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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633940

RESUMO

The V-VI binary chalcogenide, Sb2Se3, has attracted considerable attention for its applications in thin film optoelectronic devices because of its unique 1D structure and remarkable optoelectronic properties. Herein, we report an Sb2Se3 thin film epitaxially grown on a flexible mica substrate through a relatively weak (van der Waals) interaction by vapor transport deposition. The epitaxial Sb2Se3 thin films exhibit a single (120) out-of-plane orientation and a 0.25° full width at half-maximum of (120) rocking curve in X-ray diffraction, confirming the high crystallinity of the epitaxial films. The Sb2Se3(120) plane is epitaxially aligned on mica(001) surface with the in-plane relationship of Sb2Se3[2̅10]//mica[010] and Sb2Se3[001]//mica[100]. Compared to the photodetector made of a nonepitaxial Sb2Se3 film, the photocurrent of the epitaxial Sb2Se3 film photodetector is almost doubled. Furthermore, because of the flexibility and high sensitivity of the epitaxial Sb2Se3 film photodetector on mica, it has been successfully employed to detect the heart rate of a person. These encouraging results will facilitate the development of epitaxial Sb2Se3 film-based devices and potential applications in wearable electronics.

2.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 33-42, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769995

RESUMO

The reconfigurability of the electrical heterostructure featured with external variables, such as temperature, voltage, and strain, enabled electronic/optical phase transition in functional layers has great potential for future photonics, computing, and adaptive circuits. VO2 has been regarded as an archetypal phase transition building block with superior metal-insulator transition characteristics. However, the reconfigurable VO2-based heterostructure and the associated devices are rare due to the fundamental challenge in integrating high-quality VO2 in technologically important substrates. In this report, for the first time, we show the remote epitaxy of VO2 and the demonstration of a vertical diode device in a graphene/epitaxial VO2/single-crystalline BN/graphite structure with VO2 as a reconfigurable phase-change material and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as an insulating layer. By diffraction and electrical transport studies, we show that the remote epitaxial VO2 films exhibit higher structural and electrical quality than direct epitaxial ones. By high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that a graphene buffered substrate leads to a less strained VO2 film than the bare substrate. In the reconfigurable diode, we find that the Fermi level change and spectral weight shift along with the metal-insulator transition of VO2 could modify the transport characteristics. The work suggests the feasibility of developing a single-crystalline VO2-based reconfigurable heterostructure with arbitrary substrates and sheds light on designing novel adaptive photonics and electrical devices and circuits.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 29(44): 445702, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124437

RESUMO

In this work, we show that remote heteroepitaxy can be achieved when Cu thin film is grown on single crystal, monolayer graphene buffered sapphire(0001) substrate via a thermal evaporation process. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction data show that the epitaxy process forms a prevailing Cu crystal domain, which is remotely registered in-plane to the sapphire crystal lattice below the monolayer graphene, with the (111) out-of-plane orientation. As a poor metal with zero density of states at its Fermi level, monolayer graphene cannot totally screen out the stronger charge transfer/metallic interactions between Cu and substrate atoms. The primary Cu domain thus has good crystal quality as manifested by a narrow crystal misorientation distribution. On the other hand, we show that graphene interface imperfections, such as bilayers/multilayers, wrinkles and interface contaminations, can effectively weaken the atomic interactions between Cu and sapphire. This results in a second Cu domain, which directly grows on and follows the graphene hexagonal lattice symmetry and orientation. Because of the weak van der Waals interaction between Cu and graphene, this domain has inferior crystal quality. The results are further confirmed using graphene buffered spinel(111) substrate, which indicates that this remote epitaxial behavior is not unique to the Cu/sapphire system.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7054, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728586

RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrated a narrowband acoustic phonon source with simultaneous tunabilities of the centre frequency and the spectral bandwidth in the GHz-sub THz frequency range based on photoacoustic excitation using intensity-modulated optical pulses. The centre frequency and bandwidth are tunable from 65 to 381 GHz and 17 to 73 GHz, respectively. The dispersion of the sound velocity and the attenuation of acoustic phonons in silicon dioxide (SiO2) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were investigated using the acoustic phonon source. The sound velocities of SiO2 and ITO films were frequency-independent in the measured frequency range. On the other hand, the phonon attenuations of both of SiO2 and ITO films showed quadratic frequency dependences, and polycrystalline ITO showed several times larger attenuation than those in amorphous SiO2. In addition, the selective excitation of mechanical resonance modes was demonstrated in nanoscale tungsten (W) film using acoustic pulses with various centre frequencies and spectral widths.

