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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One in five children have a learning and attentional disability (LAD). Parents of children with LAD are vulnerable to distress, but an evidence-based treatment has not been developed. METHODS: From June 2016 to November 2017, we conducted a mixed methods study to adapt and assess the virtual delivery of a mind-body group resiliency program, the Stress Management and Resiliency Training-Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (SMART-3RP), to meet the needs of parents of children with LAD; this is an 8-session weekly group intervention. In the first phase, we conducted 4 parent focus group interviews, 2 professional focus group interviews, and 5 professional individual interviews, and 1 pilot group to adapt the SMART-3RP to target the needs of parents of children with LAD. In the second phase, we conducted a pilot wait-list controlled study to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a videoconferencing delivery of the adapted program. Parents were randomized to an immediate intervention group (IG) or wait-list control group (WC). Surveys were administered at baseline (time 1), end of intervention for the IG or 3 months post-baseline for the WC (time 2), and 3 months post treatment for the IG or end of intervention for the WC (time 3). RESULTS: Qualitative findings illustrated high levels of parental stress, with primary stressors including navigating the educational system, interactions with other parents, familial concerns, and financial and professional sacrifices. We adapted the manual to target these stressors and modified session logistics and delivery. Fifty-three parents (mean age = 46.8; 90.6% female) participated nationally in the pilot trial. 62.5% of participants completed ≥ 6/8 sessions; 81.8% reported continued daily/weekly relaxation response exercise practice. T1-T2 comparisons found that IG versus WC participants showed significant improvements in distress [VAS], ∆M = - 1.95; d = .83 and resilience [CES], ∆M = 6.38; d = .83, as well as stress coping [MOCS-A] ∆M = 8.69; d = 1.39; depression and anxiety [PHQ-4], ∆M = - 1.79; d = .71; social support [MOS-SSS], ∆M = 5.47; d = .71; and empathy [IRI], ∆M = 3.17; d = .77; improvements were sustained at the 3 month post intervention follow-up. CONCLUSION: Pilot wait-list randomized trial findings showed promising feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy for the SMART-3RP intervention adapted for parents of children with LAD. This virtually-delivered resiliency intervention improved parents' distress, resiliency, and stress coping, which were sustained. CLINICAL TRIALS ID: NCT02772432.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900195

RESUMO

Parents of children with Autism experience high levels of stress. Resiliency is the ability to cope and adapt when faced with stressful events. This randomized, waitlist controlled pilot trial examines the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted virtual mind-body group intervention for parents of children with ASD. The intervention was feasible and acceptable. The immediate treatment group showed no difference in distress and greater improvement in resiliency and stress reactivity/coping relative to the delayed treatment group, (M difference 5.78; p = .038 and M difference 7.78; p = .001 respectively). Findings showed promising feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy for parents of children with ASD.

3.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 26(4): 449-460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756278

RESUMO

Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem among cancer survivors and evidence-based interventions grounded in theoretical models are needed. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention for reducing health anxiety that could be useful to apply to FCR. However, there has only been one study of MBCT for FCR to date, and the theoretical rationale and practical application of MBCT for FCR has not been described. The purpose of this paper is to offer an evidence-based rationale for MBCT to treat FCR based on a health anxiety model; describe the process of adapting MBCT to target FCR; and present a case study of the adapted protocol for treating FCR in a young adult breast cancer survivor to illustrate its delivery, feasibility, acceptability, and associated changes in outcomes. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

4.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 31(6): 702-713, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Affect tolerance factors, including anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty, and emotional distress tolerance, have been implicated in the exacerbation of health anxiety. Therefore, identifying methods to improve affect tolerance in health anxious populations is imperative. Despite the link between mindfulness and greater affect tolerance in non-clinical populations, no work has examined the role of mindfulness skills in terms of affect tolerance among individuals with elevated health anxiety. The aim of the current study was to examine the unique contribution of mindfulness skills in terms of distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. METHODS: Participants were 218 undergraduates with clinically elevated levels of health anxiety (75.7% female; Mage = 19.53, SD = 3.16, Range = 18-45) who completed self-report measures for course credit. RESULTS: Findings indicated that, after controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, greater acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity were uniquely associated with greater distress tolerance, and greater non-reactivity was associated with lower levels of intolerance of uncertainty. Though none of the mindfulness skills emerged as specific individual predictors of anxiety sensitivity, these skills collectively accounted for unique variance in anxiety sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mindfulness skills may be helpful in targeting affect tolerance factors among individuals with elevated health anxiety.

