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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150404

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites show promise for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their facile manufacture and excellent optoelectronic performance, including high color purity and spectral stability, especially in the green region. However, for blue perovskite LEDs, the emission spectrum line width is broadened to over 25 nm by the coexistence of multiple reduced-dimensional perovskite domains, and the spectral stability is poor, with an undesirable shift (over 7 nm) toward longer wavelengths under operating conditions, degradation that occurs due to phase separation when mixed halides are employed. Here we demonstrate chloride insertion-immobilization, a strategy that enables blue perovskite LEDs, the first to exhibit narrowband (line width of 18 nm) and spectrally stable (no wavelength shift) performance. We prepare bromide-based perovskites and then employ organic chlorides for dynamic treatment, inserting and in situ immobilizing chlorides to blue-shift and stabilize the emission. We achieve sky-blue LEDs with a record luminance over 5100 cd/m2 at 489 nm, and an operating half-life of 51 min at 1500 cd/m2. By device structure optimization, we further realize an improved EQE of 5.2% at 479 nm and an operating half-life of 90 min at 100 cd/m2.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19485, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176084

RESUMO

Urgent endoscopy (UE) is important to the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis patients with esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). It was reported that a second-look endoscopy may benefit acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) caused by peptic ulcer, while whether it could improve UGIB caused by liver cirrhosis associated EVB remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of second UE for liver cirrhosis with EVB and further examined the potential prognostic factors.Patients aged ≥18 years who underwent UE for EVB within 2 hours after the admission were included and divided into scheduled second-look group (n = 245) and uncontrolled bleeding group (n = 352) based on the indications for second UE within 48 hours after initial endoscopy. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk factors for prognosis. The value of different scoring system was compared.Statistical differences were found on history of bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma, ascites, endoscopic type of bleeding, between scheduled second-look group and uncontrolled bleeding group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ascites, hemoglobin <60 g/L, AIMS65 score and failure to identify in initial UE were independent risk factors for bleeding uncontrolled after initial UE, and age, bilirubin level, initial unsatisfactory UE hemostasis, failure to identify bleeding on initial UE and tube/urgent TIPS suggested in initial UE were independent risk factors for 42-day mortality.A second-look UE could bring benefit for liver cirrhosis patients with EVB without increasing the complication rate.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirurgia de Second-Look/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Árvores de Decisões , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
3.
Adv Mater ; : e1906199, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196136

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are of interest in light of their solution-processing and bandgap tuning. Advances in the performance of CQD optoelectronic devices require fine control over the properties of each layer in the device materials stack. This is particularly challenging in the present best CQD solar cells, since these employ a p-type hole-transport layer (HTL) implemented using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) ligand exchange on top of the CQD active layer. It is established that the high reactivity of EDT causes a severe chemical modification to the active layer that deteriorates charge extraction. By combining elemental mapping with the spatial charge collection efficiency in CQD solar cells, the key materials interface dominating the subpar performance of prior CQD PV devices is demonstrated. This motivates to develop a chemically orthogonal HTL that consists of malonic-acid-crosslinked CQDs. The new crosslinking strategy preserves the surface chemistry of the active layer beneath, and at the same time provides the needed efficient charge extraction. The new HTL enables a 1.4× increase in charge carrier diffusion length in the active layer; and as a result leads to an improvement in power conversion efficiency to 13.0% compared to EDT standard cells (12.2%).

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8822, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020460

RESUMO

In the third paragraph of Introduction, the sentence "Few scholars have conducted static studies on dual-wavelength UV photocatalytic technologies (Ma 2018)".

