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1.
Front Chem ; 6: 278, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050897

RESUMO

The Keggin-type polyoxometalate [γ-SiW10O36]8- was covalently modified to obtain a bis-biotinylated conjugate able to bind avidin. Spectroscopic studies such as UV-vis, fluorimetry, circular dichroism, coupled to surface plasmon resonance technique were used to highlight the unique interplay of supramolecular interactions between the homotetrameric protein and the bis-functionalized polyanion. In particular, the dual recognition mechanism of the avidin encompasses (i) a complementary electrostatic association between the anionic surface of the polyoxotungstate and each positively charged avidin subunit and (ii) specific host-guest interactions between each biotinylated arm and a corresponding pocket on the tetramer subunits. The assembly exhibits peroxidase-like reactivity and it was used in aqueous solution for L-methionine methyl ester oxidation by H2O2. The recognition phenomenon was then exploited for the preparation of layer-by-layer films, whose structural evolution was monitored in situ by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, cell tracking studies were performed by exploiting the specific interactions with a labeled streptavidin.

2.
ACS Nano ; 12(6): 5834-5847, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750504

RESUMO

Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA) is an alternative promising polymer to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for design and engineering of macrophage-evading nanoparticles (NPs). Although PMOXA-engineered NPs have shown comparable pharmacokinetics and in vivo performance to PEGylated stealth NPs in the murine model, its interaction with elements of the human innate immune system has not been studied. From a translational angle, we studied the interaction of fully characterized PMOXA-coated vinyltriethoxysilane-derived organically modified silica NPs (PMOXA-coated NPs) of approximately 100 nm in diameter with human complement system, blood leukocytes, and macrophages and compared their performance with PEGylated and uncoated NP counterparts. Through detailed immunological and proteomic profiling, we show that PMOXA-coated NPs extensively trigger complement activation in human sera exclusively through the classical pathway. Complement activation is initiated by the sensing molecule C1q, where C1q binds with high affinity ( Kd = 11 ± 1 nM) to NP surfaces independent of immunoglobulin binding. C1q-mediated complement activation accelerates PMOXA opsonization with the third complement protein (C3) through the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. This promoted NP recognition by human blood leukocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. The macrophage capture of PMOXA-coated NPs correlates with sera donor variability in complement activation and opsonization but not with other major corona proteins, including clusterin and a wide range of apolipoproteins. In contrast to these observations, PMOXA-coated NPs poorly activated the murine complement system and were marginally recognized by mouse macrophages. These studies provide important insights into compatibility of engineered NPs with elements of the human innate immune system for translational steps.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Complemento C3/imunologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Opsinas/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/imunologia , Animais , Complemento C1q/química , Complemento C3/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Opsinas/química , Fagócitos/química , Poliaminas/química , Poliaminas/imunologia , Dióxido de Silício/química
3.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 24(10)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835358

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the host-microbe balance in the gut and skin, tissues likely exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) present in drugs, food, and cosmetics. We analyzed the viability and the activation of DCs incubated with extracellular media (EMs) obtained from cultures of commensal bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis) or pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) in the presence of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). EMs and NPs synergistically increased the levels of cytotoxicity and cytokine production, with different nanoparticle dose-response characteristics being found, depending on the bacterial species. E. coli and S. epidermidis EMs plus NPs at nontoxic doses stimulated the secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-12, IL-10, and IL-6, while E. coli and S. epidermidis EMs plus NPs at toxic doses stimulated the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-4, and IL-5. On the contrary, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa EMs induced cytokines only when they were combined with NPs at toxic concentrations. The induction of maturation markers (CD86, CD80, CD83, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and major histocompatibility complex class II) by commensal bacteria but not by pathogenic ones was improved in the presence of noncytotoxic SiO2 NP doses. DCs consistently supported the proliferation and differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-17A. The synergistic induction of CD86 was due to nonprotein molecules present in the EMs from all bacteria tested. At variance with this finding, the synergistic induction of IL-1ß was prevalently mediated by proteins in the case of E. coli EMs and by nonproteins in the case of S. epidermidis EMs. A bacterial costimulus did not act on DCs after adsorption on SiO2 NPs but rather acted as an independent agonist. The inflammatory and immune actions of DCs stimulated by commensal bacterial agonists might be altered by the simultaneous exposure to engineered or environmental NPs.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Simbiose , Antígenos CD/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/biossíntese , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942377

