagenomics approach, and Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Weissella, Aspergillus and Zygosaccharomyces were found to be the potential predominant populations responsible for substrate alteration and flavor biosynthesis. Among them, Staphylococcus was the most abundant and widespread functional microbe, and closely related Staphylococcus species were diverse and ubiquitously distributed, with the opportunistic pathogen S. gallinarum being the most abundant Staphylococcus specie isolated from BBP. To explain the dominance status of S. gallinarum and species distributions of Staphylococcus genus, we tested the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on three Staphylococcus species using a tractable BBP model, demonstrating that adaptation to environmental conditions (environmental parameters and other functional microbes) led to the dominant position and species coexistence of Staphylococcus, and congeneric competition among Staphylococcus species further shaped ecological distributions of closely related Staphylococcus species. In general, this work revealed the metabolic potential of microbial community and distribution mechanism of Staphylococcus species during BBP fermentation, which could help traditional factories to more precisely control the safety and quality of bean-based fermented foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbiota , Vicia faba , Fermentação , Staphylococcus
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110449, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399451

RESUMO

Mud cellars have long been used as anaerobic bioreactors for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu, where starchy raw materials (mainly sorghum) are metabolized to ethanol and various flavor compounds by multi-species microorganisms. Jiupei (fermented grains) and pit mud are two spatially linked microbial habitats in the mud cellar, yet their metabolic division of labor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in environmental variables (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH), key metabolites (e.g., ethanol, organic acids) and microbial communities in jiupei and pit mud during fermentation. Jiupei (low pH, high ethanol) and pit mud (neutral pH) provided two habitats with distinctly different environmental conditions for microbial growth. Lactic acid accumulated in jiupei, while butyric and hexanoic acids were mainly produced by microbes inhabiting the pit mud. Biomass analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that bacteria dominated the microbial consortia during fermentation, moreover cluster and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis showed that the bacterial communities of jiupei and pit mud were significantly divergent. The bacterial community diversity of jiupei decreased significantly during the fermentation process, and was relatively stable in pit mud. Lactobacillus dominated the jiupei bacterial community, and its relative abundance reached 98.0% at the end of fermentation. Clostridia (relative abundance: 42.9-85.5%) was the most abundant bacteria in pit mud, mainly distributed in the genus Hydrogenispora (5.3-68.4%). Fungal communities of jiupei and pit mud showed a similar succession pattern, and Kazachstania, Aspergillus and Thermoascus were the predominant genera. PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of acetic and lactic acid were mainly enriched in jiupei samples, while the bacterial community in the pit mud displayed greater potential for butyric and hexanoic acid synthesis. Assays from an in vitro simulated fermentation further validated the roles of jiupei microbiota in acetic and lactic acid production, and these acids were subsequently metabolized to butyric and hexanoic acid by the pit mud microbiota. This work has demonstrated the synergistic cooperation between the microbial communities of jiupei and pit mud for the representative flavor formation of strong-flavor Baijiu.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14446, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262102

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of animals can provide useful information for evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses. The mitogenome of the genus Exhippolysmata (i.e., Exhippolysmata ensirostris) was sequenced and annotated for the first time, its phylogenetic relationship with selected members from the infraorder Caridea was investigated. The 16,350 bp mitogenome contains the entire set of 37 common genes. The mitogenome composition was highly A + T biased at 64.43% with positive AT skew (0.009) and negative GC skew (- 0.199). All tRNA genes in the E. ensirostris mitogenome had a typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN), which appeared to lack the dihydrouridine arm. The gene order in the E. ensirostris mitogenome was rearranged compared with those of ancestral decapod taxa, the gene order of trnL2-cox2 changed to cox2-trnL2. The tandem duplication-random loss model is the most likely mechanism for the observed gene rearrangement of E. ensirostris. The ML and BI phylogenetic analyses place all Caridea species into one group with strong bootstrap support. The family Lysmatidae is most closely related to Alpheidae and Palaemonidae. These results will help to better understand the gene rearrangements and evolutionary position of E. ensirostris and lay a foundation for further phylogenetic studies of Caridea.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Ordem dos Genes
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11748, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083683

RESUMO

Neritidae is one of the most diverse families of Neritimorpha and possesses euryhaline properties. Members of this family usually live on tropical and subtropical coasts and are mainly gregarious. The phylogenetic relationships between several subclasses of Gastropoda have been controversial for many years. With an increase in the number of described species of Neritidae, the knowledge of the evolutionary relationships in this family has improved. In the present study, we sequenced four complete mitochondrial genomes from two genera (Clithon and Nerita) and compared them with available complete mitochondrial genomes of Neritidae. Gene order exhibited a highly conserved pattern among three genera in the Neritidae family. Our results improved the phylogenetic resolution within Neritidae, and more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of subclass Neritimorpha was proposed. Furthermore, we reconstructed the divergence among the main lineages of 19 Neritimorpha taxa under an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/classificação , Gastrópodes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Composição de Bases , Códon , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Rearranjo Gênico , Genes Mitocondriais , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0088521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160281