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 170, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924790

RESUMO

Reduced-dimensional perovskites are attractive light-emitting materials due to their efficient luminescence, color purity, tunable bandgap, and structural diversity. A major limitation in perovskite light-emitting diodes is their limited operational stability. Here we demonstrate that rapid photodegradation arises from edge-initiated photooxidation, wherein oxidative attack is powered by photogenerated and electrically-injected carriers that diffuse to the nanoplatelet edges and produce superoxide. We report an edge-stabilization strategy wherein phosphine oxides passivate unsaturated lead sites during perovskite crystallization. With this approach, we synthesize reduced-dimensional perovskites that exhibit 97 ± 3% photoluminescence quantum yields and stabilities that exceed 300 h upon continuous illumination in an air ambient. We achieve green-emitting devices with a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 14% at 1000 cd m-2; their maximum luminance is 4.5 × 104 cd m-2 (corresponding to an EQE of 5%); and, at 4000 cd m-2, they achieve an operational half-lifetime of 3.5 h.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7504521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998441

RESUMO

Serotonin is involved in the pathological processes of several liver diseases via the regulation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the role of serotonin in Concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced acute liver injury (ALI). ALI was induced in C57B/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) knockout mice through tail vein injection of Con A (15 mg/kg body weight). Another group of TPH1 knockout ALI mice was supplied with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in advance to recover serotonin. The blood and liver tissues of mice were collected in all groups. Markedly increased serum levels of serotonin were identified after the injection of Con A. Increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and stronger hepatic tissue pathology were detected, suggesting that serotonin could mediate Con A-induced liver damage. Serotonin significantly facilitated the release of serum and intrahepatic inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-α), after the administration of Con A. In addition, serotonin significantly increased the intrahepatic levels of oxidative stress markers malonaldehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) and decreased antioxidant stress indicator glutathione (GSH) in Con A-treated mice. Additionally, serotonin promoted hepatocyte apoptosis and autophagy based on B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-asociated X protein (Bax), and Beclin-1 levels and TUNEL staining. More importantly, serotonin activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and upregulated the hepatic expressions of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and downstream molecules in Con A-mediated liver injury. Serotonin 2A receptor was upregulated in liver tissue after Con A injection, and serotonin 2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin protected against Con A-induced hepatitis. These results indicated that serotonin has the potential to aggravate Con A-induced ALI via the promotion of inflammatory response, oxidative stress injury, and hepatocyte apoptosis and the activation of hepatic HMGB1-TLR signaling pathway and serotonin 2A receptor.

8.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 2, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The status of lymph nodes in early gastric cancer is critical to make further clinical treatment decision, but the prediction of lymph node metastasis remains difficult before operation. This study aimed to develop a nomogram that contained preoperative factors to predict lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer patients. METHODS: This study analyzed the clinicopathologic features of 823 early gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy retrospectively, among which 596 patients were recruited in the training cohort and 227 patients in the independent validation cohort. Significant risk factors in univariate analysis were further identified to be independent variables in multivariable logistic regression analysis, which were then incorporated in and presented with a nomogram. And internal and external validation curves were plotted to evaluate the discrimination of the nomogram. RESULTS: Totally, six independent predictors, including the tumor size, macroscopic features, histology differentiation, P53, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and computed tomography-reported lymph node status, were enrolled in the nomogram. Both the internal validation in the training cohort and the external validation in the validation cohort showed the nomogram had good discriminations, with a C-index of 0.82 (95%CI, 0.78 to 0.86) and 0.77 (95%CI, 0.60 to 0.94) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study developed a new nomogram which contained the most common and significant preoperative risk factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with early gastric cancer. The nomogram can identify early gastric cancer patients with the high probability of lymph node metastasis and help clinicians make more appropriate decisions in clinical practice.

9.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(5): 292-299, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809475

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: In vitro studies of the role of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and its possible targets in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). OBJECTIVE: To define the regulatory role of E2 in IDD and the potential mechanisms. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: IDD has intricate etiology that is influenced by multiple risk factors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of occurrence and progression of IDD are not well elucidated. The degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) has been extensively observed in IDD. E2 was found to inhibit ECM degradation in human nuleus pulposus cells (HNPCs), but the molecular mechanism remained to be determined. METHODS: Western blot and qPCR was performed to quantify the expression of target proteins in HNPCs. Luciferase reporter gene assay was applied to detect the effects of E2 and forkhead box O-3 (FOXO3) on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay analyzed the binding of FOXO3 to MMP-3 and the effect of E2 on this process. RESULTS: We identified the upregulation of collagen II and aggrecan by E2 independent of time and concentration. And E2 downregulated MMP-3 expression in human nucleus pulposus cells. The phosphorylation of FOXO3 led to the reduction of MMP-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, 17ß-estradiol-induced the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is required for FOXO3 phosphorylated. CONCLUSION: E2 prevents the degradation of ECM by upregulating collagen II and aggrecan expression via reducing MMP-3 expression in HNPCs, and PI3K/Akt/FOXO3 pathway is dispensable for MMP-3 downregulated. Therefore, E2 protects against IDD by preventing ECM degradation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