RESUMO

We tested whether amorphous SiO2-NPs and formylpeptide receptor (FPRs) agonists synergistically activate human monocytes and neutrophil polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). Peptide ligands specifically binding to FPR1 (f-MLP) and to FPR2 (MMK-1, WKYMVM and WKYMVm) human isoforms did not modify the association of SiO2-NPs to both cell types or their cytotoxic effects. Similarly, the extent of CD80, CD86, CD83, ICAM-1 and MHCII expression in monocytes treated with SiO2-NPs was not significantly altered by any FPRs agonist. However, FPR1 stimulation with f-MLP strongly increased the secretion of IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 by human monocytes, and of IL-8 by PMNs in the presence of SiO2-NPs, due to the synergic stimulation of gene transcription. FPR2 agonists also up-modulated the production of IL-1ß induced by monocytes treated with SiO2-NPs. In turn, SiO2-NPs increased the chemotaxis of PMNs toward FPR1-specific ligands, but not toward FPR2-specific ones. Conversely, the chemotaxis of monocytes toward FPR2-specific peptides was inhibited by SiO2-NPs. NADPH-oxidase activation triggered by FPR1- and FPR2-specific ligands in both cell types was not altered by SiO2-NPs. Microbial and tissue danger signals sensed by FPRs selectively amplified the functional responses of monocytes and PMNS to SiO2-NPs, and should be carefully considered in the assessment of the risk associated with nanoparticle exposure.

5.
Nanoscale ; 7(42): 17710-28, 2015 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26451907

RESUMO

A coat of strongly-bound host proteins, or hard corona, may influence the biological and pharmacological features of nanotheranostics by altering their cell-interaction selectivity and macrophage clearance. With the goal of identifying specific corona-effectors, we investigated how the capture of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs; Ø = 26 nm; zeta potential = -18.3 mV) by human lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages is modulated by the prominent proteins of their plasma corona. LC MS/MS analysis, western blotting and quantitative SDS-PAGE densitometry show that Histidine Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) is the most abundant component of the SiO2-NP hard corona in excess plasma from humans (HP) and mice (MP), together with minor amounts of the homologous Kininogen-1 (Kin-1), while it is remarkably absent in their Foetal Calf Serum (FCS)-derived corona. HRG binds with high affinity to SiO2-NPs (HRG Kd ∼2 nM) and competes with other plasma proteins for the NP surface, so forming a stable and quite homogeneous corona inhibiting nanoparticles binding to the macrophage membrane and their subsequent uptake. Conversely, in the case of lymphocytes and monocytes not only HRG but also several common plasma proteins can interchange in this inhibitory activity. The depletion of HRG and Kin-1 from HP or their plasma exhaustion by increasing NP concentration (>40 µg ml(-1) in 10% HP) lead to a heterogeneous hard corona, mostly formed by fibrinogen (Fibr), HDLs, LDLs, IgGs, Kallikrein and several minor components, allowing nanoparticle binding to macrophages. Consistently, the FCS-derived SiO2-NP hard corona, mainly formed by hemoglobin, α2 macroglobulin and HDLs but lacking HRG, permits nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Moreover, purified HRG competes with FCS proteins for the NP surface, inhibiting their recruitment in the corona and blocking NP macrophage capture. HRG, the main component of the plasma-derived SiO2-NPs' hard corona, has antiopsonin characteristics and uniquely confers to these particles the ability to evade macrophage capture.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Humanos , Cininogênios/química , Cininogênios/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Arch Toxicol ; 89(4): 607-20, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24888373