RESUMO

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log10 [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7% to 81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, Caproiciproducens and Methanosarcina. Correlation analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. IMPORTANCE The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/análise , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vinho/microbiologia
11.
Food Chem ; 357: 129625, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864999

RESUMO

Bean-based fermentation foods are usually ripened in open environment, which would lead to inconsistencies in flavor and quality between batches. The physicochemical metabolism and microbial community of seasonal broad bean paste (BBP) were compared to distinguish discriminant metabolites and unique taxa, as well as their specific reasons for different flavor and quality in this study. Here, we found that environmental variables led to the seasonal distribution of microbiota, and differential microorganisms further contributed to the inconsistency of flavor quality, in which Lactobacillales was responsible for the higher titratable acid and amino acid nitrogen concentration in winter pei, while Saccharomycetales benefited the formation of volatile flavor substances in autumn pei. Additionally, we compared the effect of different combinations of Lactobacillales with Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the quality of BBP, and found that W. confusa was more suitable for BBP fermentation rather than T. halophilus in terms of sensory characteristics and physicochemical metabolites.

12.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875202

RESUMO

Daqu, a brick-shaped product spontaneously fermented under an open environment, has been regarded as the starter of fermentation, raw enzyme preparation and raw materials for baijiu production. However, its contribution in baijiu fermentation has not been fully elaborated yet. Here, the effects of daqu microbiota on baijiu fermentation were investigated under both field-scale and lab-scale conditions. In field-scale baijiu fermentation, the dominant daqu microbes (average relative abundance>10.0%), including unclassified_Leuconostocaceae, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces, tended to dominate the early stage (0-7 d). However, the rare daqu microbes (average relative abundance <0.1%, e.g., Kazachstania) tended to dominate the middle and late stages (11-40 d). In addition, some genera showed differences in species diversity between daqu and fermented grains. The average relative abundance of Lactobacillus was over 75% during baijiu fermentation, and most of them were affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans, while Lactobacillus crustorum dominated the Lactobacillus OTUs in daqu. The similar patterns were also observed during lab-scale baijiu fermentation. The results of function prediction showed the enriched metabolic pathways were associated with glycolysis and long-chain fatty acid esters in baijiu fermentation. These results improved the understanding of daqu microbiota function during baijiu fermentation and provided a basic theory to support the regulation of baijiu production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800983

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is widely studied as a medicinal and edible fungus. Recent studies have shown that H. erinaceus has protective effects for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer, which are related to gut microbiota. To investigate the benefits of H. erinaceus intake on gut microbiota and blood indices in adulthood, we recruited 13 healthy adults to consume H. erinaceus powder as a dietary supplement. Blood changes due to H. erinaceus consumption were determined by routine hematological examination and characterized by serum biochemical markers. Microbiota composition was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results showed that daily H. erinaceus supplementation increased the alpha diversity within the gut microbiota community, upregulated the relative abundance of some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (Kineothrix alysoides, Gemmiger formicilis, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), and downregulated some pathobionts (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacteroides caccae, Romboutsia timonensis). Changes within the gut microbiota were correlated with blood chemical indices including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CREA). Thus, we found that the gut microbiota alterations may be part of physiological adaptations to a seven-day H. erinaceus supplementation, potentially influencing beneficial health effects.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hericium , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Gota/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Lipoproteínas LDL , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácido Úrico
14.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110037, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648263

RESUMO

As a widely used Asian starter culture, the quality of daqu can significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products, yet the microbial metabolic network involved in flavor development remains unclear. This study aims to investigate that network based on the dynamics of physicochemical properties, microbial community, and volatile compounds in medium-temperature daqu (MT-daqu) during spontaneous fermentation. Analyses using the metagenomic data set facilitated the gene repertoire overview of this ecosystem, indicating that Lactobacillales (mainly Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus), Mucorales (mainly Lichtheimia), and Eurotiales (mainly Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Byssochlamys) were the potential predominant populations successively responsible for the production of lytic enzymes and flavor precursors/compounds in MT-daqu. Flavor-relevant pathways were found to exist in multiple species, but only bacteria showed the potential to participate in butane-2,3-diol (e.g. Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus) and butanoate (Thermoactinomyces) metabolism, and only fungi were potentially involved in biosynthesis of guaiacol (Byssochlamys) and 4-vinylguaiacol (Aspergillus). Furthermore, a combined analysis revealed that the acidic thermal environment present in early phases was mainly due to the catabolic activities of Lactobacillales and Lichtheimia, which could contribute to the effective self-domestication of microbiota. The study helps elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms and disclose the formation mechanism of daqu's partial functions, namely providing various aromatic substances/precursors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
15.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109737, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292931