10.
Mol Ther ; 28(1): 293-303, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611143

RESUMO

Stargardt disease (STGD) is an autosomal recessive retinal disorder caused by a monogenic ABCA4 mutation. Currently, there is no effective therapy to cure Stargardt disease. The replacement of mutated ABCA4 with a functional gene remains an attractive strategy. In this study, we have developed a non-viral gene therapy using nanoparticles self-assembled by a multifunctional pH-sensitive amino lipid ECO and a therapeutic ABCA4 plasmid. The nanoparticles mediated efficient intracellular gene transduction in wild-type (WT) and Abca4-/- mice. Specific ABCA4 expression in the outer segment of photoreceptors was achieved by incorporating a rhodopsin promoter into the plasmids. The ECO/pRHO-ABCA4 nanoparticles induced substantial and specific ABCA4 expression for at least 8 months, 35% reduction in A2E accumulation on average, and a delayed Stargardt disease progression for at least 6 months in Abca4-/- mice. ECO/plasmid nanoparticles constitute a promising non-viral gene therapy platform for Stargardt disease and other visual dystrophies.

11.
ChemSusChem ; 13(4): 811-818, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802649

RESUMO

Nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (NiFe LDH) is a promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst under alkaline conditions. Much research has been performed to understand the structure-activity relationship of NiFe LDH under OER conditions. However, the specific role of the Fe species remains unclear and under debate. Herein, based on DFT calculations, it was discovered that the edge Fe sites show higher activity towards OER than either the edge Ni sites or lattice sites. Therefore, a facile acid-etching method was proposed to controllably induce the formation of edge Fe sites in NiFe LDH, and the obtained sample exhibited higher OER activity. X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses further revealed that the interaction of the edge Fe species with Ni is believed to contribute to the enhancement of the OER performance. This work provides a new understanding of the structure-activity relationship in NiFe LDH and offers a facile method for the design of efficient electrocatalysts in an alkaline environment.

12.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(1): 29-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Arctigenin (ARG) has been proved to inhibit the viability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via inducing apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism remains unknown. The present study was aimed to further investigate the mechanism of ARG against HCC in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Arctigenin was applied in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, etc., were used to investigate the mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: The time-dependent enhancement of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, Fas and FasL levels, caspase cascade activation and the loss in the mitochondrial out membrane potential indicated that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were triggered by ARG. Moreover, Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylated time-dependently. And inhibition of the phosphorylation of either p38 or JNK led to a significant reduction in HepG2 apoptosis, owing to the crucial roles of p38 and JNK played in regulating the apoptosis pathways. In addition, ARG increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, while the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine almost reversed ARG-induced JNK and p38 activation, and dramatically decreased cell apoptosis. In vivo, ARG increased the cell apoptosis in tumour tissues, and p-p38, p-JNK and Bax were significantly upregulated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that ARG induced apoptosis in HCC via ROS-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases apoptosis pathway.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program. METHOD: In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC. RESULTS: The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal. CONCLUSIONS: The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.