5.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 9(3): 850-859, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079120

RESUMO

Anxiety is common during pregnancy and associated with poorer outcomes for mother and child. Our single-arm pilot study of an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) intervention for pregnant women with elevated anxiety showed significant pre- to post-intervention improvements in anxiety, depression, worry, mindfulness, and self-compassion. It remains unclear whether these improvements are maintained post-partum and whether amount of formal mindfulness practice is correlated with outcomes. The current study examined whether 1) improvements in psychosocial outcomes were maintained three months postpartum; 2) women were adherent to formal practice recommendations; and 3) amount of mindfulness practice was correlated with outcomes. Twenty-three pregnant women (Mage=33.5, SD=4.40; 75% White; 71% with Generalized Anxiety Disorder) completed home practice logs throughout the intervention, and self-report measures before and after the intervention and three months postpartum. Results indicated that previously reported post-intervention improvements in anxiety, worry, mindfulness, and self-compassion were maintained postpartum (p's<.05), and reductions in depression further improved (p<.001). Participants were generally adherent to mindfulness practice recommendations during the intervention (54%-80% weekly adherence; M=17.31 total practice hours [SD=7.45]), and many continued practicing one-week post-intervention (91%) and postpartum (55%). Mindfulness practice during the intervention was not significantly correlated with any outcome at post-intervention or postpartum. Mindfulness practice postpartum was only marginally related to improved worry postpartum (p=.05). MBCT may be associated with maintained improvements in psychosocial outcomes for women during pregnancy and postpartum, but the role of mindfulness practice is unclear. Research using larger samples and randomized controlled designs is needed.

6.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 9(3): 708-724, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100929

RESUMO

Increased attention has focused on methods to increase empathy, compassion, and pro-social behavior. Meditation practices have traditionally been used to cultivate pro-social outcomes, and recently investigations have sought to evaluate their efficacy for these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of meditation for pro-social emotions and behavior. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane databases (inception-April 2016) using the search terms: mindfulness, meditation, mind-body therapies, tai chi, yoga, MBSR, MBCT, empathy, compassion, love, altruism, sympathy, or kindness. Randomized controlled trials in any population were included (26 studies with 1,714 subjects). Most were conducted among healthy adults (n=11) using compassion or loving kindness meditation (n=18) over 8-12weeks (n=12) in a group format (n=17). Most control groups were wait-list or no-treatment (n=15). Outcome measures included self-reported emotions (e.g., composite scores, validated measures) and observed behavioral outcomes (e.g., helping behavior in real-world and simulated settings). Many studies showed a low risk of bias. Results demonstrated small to medium effects of meditation on self-reported (SMD = .40, p < .001) and observable outcomes (SMD = .45, p < .001) and suggest psychosocial and neurophysiological mechanisms of action. Subgroup analyses also supported small to medium effects of meditation even when compared to active control groups. Clinicians and meditation teachers should be aware that meditation can improve positive pro-social emotions and behaviors.

7.
Psychooncology ; 27(11): 2546-2558, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common existential concern and source of distress among adults with a cancer history. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined mind-body approaches to mitigating FCR. We summarized characteristics of these trials and calculated their pooled effects on decreasing FCR. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to May 2017, using a strategy that included multiple terms for RCTs, cancer, mind-body medicine, and FCR. Data extraction and reporting followed Cochrane and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Pooled effect sizes on self-report measures of FCR were computed by using random-effects models. RESULTS: Nineteen RCTs (pooled N = 2806) were included. Most studies (53%) were published since 2015 and targeted a single cancer type (84%; mostly breast). Intervention sessions (median = 6, mode = 4) tended to last 120 minutes and occur across 1.5 months. Delivery was predominantly in-person (63%) to either groups (42%) or individuals (42%). Most interventions incorporated multiple mind-body components (53%), commonly cognitive-behavioral skills (58%), or meditative practices (53%). Small-to-medium pooled effect sizes were observed postintervention (Hedges' g = -0.36, 95% CI = -0.49, -0.23, P < .001) and at follow-up assessments (median = 8 months, P < .001). Potential modifiers (control group design, group/individual delivery, use of cognitive-behavioral or mindfulness skills, number of mind-body components, cancer treatment status, and number of sessions) did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Mind-body interventions are efficacious for reducing FCR, with small-to-medium effect sizes that persist after intervention delivery ends. Recommendations include testing effects among survivors of various cancers and exploring the optimal integration of mind-body practices for managing fundamental uncertainties and fears during cancer survivorship.