RESUMO

Acetoin, giving a creamy yogurt aroma and buttery taste, exists in cereal vinegar as an important flavor substance and is mainly produced by the metabolism of Lactobacillus and Acetobacter during multispecies solid-state acetic acid fermentation. However, the impacts of Lactobacillus-Acetobacter interactions on acetoin accumulation and the microbial metabolism during acetic acid fermentation are not completely clear. Here, six strains isolated from vinegar fermentation culture and associated with acetoin metabolism, namely, Lactobacillus reuteri L-0, L. buchneri F2-6, L. brevis 4-20, L. fermentum M10-7, L. casei M1-6 and Acetobacter pasteurianus G3-2, were selected for microbial growth and metabolism analysis in monoculture and coculture fermentations. Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2 respectively utilized glucose and ethanol preferentially. In monocultures, L. casei M1-6 (183.7 mg/L) and A. pasteurianus G3-2 (121.0 mg/L) showed better acetoin-producing capacity than the others. In the bicultures with Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2, biomass analysis in the stationary phase demonstrated that significant growth depressions of Lactobacillus sp. occurred compared with monocultures, possibly due to intolerance to acetic acid produced by A. pasteurianus G3-2. Synergistic effect between Lactobacillus sp. and A. pasteurianus G3-2 on enhanced acetoin accumulation was identified, however, cocultures of two Lactobacillus strains could not apparently facilitate acetoin accumulation. Coculture of L. casei M1-6 and A. pasteurianus G3-2 showed the best performance in acetoin production amongst all mono-, bi- and triculture combinations, and the yield of acetoin increased from 1827.7 to 7529.8 mg/L following optimization of culture conditions. Moreover, the interactions of L. casei M1-6 and A. pasteurianus G3-2 regulated the global metabolism of vinegar microbiota during fermentation through performing in situ bioaugmentation, which could accelerate the production of acetic acid, lactic acid, acetoin, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, ligustrazine and other important flavoring substances. This work provides a promising strategy for the production of acetoin-rich vinegar through Lactobacillus sp.-A. pasteurianus joint bioaugmentation.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Lactobacillus casei , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/análise , Acetoína , Grão Comestível/química , Fermentação
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19277, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159159

RESUMO

To improve the systematics and taxonomy of Patellogastropoda within the evolution of gastropods, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Lottia goshimai and Nipponacmea fuscoviridis in the family Lottiidae, which presented sizes of 18,192 bp and 18,720 bp, respectively. In addition to 37 common genes among metazoa, we observed duplication of the trnM gene in L. goshimai and the trnM and trnW genes in N. fuscoviridis. The highest A + T contents of the two species were found within protein-coding genes (59.95% and 54.55%), followed by rRNAs (56.50% and 52.44%) and tRNAs (56.42% and 52.41%). trnS1 and trnS2 could not form the canonical cloverleaf secondary structure due to the lack of a dihydrouracil arm in both species. The gene arrangements in all Patellogastropoda compared with those of ancestral gastropods showed different levels of gene rearrangement, including the shuffling, translocation and inversion of single genes or gene fragments. This kind of irregular rearrangement is particularly obvious in the Lottiidae family. The results of phylogenetic and gene rearrangement analyses showed that L. goshimai and Lottia digitalis clustered into one group, which in turn clustered with N. fuscoviridis in Patellogastropoda. This study demonstrates the significance of complete mitogenomes for phylogenetic analysis and enhances our understanding of the evolution of Patellogastropoda.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/genética , Genoma Microbiano , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Food Microbiol ; 92: 103559, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950153

RESUMO

Symphony orchestra of multi-microorganisms characterizes the solid-state acetic acid fermentation process of Chinese cereal vinegars. Lactate is the predominant non-volatile acid and plays indispensable roles in flavor formation. This study investigated the microbial consortia driving the metabolism of D-/l-lactate during fermentation. Sequencing analysis based on D-/l-lactate dehydrogenase genes demonstrated that Lactobacillus (relative abundance: > 95%) dominated the production of both d-lactate and l-lactate, showing species-specific features between the two types. Lactobacillus helveticus (>65%) and L. reuteri (~80%) respectively dominated l- and d-lactate-producing communities. D-/l-lactate production and utilization capabilities of eight predominant Lactobacillus strains were determined by culture-dependent approach. Subsequently, D-/l-lactate producer L. plantarum M10-1 (d:l ≈ 1:1), l-lactate producer L. casei 21M3-1 (D:L ≈ 0.2:9.8) and D-/l-lactate utilizer Acetobacter pasteurianus G3-2 were selected to modulate the metabolic flux of D-/l-lactate of microbial consortia. The production ratio of D-/l-lactate was correspondingly shifted coupling with microbial consortia changes. Bioaugmentation with L.casei 21M3-1 merely enhanced l-lactate production, displaying ~4-fold elevation at the end of fermentation. Addition of L.plantarum M10-1 twice increased both D- and l-lactate production, while A. pasteurianus G3-2 decreased the content of D-/l-isomer. Our results provided an alternative strategy to specifically manipulate the metabolic flux within microbial consortia of certain ecological niches.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/análise , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932919