RESUMO

ORganically MOdified SILica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) appear promising carriers for the delivery of drugs to target tissues but concerns on possible cytotoxic effects exist. Here, we studied the in vitro responses to ORMOSIL NPs in different types of human lung cells to determine the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating on NP cytotoxicity. Non-PEG NPs caused a concentration-dependent decrease of viability of all types of cells, while PEG NPs induced deleterious effects and death in carcinoma alveolar type II A549 cells but not in CCD-34Lu fibroblasts and NCI-H2347 adenocarcinoma cells. Reactive oxygen species were detected in cells incubated with PEG NPs, but their deactivation by superoxide dismutase and catalase did not protect A549 cells from death, suggesting that the oxidative stress was not the main determinant of cytotoxicity. Only in A549 cells PEG NPs modulated the transcription of genes involved in inflammation, signal transduction and cell death. Transmission electron microscopy evidenced a unique intracellular localization of PEG NPs in the lamellar bodies of A549 cells, which could be the most relevant factor leading to cytotoxicity by reducing the production of surfactant proteins and by interfering with the pulmonary surfactant system.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Siloxanas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Siloxanas/química , Siloxanas/farmacocinética , Propriedades de Superfície , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Chemistry ; 20(44): 14296-304, 2014 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25200655

RESUMO

We explore a photochemical approach to achieve an ordered polymeric structure at the sub-monolayer level on a metal substrate. In particular, a tetraphenylporphyrin derivative carrying para-amino-phenyl functional groups is used to obtain extended and highly ordered molecular wires on Ag(110). Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal that porphyrin building blocks are joined through azo bridges, mainly as cis isomers. The observed highly stereoselective growth is the result of adsorbate/surface interactions, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At variance with previous studies, we tailor the formation of long-range ordered structures by the separate control of the surface molecular diffusion through sample heating, and of the reaction initiation through light absorption. This previously unreported approach shows that the photo-induced covalent stabilization of self-assembled molecular monolayers to obtain highly ordered surface covalent organic frameworks is viable by a careful choice of the precursors and reaction conditions.

8.
Photosynth Res ; 122(2): 187-202, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24997120

RESUMO

Biohybrid light-harvesting architectures can be constructed that employ native-like bacterial photosynthetic antenna peptides as a scaffold to which synthetic chromophores are attached to augment overall spectral coverage. Synthetic bacteriochlorins are attractive to enhance capture of solar radiation in the photon-rich near-infrared spectral region. The effect of the polarity of the bacteriochlorin substituents on the antenna self-assembly process was explored by the preparation of a bacteriochlorin-peptide conjugate using a synthetic amphiphilic bacteriochlorin (B1) to complement prior studies using hydrophilic (B2, four carboxylic acids) or hydrophobic (B3) bacteriochlorins. The amphiphilic bioconjugatable bacteriochlorin B1 with a polar ammonium-terminated tail was synthesized by sequential Pd-mediated reactions of a 3,13-dibromo-5-methoxybacteriochlorin. Each bacteriochlorin bears a maleimido-terminated tether for attachment to a cysteine-containing analog of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides antenna ß-peptide to give conjugates ß-B1, ß-B2, and ß-B3. Given the hydrophobic nature of the ß-peptide, the polarity of B1 and B2 facilitated purification of the respective conjugate compared to the hydrophobic B3. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) associates with each conjugate in aqueous micellar media to form a dyad containing two ß-peptides, two covalently attached synthetic bacteriochlorins, and a datively bonded BChl-a pair, albeit to a limited extent for ß-B2. The reversible assembly/disassembly of dyad (ß-B2/BChl)2 was examined in aqueous detergent (octyl glucoside) solution by temperature variation (15-35 °C). The energy-transfer efficiency from the synthetic bacteriochlorin to the BChl-a dimer was found to be 0.85 for (ß-B1/BChl)2, 0.40 for (ß-B2/BChl)2, and 0.85 for (ß-B3/BChl)2. Thus, in terms of handling, assembly and energy-transfer efficiency taken together, the amphiphilic design examined herein is more attractive than the prior hydrophilic or hydrophobic designs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Porfirinas/química , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
9.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 9(16): 2481-97, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24661258

