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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: Hospital-based, observational. SETTING: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: N=3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients hospitalized February to May 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mediation analysis is used to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6] are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n=1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death [OR=1.73, 95% CI=(1.25, 2.41), p=0.001] and higher peak CRP (p<0.001) compared to non-obese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (p<0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients <65 years [proportion mediated=0.52 (p<0.001) versus 0.44 (p=0.180)]. Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n=2626). CONCLUSIONS: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients <65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trials findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e020330, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476979

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) screening is endorsed by certain guidelines for individuals aged ≥65 years. Yet many AF screening strategies exist, including the use of wrist-worn wearable devices, and their comparative effectiveness is not well-understood. Methods and Results We developed a decision-analytic model simulating 50 million individuals with an age, sex, and comorbidity profile matching the United States population aged ≥65 years (ie, with a guideline-based AF screening indication). We modeled no screening, in addition to 45 distinct AF screening strategies (comprising different modalities and screening intervals), each initiated at a clinical encounter. The primary effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life-years, with incident stroke and major bleeding as secondary measures. We defined continuous or nearly continuous modalities as those capable of monitoring beyond a single time-point (eg, patch monitor), and discrete modalities as those capable of only instantaneous AF detection (eg, 12-lead ECG). In total, 10 AF screening strategies were effective compared with no screening (300-1500 quality-adjusted life-years gained/100 000 individuals screened). Nine (90%) effective strategies involved use of a continuous or nearly continuous modality such as patch monitor or wrist-worn wearable device, whereas 1 (10%) relied on discrete modalities alone. Effective strategies reduced stroke incidence (number needed to screen to prevent a stroke: 3087-4445) but increased major bleeding (number needed to screen to cause a major bleed: 1815-4049) and intracranial hemorrhage (number needed to screen to cause intracranial hemorrhage: 7693-16 950). The test specificity was a highly influential model parameter on screening effectiveness. Conclusions When modeled from a clinician-directed perspective, the comparative effectiveness of population-based AF screening varies substantially upon the specific strategy used. Future screening interventions and guidelines should consider the relative effectiveness of specific AF screening strategies.

3.
Circulation ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587750

RESUMO

Background: The most prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) is chronological age, however underlying mechanisms are unexplained. Algorithms using epigenetic modifications to the human genome effectively predict chronological age. Chronological and epigenetic predicted ages may diverge, a phenomenon termed epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), which may reflect accelerated biological aging. We sought to evaluate for associations between epigenetic age measures and incident AF. Methods: Measures for 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge) and an epigenetic predictor of PAI-1 levels (DNAm PAI-1) were determined for study participants from 3 population-based cohort studies. Cox models evaluated for associations with incident AF and results were combined via random-effects meta-analysis. Two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization analyses evaluated for associations between genetic instruments of the EAA measures and AF. Results: Among 5,600 individuals (mean age: 65.5 years; 60.1% female; 50.7% black), there were 905 incident AF cases during a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed all 4 epigenetic clocks and the DNAm PAI-1 predictor were associated with statistically significant higher hazards of incident AF, though the magnitudes of their point estimates were smaller relative to the associations observed for chronological age. The pooled EAA estimates for each epigenetic measure, with the exception of Horvath EAA, were associated with incident AF in models adjusted for chronological age, race, sex, and smoking variables. Following multivariable adjustment for additional known AF risk factors that could also potentially function as mediators, pooled EAA measures for 2 clocks remained statistically significant. Five year increases in EAA measures for DNAm GrimAge and DNAm PhenoAge were associated with 19% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09-1.31; p<0.01) and 15% (adjusted HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.25; p<0.01) higher hazards of incident AF, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses for the 5 EAA measures did not reveal statistically significant associations with AF. Conclusions: Our study identified adjusted associations between EAA measures and incident AF, suggesting biological aging plays an important role independent of chronological age, though a potential underlying causal relationship remains unclear. These aging processes may be modifiable and not constrained by the immutable factor of time.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495297