5.
ACS Nano ; 12(6): 6100-6108, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746775

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) nanostructures, including islands, sheets, and thin films, of high crystallinity were epitaxially grown on single-crystalline graphene through van der Waals interactions. Two types of graphene substrates grown by chemical vapor deposition were used, the as-grown graphene on Cu(111)/ c-sapphire and the transferred graphene on SiO2/Si. On the as-grown graphene, deposition of ultrathin Sb resulted in two growth modes and associated morphologies of Sb. One was Sb islands grown in Volmer-Weber (VW) mode, and the other was Sb sheets grown in Frank-van der Merve (FM) mode. In contrast, only Sb islands grown in VW mode were found in a parallel growth experiment on the transferred graphene. The existence of Sb sheets on the as-grown graphene was attributed to the remote epitaxy between Sb and Cu underneath the graphene. In addition, Sb thin films were grown on both the as-grown and transferred graphene substrates. Both films indicated high quality, and no significant difference can be found between these two films. This work unveiled two epitaxial alignments between Sb(0001) and graphene, namely, Sb [101̅0]∥graphene [10] for Sb islands and Sb [21̅1̅0]∥graphene [10] for Sb sheets. For Sb thin films on graphene, the epitaxial alignment followed that of Sb islands, implying that Sb thin films originated from the continued growth of Sb islands. Last, Raman spectroscopy was used to probe the state of graphene under ultrathin Sb. No strain, doping, or disorder was found in the graphene postgrowth of Sb. The knowledge of the interface formation between ultrathin Sb and graphene provides a valuable foundation for future research on van der Waals heterostructures between antimonene and graphene.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(7): 6730-6736, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368515

RESUMO

Graphene has been broadcasted as a promising choice of electrode and substrate for flexible electronics. To be truly useful in this regime, graphene has to prove its capability in ordering the growth of overlayers at an atomic scale, commonly known as epitaxy. Meanwhile, graphene as a diffusion barrier against atoms and ions has been shown in some metal-graphene-dielectric configurations for integrated circuits. Guided by these two points, this work explores a new direction of using graphene as a bifunctional material in an electrochemical metallization memory, where graphene is shown to (i) order the growth of a low-ionicity semiconductor ZnS single-crystalline film and (ii) regulate the ion migration in the resistive switching device made of Cu/ZnS/graphene/Cu structures. The ZnS film is confirmed to be van der Waals epitaxially grown on single-crystal graphene with X-ray structural analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Charge transport studies with controlled kinetic parameters reveal superior ion regulating characteristic of graphene in this ZnS-based resistive switching device. The demonstration of the first graphene-directed epitaxial wide band gap semiconductor resistive switching suggests a possible and promising route toward flexible memristors.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(27): 23081-23091, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621924

RESUMO

The symmetry of graphene is usually determined by a low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) method when the graphene is on the conductive substrates, but LEED cannot handle graphene transferred to SiO2/Si substrates due to the charging effect. While transmission electron microscopy can generate electron diffraction on post-transferred graphene, this method is too localized. Herein, we employed an azimuthal reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) method to construct the reciprocal space mapping and determine the symmetry of wafer-size graphene both pre- and post-transfer. In this work, single-crystalline Cu(111) films were prepared on sapphire(0001) and spinel(111) substrates with sputtering. Then the graphene was epitaxially grown on single-crystalline Cu(111) films with a low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The reciprocal space mapping using azimuthal RHEED confirmed that the graphene grown on Cu(111) films was single-crystalline, no matter the form of the monolayer or multilayer structure. While the Cu(111) film grown on sapphire(0001) may occasionally consist of 60° in-plane rotational twinning, the reciprocal space mapping revealed that the in-plane orientation of graphene grown atop was not affected. The proposed method for checking the crystalline integrity of the post-transferred graphene sheets is an important step in the realization of the graphene as a platform to fabricate electronic and optoelectronic devices.

8.
Structure ; 23(6): 1097-105, 2015 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26004440

RESUMO

Ribosomal subunit association is a key checkpoint in translation initiation but its structural dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we used a recently developed mixing-spraying, time-resolved, cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method to study ribosomal subunit association in the sub-second time range. We have improved this method and increased the cryo-EM data yield by tenfold. Pre-equilibrium states of the association reaction were captured by reacting the mixture of ribosomal subunits for 60 ms and 140 ms. We also identified three distinct ribosome conformations in the associated ribosomes. The observed proportions of these conformations are the same in these two time points, suggesting that ribosomes equilibrate among the three conformations within less than 60 ms upon formation. Our results demonstrate that the mixing-spraying method can capture multiple states of macromolecules during a sub-second reaction. Other fast processes, such as translation initiation, decoding, and ribosome recycling, are amenable to study with this method.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Escherichia coli/química , Modelos Moleculares , Subunidades Ribossômicas/química , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Micromech Microeng ; 24(11): 115001, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530679