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated monocyte and macrophage death and cytokine production induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) to clarify the role of defined serum corona proteins. MATERIALS & METHODS: The cytotoxic proinflammatory effects of SiO2-NPs on human monocytes and macrophages were characterized in no serum, in fetal calf serum and in the presence of purified corona proteins. RESULTS: In no serum and in fetal calf serum above approximately 75 µg/ml, SiO2-NPs lysed monocytes and macrophages by plasma membrane damage (necrosis). In fetal calf serum below approximately 75 µg/ml, SiO2-NPs triggered an endolysosomal acidification and caspase-1-dependent monocyte death (pyroptosis). The corona high-density lipoproteins:albumin ratio accounted for the features of the SiO2-NPs in serum. DISCUSSION: Corona high-density lipoproteins are a major determinant of the differential cytotoxic action of SiO2-NPs on monocytes and macrophages.


Assuntos
Albuminas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas HDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Morte Celular , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química
10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 12(1): 86-103, 2014 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24150272

RESUMO

Bacteriochlorins absorb strongly in the near-infrared (NIR, 700-900 nm) region and hence are well suited for photophysical studies and photomedical applications, yet such endeavors heretofore have been largely limited by the intrinsic lipophilicity of the bacteriochlorin macrocycle. Here, a new molecular design is investigated wherein 3,5-dicarboxyphenyl units are appended to the ß-pyrrolic positions of the bacteriochlorin. Use of the 3,5-aryl substitution motif places the carboxylic acid groups, which are anionic at neutral pH, above and below the plane of the bacteriochlorin macrocycle. A de novo synthesis has been employed to create five such bacteriochlorins, which uses as intermediates two new 2,12-dibromobacteriochlorin building blocks and a known 3,13-dibromobacteriochlorin. The aryl groups with protected carboxylate moieties were introduced by Suzuki coupling; subsequent deprotection afforded the hydrophilic bacteriochlorins. The latter were characterized by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in DMF and in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 7). In most cases, comparable sharp emission (FWHM of ∼25 nm) and modest fluorescence yields (0.060-0.11) were observed in aqueous phosphate buffer medium and in DMF. Aqueous solubility was examined by absorption spectral interrogation of samples over a 1000-fold concentration range with reciprocal change in pathlength (∼0.5, 5, 50, and 500 µM; 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01 cm pathlength cuvettes). One hydrophilic bacteriochlorin was prepared that contains a single maleimido-terminated tether for bioconjugation; the tether was installed by the sequence of 15-bromination of the bacteriochlorin, Suzuki coupling, and DCC-mediated amide formation. The maleimido-bacteriochlorin was conjugated to a 48-residue cysteine-containing peptide analogue of a constituent from a bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting complex. Taken together, the results show a new molecular design and facile de novo synthetic route for obtaining hydrophilic bacteriochlorins including a bioconjugatable group if desired.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Fótons , Porfirinas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Porfirinas/síntese química
11.
Chirality ; 23(9): 808-19, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21919077

RESUMO

The transfer of chirality from a guest molecule to an achiral host is the subject of significant interest especially when, upon chiral induction, the chiroptical response of the host/guest complex can effectively report the absolute configuration (AC) of the guest. For more than a decade, dimeric metalloporphyrin hosts (tweezers) have been successfully applied as chirality probes for determination of the AC for a wide variety of chiral synthetic compounds and natural products. The objective of this study is to investigate the utility of a new class of melamine-bridged Zn-porphyrin tweezers as sensitive AC reporters. A combined approach based on an experimental CD analysis and a theoretical prediction of the prevailing interporphyrin helicity demonstrates that these tweezers display favorable properties for chiral recognition. Herein, we discuss the application of the melamine-bridged tweezer to the chiral recognition of a diverse set of chiral guests, such as 1,2-diamines, α-amino-esters and amides, secondary alcohols, and 1,2-amino-alcohols. The bulky periphery and the presence of a rigid porphyrin linkage lead, in some cases, to a more enhanced CD sensitivity than that reported earlier with other tweezers.