RESUMO

Importance: Early-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) can be the initial manifestation of a more serious underlying inherited cardiomyopathy or arrhythmia syndrome. Objective: To examine the results of genetic testing for early-onset AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, observational cohort study enrolled participants from an academic medical center who had AF diagnosed before 66 years of age and underwent whole genome sequencing through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. Participants were enrolled from November 23, 1999, to June 2, 2015. Data analysis was performed from October 24, 2020, to March 11, 2021. Exposures: Rare variants identified in a panel of 145 genes that are included on cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia panels used by commercial clinical genetic testing laboratories. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sequencing data were analyzed using an automated process followed by manual review by a panel of independent, blinded reviewers. The primary outcome was classification of rare variants using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria: benign, likely benign, variant of undetermined significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic. Disease-associated variants were defined as pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in genes associated with autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant disorders. Results: Among 1293 participants (934 [72.2%] male; median [interquartile range] age at enrollment, 56 [48-61] years; median [interquartile range] age at AF diagnosis, 50 [41-56] years), genetic testing identified 131 participants (10.1%) with a disease-associated variant, 812 (62.8%) with a variant of undetermined significance, 92 (7.1%) as heterozygous carriers for an autosomal recessive disorder, and 258 (20.0%) with no suspicious variant. The likelihood of a disease-associated variant was highest in participants with AF diagnosed before the age of 30 years (20 of 119 [16.8%; 95% CI, 10.0%-23.6%]) and lowest after the age of 60 years (8 of 112 [7.1%; 95% CI, 2.4%-11.9%]). Disease-associated variants were more often associated with inherited cardiomyopathy syndromes compared with inherited arrhythmias. The most common genes were TTN (n = 38), MYH7 (n = 18), MYH6 (n = 10), LMNA (n = 9), and KCNQ1 (n = 8). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, genetic testing identified a disease-associated variant in 10% of patients with early-onset AF (the percentage was higher if diagnosed before the age of 30 years and lower if diagnosed after the age of 60 years). Most pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants are in genes associated with cardiomyopathy. These results support the use of genetic testing in early-onset AF.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003355, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk estimation using clinical factors with or without genetic information may identify AF screening candidates more accurately than the guideline-based age threshold of ≥65 years. METHODS: We analyzed 4 samples across the United States and Europe (derivation: UK Biobank; validation: FINRISK, Geisinger MyCode Initiative, and Framingham Heart Study). We estimated AF risk using the CHARGE-AF (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF) score and a combination of CHARGE-AF and a 1168-variant polygenic score (Predict-AF). We compared the utility of age, CHARGE-AF, and Predict-AF for predicting 5-year AF by quantifying discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: Among 543 093 individuals, 8940 developed AF within 5 years. In the validation sets, CHARGE-AF (C index range, 0.720-0.824) and Predict-AF (0.749-0.831) had largely comparable discrimination, both favorable to continuous age (0.675-0.801). Calibration was similar using CHARGE-AF (slope range, 0.67-0.87) and Predict-AF (0.65-0.83). Net reclassification improvement using Predict-AF versus CHARGE-AF was modest (net reclassification improvement range, 0.024-0.057) but more favorable among individuals aged <65 years (0.062-0.11). Using Predict-AF among 99 530 individuals aged ≥65 across each sample, 70 849 had AF risk <5%, of whom 69 067 (97.5%) did not develop AF, whereas 28 681 had AF risk ≥5%, of whom 2264 (7.9%) developed AF. Of 11 379 individuals aged <65 years with AF risk ≥5%, 435 (3.8%) developed AF before age 65 years, with roughly half (46.9%) meeting anticoagulation criteria. CONCLUSIONS: AF risk estimation using clinical factors may prioritize individuals for AF screening more precisely than the age threshold endorsed in current guidelines. The additional value of genetic predisposition is modest but greatest among younger individuals.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021144, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387130