RESUMO

Time-resolved cryo electron microscopy (TRCEM) has emerged as a powerful technique for transient structural characterization of isolated biomacromolecular complexes in their native state within the time scale of seconds to milliseconds. For TRCEM sample preparation, microfluidic device [9] has been demonstrated to be a promising approach to facilitate TRCEM biological sample preparation. It is capable of achieving rapidly aqueous sample mixing, controlled reaction incubation, and sample deposition on electron microscopy (EM) grids for rapid freezing. One of the critical challenges is to transfer samples to cryo-EM grids from the microfluidic device. By using microspraying method, the generated droplet size needs to be controlled to facilitate the thin ice film formation on the grid surface for efficient data collection, while not too thin to be dried out before freezing, i.e., optimized mean droplet size needs to be achieved. In this work, we developed a novel monolithic three dimensional (3D) annular gas-assisted microfluidic sprayer using 3D MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System) fabrication techniques. The microsprayer demonstrated dense and consistent microsprays with average droplet size between 6-9 µm, which fulfilled the above droplet size requirement for TRCEM sample preparation. With droplet density of around 12-18 per grid window (window size is 58×58 µm), and the data collectible thin ice region of >50% total wetted area, we collected ~800-1000 high quality CCD micrographs in a 6-8 hour period of continuous effort. This level of output is comparable to what were routinely achieved using cryo-grids prepared by conventional blotting and manual data collection. In this case, weeks of data collection process with the previous device [9] has shortened to a day or two. And hundreds of microliter of valuable sample consumption can be reduced to only a small fraction.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(27): 9822-7, 2014 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24958863

RESUMO

Association of the two ribosomal subunits during the process of translation initiation is a crucial step of protein synthesis. The two subunits (30S and 50S) of the bacterial 70S ribosome are held together by 12 dynamic bridges involving RNA-RNA, RNA-protein, and protein-protein interactions. The process of bridge formation, such as whether all these bridges are formed simultaneously or in a sequential order, is poorly understood. To understand such processes, we have developed and implemented a class of microfluidic devices that mix two components to completion within 0.4 ms and spray the mixture in the form of microdroplets onto an electron microscopy grid, yielding a minimum reaction time of 9.4 ms before cryofixation. Using these devices, we have obtained cryo-EM data corresponding to reaction times of 9.4 and 43 ms and have determined 3D structures of ribosomal subunit association intermediates. Molecular analyses of the cryo-EM maps reveal that eight intersubunit bridges (bridges B1a, B1b, B2a, B2b, B3, B7a, B7b, and B8) form within 9.4 ms, whereas the remaining four bridges (bridges B2c, B4, B5, and B6) take longer than 43 ms to form, suggesting that bridges are formed in a stepwise fashion. Our approach can be used to characterize sequences of various dynamic functional events on complex macromolecular assemblies such as ribosomes.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Ribossomos/química , Sistema Livre de Células , Modelos Moleculares , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura
11.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 144(1): 301-309, 2010 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20161619

RESUMO

We report the investigation of a novel microfluidic mixing device to achieve submillisecond mixing. The micromixer combines two fluid streams of several microliters per second into a mixing compartment integrated with two T- type premixers and 4 butterfly-shaped in-channel mixing elements. We have employed three dimensional fluidic simulations to evaluate the mixing efficiency, and have constructed physical devices utilizing conventional microfabrication techniques. The simulation indicated thorough mixing at flow rate as low as 6 µL/s. The corresponding mean residence time is 0.44 ms for 90% of the particles simulated, or 0.49 ms for 95% of the particles simulated, respectively. The mixing efficiency of the physical device was also evaluated using fluorescein dye solutions and FluoSphere-red nanoparticles suspensions. The constructed micromixers achieved thorough mixing at the same flow rate of 6 µL/s, with the mixing indices of 96% ± 1%, and 98% ± 1% for the dye and the nanoparticle, respectively. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation data. The device demonstrated promising capabilities for time resolved studies for macromolecular dynamics of biological macromolecules.