14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 95: 152132, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669790

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the gender differences in neurocognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in China. METHODS: A total of 449 Chinese patients with FES (210 males, 239 females) were included in this study. Participants' psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed by 10 neuropsychological tests from a battery. Neurocognitive test scores were converted to scale scores and t-scores using normative data from Chinese populations. RESULTS: Males were younger and less likely to be married, had an earlier age of illness onset and a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and scored higher on the PANSS negative, general and total scales than females. After controlling for potential confounders, females performed better than males in the verbal learning and memory domain (p=0.016). While most neurocognitive domains were correlated with PANSS negative scores for male patients with FES, for female patients with FES, negative associations were found between scores on the PANSS general subscales and neurocognitive domains. We also performed a case-control comparison with a group of patients with clinically stable schizophrenia (CSS) (n=60) who were matched by age, sex and education years with patients with FES (n=58). After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences were found between patients with FES and patients with CSS in all neurocognitive domains. Female patients still performed better in the verbal learning and memory domain (t=2.14, p=0.034). No interaction effects of gender and disease were found. CONCLUSIONS: Gender was an independent influence factor for the verbal learning and memory domain. Both female patients with first-episode schizophrenia and female patients with clinically stable schizophrenia performed better than male patients.

15.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(12): 1299-1307, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729181

RESUMO

Aging and aging-related CNS diseases are associated with inflammatory status. As an efficient amplifier of immune responses, inflammasome is activated and played detrimental role in aging and aging-related CNS diseases. Macrophage and microglia display robust inflammasome activation in infectious and sterile inflammation. This review discussed the impact of inflammasome activation in microglia/macrophage on senescence "inflammaging" and aging-related CNS diseases. The preventive or therapeutic effects of targeting inflammasome on retarding aging process or tackling aging-related diseases are also discussed.

16.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 2705-2714, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571886

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to characterize white matter lesions (WMLs) and regional cerebral perfusion, and evaluate their correlations with cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Patient and methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients with AD (AD group) and 75 subjects without AD (control group) were recruited. The medical information was collected from each subject. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was employed for the assessment of cognition. Cranial MRI was performed, and the KIM scoring system was used to evaluate the white matter hyperintensity. The CT perfusion (CTP) imaging was employed to assess the whole cerebral perfusion, and the region of interest (ROI) was selected to determine the blood perfusion at different parts. Results: The education level and MoCA score in AD group were significantly lower than in control group (P<0.001). The KIM score of juxtaventricular WML (JVWMLs) was significantly different between two groups (P<0.05) and AD group showed a higher incidence of severe JVWML and periventricular WML (PVWMLs); in AD group, the total KIM score and KIM scores of JVWMLs, PVWMLs and deep WML (DWMLs) showed negative relationships with the MoCA score (P<0.001). As compared to control group, the blood perfusion of either whole brain or different parts in the AD group reduced significantly (P<0.05). In the AD group, there was a negative correlations of blood perfusion at JVWM and PVWM with corresponding KIM scores (P<0.05 or 0.01). In the AD group, the blood perfusions of the whole brain, JVWMLs, PVWMLs and deep WML were negatively related to MoCA score (P<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, the cognitive deficits in the AD patients are associated with the degree of WMLs, especially the JVWML, PVWML and DWML as well as with the reduced perfusion of JVWM, PVWM and deep WM.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(21): 13576-13581, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550899

RESUMO

The noble gas radioisotopes 85Kr, 81Kr, and 39Ar are nearly ideal environmental tracers because of their chemical inertness and simple transport mechanisms. Recent advances in Atom Trap Trace Analysis have enabled measurements of 85Kr and 81Kr using 10-20 kg of water or ice, and 39Ar in only a few kilograms, making these tracers available to be applied in the earth sciences on a large-scale. To meet the resulting increase in demand, we have developed an automated process for the dual separation of krypton and argon from environmental samples based on titanium gettering and gas chromatography. 0.5-4 L STP air samples have been purified, demonstrating purities and recoveries of >90% for krypton and >99% for argon within 90-120 min of processing time. Samples of high methane admixtures, a challenge regularly encountered in groundwater applications, have been purified by exploiting the full potential of titanium gettering at high temperatures (>1000 °C). Samples with 0.4-48 L STP of methane admixture are processed in 2-5 h without compromising purity or recovery. The applicability of the purification system is further demonstrated using actual groundwater samples with carbon dioxide and methane content in the extracted gas up to 16 L STP and 42 L STP, respectively.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 937, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555129