8.
Body Image ; 25: 177-185, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698824

RESUMO

The current study was designed to test the efficacy of an appearance-based facial morphing program to reduce intentional UV exposure among individuals at risk for skin cancer. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was employed (N = 219) comparing facial morphing + health information to: (1) mindfulness + health information; and (2) health information only. Participants were young adults with a history of recent intentional tanning and future intentions to tan. Primary outcomes were indoor and outdoor tanning frequency and tanning intentions, with secondary outcomes of tanning attitudes, body image, and affect. Facial morphing participants reported less frequent tanning, compared to mindfulness and control participants at 1-month follow-up. Facial morphing participants also generally reported lower intentions to tan at immediate follow-up, although the magnitude of these effects weakened at 1-month follow-up. Facial morphing programs may offer a brief, efficacious, and scalable augmentation to standard of care in reducing intentional UV exposure. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03237013).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318756500, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502458

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a telephone-based smoking cessation intervention for lung screening patients. Participants ( N = 39) were enrolled in a single-arm pilot study of a four-session telephone-based intervention. Self-report measures were completed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were long-term smokers; 62 percent were not motivated to quit. Twenty-three percent attempted quitting, 29 percent decreased their smoking, and 11 percent reported abstinence. Confidence increased ( p < .001) and there were trends toward increased importance ( p = .09) and comparative disease risk ( p = .02). This intervention was acceptable and associated with improvements in smoking-related beliefs and behaviors.

10.
Addict Behav ; 77: 73-80, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965070

RESUMO

Brief, single session mindfulness training has been shown to reduce emotional distress, craving, and withdrawal symptoms among smokers when they are nicotine-deprived. However, no research has examined the efficacy of brief mindfulness training for non-nicotine-deprived smokers, or explored its effects on smokers' ability to tolerate emotional distress. Smokers progress differently through various stages as they attempt to change their smoking behavior and evidence-based strategies are needed for smokers at all levels of nicotine deprivation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness, distress, distress tolerance, and smoking urges following a distressing laboratory task among 86 non-nicotine-deprived adult daily smokers (Mage=46years, 55% male, 74% African-American) who completed behavioral tasks and self-report measures before and after randomization to a 10-min mindfulness or control exercise. As hypothesized, the mindfulness exercise significantly increased state mindfulness [F=14.24, p=0.00, η2partial=0.15] and demonstrated a non-significant small to medium effect on decreased distress levels [F=3.22, p=0.08, η2partial=0.04]. Contrary to prediction, it was not associated with improvements in self-reported [F=2.68, p=0.11, η2partial=0.03] or behavioral distress tolerance [F(1)=0.75, p=0.39, η2partial=0.01], or smoking urges following a stressor [F=0.22, p=0.64, η2partial=0.00.] These findings suggest that brief mindfulness exercises successfully induce states of mindfulness in non-nicotine-deprived smokers. These exercises might also improve current moment levels of distress, but they do not appear to improve self-report or behavioral indices of distress tolerance.


Assuntos
Afeto , Fissura , Atenção Plena/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Health Psychol ; 23(6): 860-870, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688301

RESUMO

Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients ( N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support ( ps < .05).Current smokers who use mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

12.
World J Cardiol ; 9(5): 396-406, 2017 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603586

RESUMO

Numerous health behaviors, including physical activity, diet, smoking, and sleep, play a major role in preventing the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among these behaviors, sleep may play a pivotal role, yet it has been studied somewhat less than other behaviors and there have been few well-designed sleep intervention studies targeting CVD. Furthermore, despite the fact that these behaviors are often interrelated, interventions tend to focus on changing one health behavior rather than concurrently intervening on multiple behaviors. Psychological constructs from depression to positive affect may also have a major effect on these health behaviors and ultimately on CVD. In this review, we summarize the existing literature on the impact of sleep and other cardiac health behaviors on CVD onset and prognosis. We also describe interventions that may promote these behaviors, from established interventions such as motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, to more novel approaches focused on mindfulness and other positive psychological constructs. Finally, we outline population-health-level care management approaches for patients with psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression) that may impact cardiac health, and discuss their potential utility in improving mental health, promoting health behaviors, and reducing CVD-related risk. Much work is still needed to better understand how sleep and other health behaviors may uniquely contribute to CVD risk, and additional high-quality studies of interventions designed to modify cardiac health behaviors are required to improve cardiovascular health in individuals and the population at large.