RESUMO

Background Optimal management of asymptomatic Brugada syndrome (BrS) with spontaneous type I electrocardiographic pattern is uncertain. Methods and Results We developed an individual-level simulation comprising 2 000 000 average-risk individuals with asymptomatic BrS and spontaneous type I electrocardiographic pattern. We compared (1) observation, (2) electrophysiologic study (EPS)-guided implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), and (3) upfront ICD, each using either subcutaneous or transvenous ICD, resulting in 6 strategies tested. The primary outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), with cardiac deaths (arrest or procedural-related) as a secondary outcome. We varied BrS diagnosis age and underlying arrest rate. We assessed cost-effectiveness at $100 000/QALY. Compared with observation, EPS-guided subcutaneous ICD resulted in 0.35 QALY gain/individual and 4130 cardiac deaths avoided/100 000 individuals, and EPS-guided transvenous ICD resulted in 0.26 QALY gain and 3390 cardiac deaths avoided. Compared with observation, upfront ICD reduced cardiac deaths by a greater margin (subcutaneous ICD, 8950; transvenous ICD, 6050), but only subcutaneous ICD improved QALYs (subcutaneous ICD, 0.25 QALY gain; transvenous ICD, 0.01 QALY loss), and complications were higher. ICD-based strategies were more effective at younger ages and higher arrest rates (eg, using subcutaneous devices, upfront ICD was the most effective strategy at ages 20-39.4 years and arrest rates >1.37%/year; EPS-guided ICD was the most effective strategy at ages 39.5-51.3 years and arrest rates 0.47%-1.37%/year, and observation was the most effective strategy at ages >51.3 years and arrest rates <0.47%/year). EPS-guided subcutaneous ICD was cost-effective ($80 508/QALY). Conclusions Device-based approaches (with or without EPS risk stratification) can be more effective than observation among selected patients with asymptomatic BrS. BrS management should be tailored to patient characteristics.

7.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 14(7): e009726, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238011

RESUMO

While published guidelines are useful in the care of patients with long-QT syndrome, it can be difficult to decide how to apply the guidelines to individual patients, particularly those with intermediate risk. We explored the diversity of opinion among 24 clinicians with expertise in long-QT syndrome. Experts from various regions and institutions were presented with 4 challenging clinical scenarios and asked to provide commentary emphasizing why they would make their treatment recommendations. All 24 authors were asked to vote on case-specific questions so as to demonstrate the degree of consensus or divergence of opinion. Of 24 authors, 23 voted and 1 abstained. Details of voting results with commentary are presented. There was consensus on several key points, particularly on the importance of the diagnostic evaluation and of ß-blocker use. There was diversity of opinion about the appropriate use of other therapeutic measures in intermediate-risk individuals. Significant gaps in knowledge were identified.