12.
J Struct Biol ; 168(3): 388-95, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19683579

RESUMO

The goal of time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy is to determine structural models for transient functional states of large macromolecular complexes such as ribosomes and viruses. The challenge of time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy is to rapidly mix reactants, and then, following a defined time interval, to rapidly deposit them as a thin film and freeze the sample to the vitreous state. Here we describe a methodology in which reaction components are mixed and allowed to react, and are then sprayed onto an EM grid as it is being plunged into cryogen. All steps are accomplished by a monolithic, microfabricated silicon device that incorporates a mixer, reaction channel, and pneumatic sprayer in a single chip. We have found that microdroplets produced by air atomization spread to sufficiently thin films on a millisecond time scale provided that the carbon supporting film is made suitably hydrophilic. The device incorporates two T-mixers flowing into a single channel of four butterfly-shaped mixing elements that ensure effective mixing, followed by a microfluidic reaction channel whose length can be varied to achieve the desired reaction time. The reaction channel is flanked by two ports connected to compressed humidified nitrogen gas (at 50 psi) to generate the spray. The monolithic mixer-sprayer is incorporated into a computer-controlled plunging apparatus. To test the mixing performance and the suitability of the device for preparation of biological macromolecules for cryo-EM, ribosomes and ferritin were mixed in the device and sprayed onto grids. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the ribosomes demonstrated retention of native structure, and 30S and 50S subunits were shown to be capable of reassociation into ribosomes after passage through the device.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/instrumentação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cinética , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura
13.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 9(1): 396-403, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19441325

RESUMO

A none-washing technique for layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte on colloids based on careful monitoring of colloid recharging is elaborated. It allows applying the technique for colloid systems in larger scale than laboratory, and avoiding the expensive washing procedure with centrifugation or filtration. The colloidal aggregation process depends on the cycle of sequential polycation/polyanion deposition and molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes used. The aggregation can be reversed by the addition of the next polyelectrolyte layer.

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(6): 2471-4, 2006 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16471842

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of calcium carbonate microparticles by reaction of calcium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate in the presence of negatively charged phospholipid mixtures of negative and zwitterionic phospholipids has been reported. Negatively charged phospholipids influence the crystal morphology of calcium carbonate and induce the formation of thermodynamically less stable veterite polymorph as opposed to calcite polymorph. The phospholipids are entrapped in the calcium carbonate microparticles during the crystallization process, with a uniform distribution of phospholipids in the interior of the microparticles. This phenomenon was exploited to encapsulate a model hydrophobic fluorophore, the tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride complex, to simulate encapsulation of hydrophobic drug molecules. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that, in these microparticles, the calcium carbonate and the phospholipid exhibit strong interactions.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Ânions/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/síntese química , Cristalização , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
15.
Langmuir ; 21(5): 2042-50, 2005 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15723509

RESUMO

We explored using a magnetic field to modulate the permeability of polyelectrolyte microcapsules prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly. Ferromagnetic gold-coated cobalt (Co@Au) nanoparticles (3 nm diameter) were embedded inside the capsule walls. The final 5 mum diameter microcapsules had wall structures consisting of 4 bilayers of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH), 1 layer of Co@Au, and 5 bilayers of PSS/PAH. External alternating magnetic fields of 100-300 Hz and 1200 Oe were applied to rotate the embedded Co@Au nanoparticles, which subsequently disturbed and distorted the capsule wall and drastically increased its permeability to macromolecules like FITC-labeled dextran. The capsule permeability change was estimated by taking the capsule interior and exterior fluorescent intensity ratio using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Capsules with 1 layer of Co@Au nanoparticles and 10 polyelectrolyte bilayers are optimal for magnetically controlling permeability. A theoretical explanation was proposed for the permeability control mechanisms. "Switching on" of these microcapsules using a magnetic field makes this method a good candidate for controlled drug delivery in biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Cobalto/química , Eletrólitos/química , Ouro/química , Magnetismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Permeabilidade , Análise Espectral , Temperatura
16.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 113-116: 261-72, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15054211

RESUMO

Novel microreactors with immobilized enzymes were fabricated using both silicon and polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The effectiveness of these reactors was examined along with their behavior over time. Urease enzyme was successfully incorporated into microchannels of a polymeric matrix of polydimethylsiloxane and through layer-bylayer self-assembly techniques onto silicon. The fabricated microchannels had cross-sectional dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers in width and height. The experimental results for continuous-flow microreactors are reported for the conversion of urea to ammonia by urease enzyme. Urea conversions of >90% were observed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Fermentação , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nylons/química , Silício/química , Silicones/química , Fatores de Tempo , Ureia/química , Urease/química
17.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 98-100: 627-40, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12018288

RESUMO

This study involves a novel method for immobilized enzyme catalysis. The focus of the work was to design and construct a microscale bioreactor using microfabrication techniques traditionally employed within the semiconductor industry. Enzymes have been immobilized on the microreactor walls by incorporating them directly into the wall material. Fabricated microchannels have cross-sectional dimensions on the order of hundreds of micrometers, constructed using polydimethylsiloxane cast on silicon/SU-8 molds. The resulting ratio of high surface area to volume creates an efficient, continuous-flow reaction system. Transverse features also containing enzymes were molded directly into the channels.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Miniaturização/métodos , Urease/metabolismo , Desenho de Equipamento , Fabaceae/enzimologia , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Rhizopus/enzimologia
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