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a pathological process with intrahepatic diffused deposition of the excess extracellular matrix, which leads to various chronic liver diseases. Drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity for liver fibrosis are still unavailable. Antrodia camphorata has antioxidant, antivirus, antitumor and anti-inflammation roles, and has been used to treat liver diseases in the population. However, the hepatoprotective effects of A. camphorata spores and the mechanisms behind it have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of spore powder of A. camphorata (SP, 100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. SP groups reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities compared with the CCl4 group. SP also showed a decrease in hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissues. SP improved cell damage and reduced collagen deposition by H&E, Sirius red and Masson staining. Furthermore, SP down-regulated the mRNA levels of α-SMA and Col 1, and the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I (Col 1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-Κb (NF-κB) p65. In summary, SP has an ameliorative effect on hepatic fibrosis, probably by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, reducing the synthesis of extracellular matrix.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Polyporales/metabolismo , Esporos/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303548

RESUMO

Humans have used high salinity for the production of bean-based fermented foods over thousands of years. Although high salinity can inhibit the growth of harmful microbes and select functional microbiota in an open environment, it also affects fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods and has a negative impact on people's health. Therefore, it is imperative to develop novel defined starter cultures for reduced-salt fermentation in a sterile environment. Here, we explored the microbial assembly and function in the fermentation of traditional Chinese broad bean paste with 12% salinity. The results revealed that the salinity and microbial interactions together drove the dynamic of community and pointed out that five dominant genera (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Weissella, Aspergillus, and Zygosaccharomyces) may play different key roles in different fermentation stages. Then, core species were isolated from broad bean paste, and their salinity tolerance, interactions, and metabolic characteristics were evaluated. The results provided an opportunity to validate in situ predictions through in vitro dissection of microbial assembly and function. Last, we reconstructed the synthetic microbial community with five strains (Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Weissella confusa, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii) under different salinities and realized efficient fermentation of broad bean paste for 6 weeks in a sterile environment with 6% salinity. In general, this work provided a bottom-up approach for the development of a simplified microbial community model with desired functions to improve the fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods by deconstructing and reconstructing the microbial structure and function.IMPORTANCE Humans have mastered high-salinity fermentation techniques for bean-based fermented product preparation over thousands of years. High salinity was used to select the functional microbiota and conducted food fermentation production with unique flavor. Although a high-salinity environment is beneficial for suppressing harmful microbes in the open fermentation environment, the fermentation efficiency of functional microbes is partially inhibited. Therefore, application of defined starter cultures for reduced-salt fermentation in a sterile environment is an alternative approach to improve the fermentation efficiency of bean-based fermented foods and guide the transformation of traditional industry. However, the assembly and function of self-organized microbiota in an open fermentation environment are still unclear. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of microbial function and the mechanism of community succession in a high-salinity environment during the fermentation of broad bean paste so as to reconstruct the microbial community and realize efficient fermentation of broad bean paste in a sterile environment.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Salinidade , Vicia faba/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fungos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos
20.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252312

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are released by neurons that are involved in a wide range of brain functions, such as food intake, metabolism, reproduction, and learning and memory. A full-length cDNA sequence of an FMRFamide gene isolated from the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (designated as SpFMRFamide) was cloned. The predicted precursor protein contains one putative signal peptide and four FMRFamide-related peptides. Multiple amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments showed that it shares 97% similarity with the precursor FMRFamides of Sepiella japonica and Sepia officinalis and shares 93% and 92% similarity with the SpFMRFamide gene of the two cuttlefish species, respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis also suggested that SpFMRFamide and FMRFamides from S. japonica and S. officinalis belong to the same sub-branch. Tissue expression analysis confirmed that SpFMRFamide was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain at the three development stages. The combined effects of SpFMRFamide+SpGnRH and SpFLRFamide+SpGnRH showed a marked decrease in the level of the total proteins released in the CHO-K1 cells. This is the first report of SpFMRFamide in S. pharaonis and the results may contribute to future studies of neuropeptide evolution or may prove useful for the development of aquaculture methods for this cuttlefish species.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular/métodos , FMRFamida/genética , FMRFamida/metabolismo , Sepia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aquicultura , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células CHO , Cricetulus , FMRFamida/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepia/genética , Sepia/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Distribuição Tecidual
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