8.
Am J Cardiol ; 155: 32-39, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284863

RESUMO

This study sought to evaluate inappropriate prescribing practices in an atrial fibrillation (AF) population, as outlined by the 2016 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults with Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter document. The 2016 AF quality measures document specified medications to avoid in certain AF populations, including aspirin and anticoagulant combination therapy in patients without cardiovascular disease, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Using data from the NCDR PINNACLE registry, a national outpatient cardiology practice registry, we assessed rates of inappropriate prescription of two types of medications among AF outpatients from 5/1/2008-5/1/2016. Overall rates of inappropriate prescription and variation by practice were calculated. Patient and practice factors associated with inappropriate prescription were assessed in adjusted analyses. A total of 107,759 of 658,250 (16.4%) patients without cardiovascular disease were inappropriately prescribed an antiplatelet and anticoagulant together, and 5,731 of 150,079 (3.8%) patients with reduced ejection fraction were inappropriately prescribed a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Overall, 14.8% of AF patients were prescribed medications that were not recommended. Both patient and practice factors were associated with inappropriate prescribing, and the adjusted practice-level median odds ratio for inappropriate prescription was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.61-1.82), indicating a 70% likelihood that 2 random practices would treat identical AF patients differently. In a large registry of AF patients treated in cardiology practices, overall rates of inappropriate prescription practices, as defined by the 2016 AF quality measures, were relatively low, but significant practice variation was present.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 170, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All-cause mortality following atrial fibrillation (AF) has decreased over time. Data regarding temporal trends in causes of death among individuals with AF are scarce. The aim of our study was to analyze temporal trends in cause-specific mortality and predictors for cardiovascular (CVD) and non-CVD deaths among participants with incident AF in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: We categorized all newly diagnosed AF cases according to age at AF diagnosis (< 70, 70 to < 80, and ≥ 80 years) and epoch of AF diagnosis (< 1990, 1990-2002, and ≥ 2003). We followed participants until death or the last follow-up. We categorized death causes into CVD, non-CVD, and unknown causes. For each age group, we tested for trends in the cumulative incidence of cause-specific death across epochs. We fit multivariable Fine-Gray models to assess subdistribution hazard ratios (HR) between clinical risk factors at AF diagnosis and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: We included 2125 newly diagnosed AF cases (mean age 75.5 years, 47.8% women). During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 1657 individuals with AF died. There was evidence of decreasing CVD mortality among AF cases diagnosed < 70 years and 70 to < 80 years (ptrend < 0.001) but not ≥ 80 years (p = 0.76). Among the cases diagnosed < 70 years, the cumulative incidence of CVD death at 75 years was 67.7% in epoch 1 and 13.9% in epoch 3; among those 70 to < 80 years, the incidence at 85 years was 58.9% in epoch 1 and 18.9% in epoch 3. Advancing age (HR per 1 SD increase 6.33, 95% CI 5.44 to 7.37), prior heart failure (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and prior myocardial infarction (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.15-1.80) were associated with increased rate of CVD death. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based cohort, CVD mortality among AF cases decreased over time. Most deaths in individuals with AF are no longer CVD-related, regardless of age at AF diagnosis.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003300, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals are well-known markers for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. While the genetics of arrhythmia syndromes have been studied, relations between electrocardiographic intervals and rare genetic variation at a population level are poorly understood. METHODS: Using a discovery sample of 29 000 individuals with whole-genome sequencing from Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine and replication in nearly 100 000 with whole-exome sequencing from the UK Biobank and MyCode, we examined associations between low-frequency and rare coding variants with 5 routinely measured electrocardiographic traits (RR, P-wave, PR, and QRS intervals and corrected QT interval). RESULTS: We found that rare variants associated with population-based electrocardiographic intervals identify established monogenic SCD genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A), a controversial monogenic SCD gene (KCNE1), and novel genes (PAM and MFGE8) involved in cardiac conduction. Loss-of-function and pathogenic SCN5A variants, carried by 0.1% of individuals, were associated with a nearly 6-fold increased odds of the first-degree atrioventricular block (P=8.4×10-5). Similar variants in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 (0.2% of individuals) were associated with a 23-fold increased odds of marked corrected QT interval prolongation (P=4×10-25), a marker of SCD risk. Incomplete penetrance of such deleterious variation was common as over 70% of carriers had normal electrocardiographic intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that large-scale high-depth sequence data and electrocardiographic analysis identifies monogenic arrhythmia susceptibility genes and rare variants with large effects. Known pathogenic variation in conventional arrhythmia and SCD genes exhibited incomplete penetrance and accounted for only a small fraction of marked electrocardiographic interval prolongation.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(6): e012281, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classical methods for detecting left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) using 12-lead ECGs are insensitive. Deep learning models using ECG to infer cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived LV mass may improve LVH detection. METHODS: Within 32 239 individuals of the UK Biobank prospective cohort who underwent CMR and 12-lead ECG, we trained a convolutional neural network to predict CMR-derived LV mass using 12-lead ECGs (left ventricular mass-artificial intelligence [LVM-AI]). In independent test sets (UK Biobank [n=4903] and Mass General Brigham [MGB, n=1371]), we assessed correlation between LVM-AI predicted and CMR-derived LV mass and compared LVH discrimination using LVM-AI versus traditional ECG-based rules (ie, Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, lead aVL rule, or any ECG rule). In the UK Biobank and an ambulatory MGB cohort (MGB outcomes, n=28 612), we assessed associations between LVM-AI predicted LVH and incident cardiovascular outcomes using age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: LVM-AI predicted LV mass correlated with CMR-derived LV mass in both test sets, although correlation was greater in the UK Biobank (r=0.79) versus MGB (r=0.60, P<0.001 for both). When compared with any ECG rule, LVM-AI demonstrated similar LVH discrimination in the UK Biobank (LVM-AI c-statistic 0.653 [95% CI, 0.608 -0.698] versus any ECG rule c-statistic 0.618 [95% CI, 0.574 -0.663], P=0.11) and superior discrimination in MGB (0.621; 95% CI, 0.592 -0.649 versus 0.588; 95% CI, 0.564 -0.611, P=0.02). LVM-AI-predicted LVH was associated with incident atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and ventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning-inferred LV mass estimates from 12-lead ECGs correlate with CMR-derived LV mass, associate with incident cardiovascular disease, and may improve LVH discrimination compared to traditional ECG rules.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado Profundo , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(25): 2472-2483, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037209