Assuntos
Dicroísmo Circular/métodos , Metaloporfirinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Triazinas/química , Álcoois/química , Aminas/química , Amino Álcoois/química , Simulação por Computador , Diaminas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos
12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 11(4): 3235-44, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21776692

RESUMO

Self-assembled molecular thin films of melamine-bridged bis-porphyrin dyad, both in free form, P(H2)P(H2), or as Zn(II) metallated complex, P(Zn)P(Zn), were deposited on crystalline Si(100) by soaking or drop-casting techniques. The influence of the adopted preparation methodology, the substrate surface pre-activation procedure and the used solvent (THF or CHCl3) on the morphology and surface coverage of the resulting films was investigated by FE-SEM (Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The chemical composition and electronic structure of the most promising systems were also addressed by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). The results pointed out that an accurate tuning of porphyrin-porphyrin, porphyrin-substrate and porphyrin-solvent molecular interactions allow to tailor the morphogenesis and chemico-physical properties of the final self-assembled films. In addition, preliminary gas sensing tests evidenced the potential of the present porphyrin-based films for the development of new molecular sensing devices.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Porfirinas/química , Silício/química , Adsorção , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
ACS Nano ; 4(9): 5147-54, 2010 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20707317

RESUMO

A novel two-step bottom-up approach to construct a 2D long-range ordered, covalently bonded fullerene/porphyrin binary nanostructure is presented: in the first place, reversible supramolecular interactions between C60 and 5,15-bis(4-aminophenyl)-10,20-diphenylporphyrin are exploited to obtain large domains of an ordered binary network, subsequently a reaction between fullerene molecules and the amino-groups residing on porphyrin units, triggered by thermal treatment, is used to freeze the supramolecular nanostructure with covalent bonds. The resulting nanostructure resists high temperature treatments as expected for an extended covalent network, whereas very similar fullerene/porphyrin nanostructures held together only by weak interactions are disrupted upon annealing at the same or at lower temperatures.

14.
J Org Chem ; 74(23): 9034-43, 2009 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19886619

RESUMO

Dimeric metalloporphyrin hosts with tweezer-like structures have been synthesized by reacting the cyanuric chloride scaffold, CC, with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, P, and 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-trimesitylporphyrin, M, to yield the homoconjugates free bases PP and MM and the heterodyad PM. Metalation with Zn(II), gives three structurally related ditopic receptors P(Zn)P(Zn), P(Zn)M(Zn), and M(Zn)M(Zn) with differential steric hindrance and conformational rigidity. The solution structure and supramolecular properties of these porphyrin dimers have been investigated as isolated molecules and in the presence of aliphatic alpha,omega-diamines of general formula H(2)N-(CH(2))(n)-NH(2) (n = 4-8) by spectroscopic and theoretical studies including multidimensional NMR, UV-vis, molecular modeling, and computational NMR methods. Binding constants in the range 4.2 x 10(6) to 3.4 x 10(7) M(-1) are observed in dichloromethane at 298 K, with a 3 orders of magnitude increase as compared to monodentate nBuNH(2), thus indicating the occurrence of a host-guest ditopic interaction. Linear correlation graphs are obtained by plotting the Soret band shift (Delta nu, cm(-1)) of the complex as a function of the diamine chain length. Combined NMR evidence and OPLS 2005 Force Field conformational analysis point to a mutual adaptation of both the binding partners in the host-guest complex, whose geometry is mainly dictated by the steric impact of the bulky substituents at the porphyrin periphery.

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