RESUMO

Arctigenin (ARG) has been reported to be a bioactive lignan from Arctium lappa exerting various activities including anti-cancer and immune-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-metastasis activity and mechanism of ARG against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ARG exhibited a significant cytotoxicity on Hep G2 and SMMC 7721 cells (but not on normal liver cells LO2). In addition, the migration and invasion of Hep G2 and SMMC 7721 cells were also remarkably repressed. Furthermore, ARG attenuated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activation, resulting in the down-regulation of ß-catenin target genes including c-Myc, cyclin D1, MMP-9, and ZO-1. Noticeably, ARG attenuated the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin through a GSK3ß-dependent pathway. Besides, we also found that ARG potentially inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition by up-regulating the epithelial and down-regulating the mesenchymal marker proteins. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of ARG not only significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous transplanted tumor but also dramatically alleviated the tumor metastasis in liver. Our data demonstrated that ARG exerted anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition and anti-metastasis activities against hepatocellular carcinoma, which might make it a candidate as a preventive agent for cancer metastasis.

19.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(10): 1227-1236, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). METHODS: The eight-week, open, randomised study was conducted in six Chinese medical centres. Altogether, 498 FES subjects were randomised to aripiprazole (n = 165), olanzapine (n = 168) or risperidone (n = 165). Efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), tolerability with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) and functioning with the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). RESULTS: All three antipsychotics significantly improved the baseline to end-point PANSS total and each of the sub-scale scores (p < 0.001). Risperidone was superior to olanzapine and aripiprazole regarding PANSS total end-point scores (p < 0.05). Cumulative response (PANSS total score reduction ⩾30%) was similar between risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole (74.8%, 73.5% and 70.1%; p = 0.707), but risperidone was superior to aripiprazole regarding PANSS total score reduction ⩾50% (37.8% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.05). Olanzapine was associated with the largest weight gain at week 4 and 8 (p < 0.01), weight gain ⩾7% (olanzapine = 49.0% vs. risperidone = 32.5% vs. aripiprazole = 17.0%; p < 0.01), more psychic side effects at week 8 (p < 0.01 each) and more 'other' side effects at week 4 (p < 0.001) and week 8 (p < 0.05) but fewer neurological side effects at week 4 (p < 0.05) and week 8 (p < 0.01). PSP improved more with risperidone than with aripiprazole at week 4 and 8 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For FES, risperidone might be a better choice than aripiprazole due to improved efficacy and functional improvement, without inferior tolerability. Aripiprazole is a better choice to avoid relevant short-term weight gain. Olanzapine could be chosen to avoid neurological adverse effects.

20.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 5577-5587, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371995

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies that is associated with early metastasis and chemoresistance. Tropomyosin (TPM) is an indispensable regulatory protein for muscle contraction, Abnormal expressions of TPM gene are closely related to the carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumors. Purpose: In this experiment, a monoclonal stable transfected cell line was established by the knock-down of TMP3 expression in PANC-1 cells with the lentivirus method, and the impacts of the downregulated TPM3 gene expression on the EMT-related molecules and biological behaviors of PANC-1 cells were explored. Methods: Based on the TPM3 gene sequence, we designed the RNA interference sequence, constructed and screened out the recombinant plasmid segment TPM3-shRNA with the optimal silencing effect, and carried out lentivirus titer determination and packaging. The recombinant lentiviral interference vector LV-TPM3-shRNA was transfected into PANC-1 cells; the transfection efficiency was then evaluated to screen out the monoclonal stable transfected PANC-1 cell line with downregulated TPM3 expression. The qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the changes in the gene- and protein-levels expressions of EMT-related transcription factors in the target cell line and to respectively test the variations of the invasion and proliferation capacities. Results: It is shown that the monoclonal stable transfected PANC-1 cell line with downregulated TPM3 expression was successfully established with the recombinant lentiviral vector. After knocking down the expression of TPM3 gene in PANC-1 cells, EMT occurred in the cells; the cell phenotype showed malignant transformation, and the in vitro biological behaviors of the cells (such as proliferation and invasion) were enhanced to different degrees. Conclusion: It is indicated that the TPM3 gene can be a potential target spot for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

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