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity may be an important modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but associations have been variable and generally based on self-reported activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 93 669 participants of the UK Biobank prospective cohort study without prevalent AF who wore a wrist-based accelerometer for 1 week. We categorized whether measured activity met the standard recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and World Health Organization [moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) ≥150 min/week]. We tested associations between guideline-adherent activity and incident AF (primary) and stroke (secondary) using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and each component of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF (CHARGE-AF) risk score. We also assessed correlation between accelerometer-derived and self-reported activity. The mean age was 62 ± 8 years and 57% were women. Over a median of 5.2 years, 2338 incident AF events occurred. In multivariable adjusted models, guideline-adherent activity was associated with lower risks of AF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.89; incidence 3.5/1000 person-years, 95% CI 3.3-3.8 vs. 6.5/1000 person-years, 95% CI 6.1-6.8] and stroke (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90; incidence 1.0/1000 person-years, 95% CI 0.9-1.1 vs. 1.8/1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.6-2.0). Correlation between accelerometer-derived and self-reported MVPA was weak (Spearman r = 0.16, 95% CI 0.16-0.17). Self-reported activity was not associated with incident AF or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Greater accelerometer-derived physical activity is associated with lower risks of AF and stroke. Future preventive efforts to reduce AF risk may be most effective when targeting adherence to objective activity thresholds.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acelerometria , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
13.
Am Heart J ; 238: 16-26, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) may enable prevention of downstream morbidity. Consumer wrist-worn wearable technology is capable of detecting AF by identifying irregular pulse waveforms using photoplethysmography (PPG). The validity of PPG-based software algorithms for AF detection requires prospective assessment. METHODS: The Fitbit Heart Study (NCT04380415) is a single-arm remote clinical trial examining the validity of a novel PPG-based software algorithm for detecting AF. The proprietary Fitbit algorithm examines pulse waveform intervals during analyzable periods in which participants are sufficiently stationary. Fitbit consumers with compatible wrist-worn trackers or smartwatches were invited to participate. Enrollment began May 6, 2020 and as of October 1, 2020, 455,699 participants enrolled. Participants in whom an irregular heart rhythm was detected were invited to attend a telehealth visit and eligible participants were then mailed a one-week single lead electrocardiographic (ECG) patch monitor. The primary study objective is to assess the positive predictive value of an irregular heart rhythm detection for AF during the ECG patch monitor period. Additional objectives will examine the validity of irregular pulse tachograms during subsequent heart rhythm detections, self-reported AF diagnoses and treatments, and relations between irregular heart rhythm detections and AF episode duration and time spent in AF. CONCLUSIONS: The Fitbit Heart Study is a large-scale remote clinical trial comprising a unique software algorithm for detection of AF. The study results will provide critical insights into the use of consumer wearable technology for AF detection, and for characterizing the nature of AF episodes detected using consumer-based PPG technology.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Validação de Programas de Computador , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Confidencialidade , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotopletismografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men are at higher risk for serious complications related to COVID-19 infection than women. More robust immune activation in women has been proposed to contribute to decreased disease severity, although systemic inflammation has been associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 infection. Whether systemic inflammation contributes to sex differences in COVID-19 infection is not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined sex differences in inflammatory markers among 453 men (mean age 61) and 328 women (mean age 62) hospitalized with COVID-19 infection at the Massachusetts General Hospital from March 8 to April 27, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association of sex with initial and peak inflammatory markers. Exploratory analyses examined the association of sex and inflammatory markers with 28-day clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Initial and peak CRP were higher in men compared with women after adjustment for baseline differences (initial CRP: ß 0.29, SE 0.07, p = 0.0001; peak CRP: ß 0.31, SE 0.07, p<0.0001) with similar findings for IL-6, PCT, and ferritin (p<0.05 for all). Men had greater than 1.5-greater odds of dying compared with women (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.80, p = 0.03). Sex modified the association of peak CRP with both death and ICU admission, with stronger associations observed in men compared with women (death: OR 9.19, 95% CI 4.29-19.7, p <0.0001 in men vs OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.52-5.18, p = 0.009 in women, Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of 781 men and women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, men exhibited more robust inflammatory activation as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers, as well as worse clinical outcomes. Better understanding of sex differences in immune responses to COVID-19 infection may shed light on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/metabolismo , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 44-51, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617814