13.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 8(6): 1522-1531, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335671

RESUMO

Hospital employees may experience occupational stress and burnout, which negatively impact quality of life and job performance. Evidence-based interventions implemented within the hospital setting are needed to promote employees' well-being. We offered a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy group program for hospital employees, and used a mixed-methods practice-based research approach to explore feasibility, acceptability, and effects on stress and burnout. Participants were 65 hospital employees (Mage = 44.06; 85% white) who participated between September 2015 and January 2016. Participants completed validated measures of stress and burnout before and after the program, and answered open-ended satisfaction questions after the program. Groups consistently enrolled at least 10 participants, but attendance rates declined across sessions (76% at session 2 vs. 54% at session 4) due primarily to work-related scheduling conflicts. The program content was acceptable as evidenced by high perceived value (M = 9.18 out of 10), homework compliance (51% practicing at least 3 times/week), and qualitative requests for program expansion. There were large, statistically significant decreases in stress (ΔM = 2.1, p < .001, d = .85) and medium decreases in burnout (ΔM = .46, p = .01, d = .57), which were supported by qualitative themes of improved self-regulation and mindfulness skills, stress reduction, emotional well-being, and improved work productivity and patient care skills. Findings suggest that 4-week MBCT is acceptable and useful for hospital employees, though research is needed to identify alternate delivery methods or strategies to enhance session attendance.

14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 18(12): 2194-2201, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A significant minority of patients continue to smoke after a cancer diagnosis. Cancer patients who smoke experience stigma that can negatively impact health outcomes. We explored publicly shared perspectives about cancer patients who continued to smoke post-diagnosis. METHODS: An online news article, published in January 2012, summarized the findings of smoking prevalence among patients with lung cancer and colorectal cancer enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium trial. In response, written comments were posted on the articles' public discussion board. Applying principles of grounded theory, we conducted a document analysis and established a conceptual framework to develop a model by which to explain factors underlying stigmatic and sympathetic attitudes toward cancer survivors who continue to smoke. RESULTS: Personal experiences with cancer, smoking, and statistical literacy were found to influence beliefs about cancer and smoking, which in turn influenced stigmatic or sympathetic attitudes. More sympathetic attitudes were expressed by individuals who had personal experiences with smoking, believed cancer is multicausal, identified smoking as an addiction, or considered extrinsic factors responsible for smoking. Individuals who did not have personal experiences with cancer or smoking, had low statistical literacy, believed that smoking necessarily and directly causes cancer, and focused on intrinsic responsibilities for smoking tended to express more stigmatic attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings raise awareness and provide insight into stigma against cancer survivors who smoke and can help inform strategies for reducing stigma against this vulnerable group. IMPLICATIONS: This study helps raise awareness of stigma toward cancer patients who smoke and provides insight into the processes that may influence stigmatic as compared to sympathetic attitudes toward these patients. Results suggest that population-based strategies to educate the public regarding the nature of nicotine addiction, difficulty of quitting, and benefits of quitting for cancer patients may be useful for reducing stigma against cancer patients with a smoking history.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estigma Social , Humanos , Internet , Entrevistas como Assunto , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
15.
Teach Learn Med ; 28(2): 219-28, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064724

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. INTERVENTION: The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. CONTEXT: Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. OUTCOME: Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with improvements in distress tolerance in the mind-body group but not in the control group. LESSONS LEARNED: These preliminary findings provide support for the notion that improving distress tolerance through mind-body skills training might serve to protect medical students from becoming functionally impaired by psychological distress. Thus, implementing mind-body skills training into medical school education may help to improve the psychological well-being of medical students. Future studies utilizing more methodologically rigorous designs are warranted.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atenção Plena , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 26(4): 372-9, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the neurophysiology of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children (MBCT-C) in youth with generalized, social, and/or separation anxiety disorder who were at risk for developing bipolar disorder. METHODS: Nine youth (mean age: 13 ± 2 years) with a generalized, social, and/or separation anxiety disorder and a parent with bipolar disorder completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a continuous processing task with emotional and neutral distractors (CPT-END) prior to and following 12 weeks of MBCT-C. RESULTS: MBCT-C was associated with increases in activation of the bilateral insula, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, as well as the left anterior cingulate while viewing emotional stimuli during the CPT-END, and decreases in anxiety were correlated with change in activation in the bilateral insula and anterior cingulate during the viewing of emotional stimuli (p < 0.05, uncorrected; p < 0.005 corrected; cluster size, 37 voxels). CONCLUSIONS: MBCT-C treatment in anxious youth with a familial history of bipolar disorder is associated with increased activation of brain structures that subserve interoception and the processing of internal stimuli-functions that are ostensibly improved by this treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Bipolar/prevenção & controle , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Behav Modif ; 40(1-2): 164-77, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26405256