RESUMO

We characterized monitor utilization in stroke survivors and assessed associations with underlying clinical atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke 10/2018-6/2019 without prevalent AF and assessed the 6-month incidence of monitor utilization (Holter/ECG, event/patch, implantable loop recorder [ILR]) using Fine-Gray models accounting for the competing risk of death. We assessed for predictors of monitor utilization using cause-specific hazards regression adjusted for the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF (CHARGE-AF) score, stroke subtype, and discharge disposition. Of 493 patients with acute ischemic stroke (age 65±16; 47% women), the 6-month incidence of monitor utilization was 36.5% (95% CI 31.7, 41.3), and 6-month mortality was 13.6% (10.4, 16.8). Monitoring was performed with Holter/event (n = 107; 72.3%), ILR (n = 34; 23.0%) or both (n = 7; 4.7%). Monitoring was more likely after cryptogenic (hazard ratio [HR] 4.53 [3.22, 6.39]; 6-month monitor incidence 70.6%) and cardioembolic (HR 2.43 [1.28, 4.62]; incidence 47.7%) stroke, versus other/undocumented (incidence 22.7%). Among patients with cryptogenic stroke, the 6-month incidence of ILR was 27.5% [18.5, 36.5]. Monitoring was more likely after discharge home (HR 1.80 [1.29, 2.52]; incidence 46.1%) versus facility (incidence 24.9%). Monitoring was not associated with CHARGE-AF score (HR 1.08 per 1-SD increase [0.91, 1.27]), even though CHARGE-AF was associated with incident AF (HR 1.56 [1.03, 2.35]). In conclusion, rhythm monitors are utilized after one-third of ischemic strokes. Monitoring is more frequent after cryptogenic strokes, though ILR use is low. Monitor utilization is not associated with AF risk.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Telemed J E Health ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606553

RESUMO

Introduction: Although patients are able to easily record electrocardiograms using consumer devices, these are typically not shared with their clinicians. This article discusses the development and acceptability of a mobile application (app) that integrates with the electronic health record to facilitate screening for atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: After app development and implementation, we compared workflows with and without the mobile app. Seven older adults used it during a prospective twice-daily 2-week home-based AF screening protocol and completed an acceptability survey with Likert scale responses. Results: Compliance with the screening protocol was 82%. Acceptability and usability was favorable. Patients reported confidence in the connection between the app and their medical record. Discussion: The availability of apps to capture data and facilitate a connection with health systems is critical. The app developed is a feasible solution for older patients with AF to self-monitor and report results to their health provider.