RESUMO

Anxiety sensitivity, particularly the physical concerns domain, is associated with more problematic asthma symptoms and greater functional limitations. It has been theorized that anxiety sensitivity fosters greater reactivity to asthma-related physical sensations; however, this theory has yet to be empirically tested. Thus, the present investigation sought to examine the role of anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns in terms of affective and physical reactivity to asthma-like symptoms. Participants were 101 undergraduates with asthma (76.2% female, Mage = 19.69 years, SD = 3.77 years, range = 18-49 years) who completed self-report measures and a straw-breathing task. Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of gender, asthma control (i.e., how well one's asthma symptoms are managed or controlled), and negative affectivity, greater levels of anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns significantly predicted greater anxiety (4.7% unique variance) and asthma symptoms (6.9% unique variance) and lower levels of lung function (4.4% unique variance) after the straw-breathing task. These findings suggest that individuals with asthma who are fearful of physiological arousal are a particularly "at-risk" population for poor asthma outcomes because of this greater reactivity and could benefit from interventions targeting anxiety sensitivity.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Asma/psicologia , Adulto , Asma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sensação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Health Psychol ; 21(12): 2813-2823, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044717

RESUMO

Clinical practice guidelines recommend tobacco treatment for all cancer patients. However, little is known about how to integrate tobacco treatment into cancer care. The results of our pilot study of an evidence-based tobacco treatment integrated into a thoracic oncology clinic demonstrated good feasibility and efficacy, providing an opportunity to inform future tobacco treatment integration efforts. Here, we describe the process of intervention development, clinic integration, patient identification, and patient enrollment. We report on the intervention content and delivery, patterns of quitting for participants in the tobacco treatment group, and changes in smoking-related psychosocial variables. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 10(5): 426-34, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25582800

RESUMO

AIM: Children and adolescents with bipolar parents have an elevated risk for anxiety disorders. However, antidepressant medications commonly used to treat symptoms of anxiety may accelerate the onset of mania in these already at-risk youth. Therefore, studies evaluating innovative non-pharmacologic treatments for anxiety in this population are urgently needed. METHODS: Subjects participated in 12 weekly sessions of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children (MBCT-C), a manualized group psychotherapeutic intervention utilizing cognitive behavioural principles and mindfulness exercises to increase regulation of attention and non-judgmental acceptance of present moment thoughts, emotions and experiences. Independent raters administered symptoms rating scales prior to each treatment session. Spearman correlations and paired-samples signed rank tests were used to examine outcomes. After-intervention surveys and session transcripts were reviewed to assess feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: Participants included 10 youth (meanage = 13.2; 80% girls; 40% biracial) with generalized, social and/or separation anxiety disorders, and a parent with bipolar disorder. Clinician-rated anxiety was significantly reduced after intervention (meanbefore = 11.1; meanafter = 4.3; P < 0.01), as well as youth-rated trait anxiety (P = 0.03). Parent-rated emotion regulation significantly increased from before to after intervention (P = 0.05). Increases in mindfulness were associated with decreases in anxiety (P = 0.03). Finally, children and parents/guardians reported high levels of feasibility, acceptability and usefulness of the intervention. CONCLUSION: Findings support the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of MBCT-C for treating anxiety in youth at risk for bipolar disorder. Future controlled and larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Psicoterapia de Grupo
20.
Glob Adv Health Med ; 4(4): 32-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management is a frequent problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Few studies examining effects of integrative care therapies on pain-related outcomes in neonates have included physiological outcomes or investigated the use of such therapies in a practice-based setting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this practice-based retrospective study was to examine the associations between integrative care therapies, particularly massage and healing touch, and pain-related outcomes among hospitalized infants. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of a clinical database from a level III NICU regularly delivering integrative care therapies. Paired-samples t-tests were used to examine associations between integrative care therapies and 4 pre-post outcome measures: therapist-rated pain and presentation (ranging from asleep to agitated) and neonates' heart rate and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Of 186 patients (M age=68 days), 58% were male and 67% were Caucasian. Sixty-two percent received both massage and healing touch; the remainder received a single therapy. From pre-post therapy, statistically significant changes were observed in infants' heart rate (M pre=156 vs M post=140 per minute; P<.001), oxygen saturation (M pre=95.0% vs.M post=97.4%; P<.001), and therapist-reported pain (M pre=2.8 vs M post=0.2; P<.001) and presentation (M pre=3.2 vs. M post=1.0; P<.001). CONCLUSION: Observed improvements in pain-related outcomes suggest that massage and healing touch may be useful integrative therapies to consider as pain management options in the NICU.

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