18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003006, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has a known genetic contribution. We tested the performance of a genetic risk score for its ability to predict VTE in 3 cohorts of patients with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: We included patients from the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Elevated Risk), PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin), and SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus) trials (history of a major atherosclerotic cardiovascular event, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, respectively) who consented for genetic testing and were not on baseline anticoagulation. We calculated a VTE genetic risk score based on 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms with established genome-wide significance. Patients were divided into tertiles of genetic risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios for VTE across genetic risk groups. The polygenic risk score was compared with available clinical risk factors (age, obesity, smoking, history of heart failure, and diabetes) and common monogenic mutations. RESULTS: A total of 29 663 patients were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 2.4 years, of whom 174 had a VTE event. There was a significantly increased gradient of risk across VTE genetic risk tertiles (P-trend <0.0001). After adjustment for clinical risk factors, patients in the intermediate and high genetic risk groups had a 1.88-fold (95% CI, 1.23-2.89; P=0.004) and 2.70-fold (95% CI, 1.81-4.06; P<0.0001) higher risk of VTE compared with patients with low genetic risk. In a continuous model adjusted for clinical risk factors, each standard deviation increase in the genetic risk score was associated with a 47% (95% CI, 29-68) increased risk of VTE (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In a broad spectrum of patients with cardiometabolic disease, a polygenic risk score is a strong, independent predictor of VTE after accounting for available clinical risk factors, identifying 1/3 of patients who have a risk of VTE comparable to that seen with established monogenic thrombophilia.

19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over warfarin, yet clinical trials excluded individuals with post cardiac surgery AF. We sought to compare outcomes with NOACs vs warfarin for new onset post cardiac surgery AF. METHODS: We examined 26,522 patients from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons' database with post cardiac surgery AF who were discharged on oral anticoagulation from July 2017-December 2018. Three primary outcomes were evaluated: 30-day mortality, major bleeding complications, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. Secondary outcomes included postoperative length of stay, 30-day myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and pericardial effusion/tamponade. RESULTS: A total of 9769 (36.8%) participants were prescribed NOACs and 16,753 (63.2%) warfarin. In multivariable analysis, there was no association between type of anticoagulant and 30-day major bleeding complications (odds ratio [OR]NOAC/warfarin 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.18), stroke/transient ischemic attack (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.94, 95% CI 0.53-1.67) or mortality (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.08, 95% CI 0.80-1.45). After stratification by renal function or isolated coronary bypass vs valve surgery, there remained no difference in the primary outcomes. Additionally, there was no difference in 30-day myocardial infarction (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.17, 95% CI 0.62-2.22), venous thromboembolism (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.91, 95% CI 0.47-1.78), or pericardial effusion/tamponade (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.09, 95% CI 0.80-1.47) between the 2 groups. NOAC therapy was associated with a half-day reduction in postoperative length of stay (ßNOAC/warfarin -0.47, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.33). CONCLUSIONS: NOACs are associated with a reduction in postoperative length of stay, without excess bleeding or other short-term complications, compared with warfarin. These findings support the broader use of NOACs as a safe alternative to warfarin in patients with post cardiac surgery AF at elevated stroke risk and acceptable bleeding risk.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2518, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510268

RESUMO

Because single genetic variants may have pleiotropic effects, one trait can be a confounder in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that aims to identify loci associated with another trait. A typical approach to address this issue is to perform an additional analysis adjusting for the confounder. However, obtaining conditional results can be time-consuming. We propose an approximate conditional phenotype analysis based on GWAS summary statistics, the covariance between outcome and confounder, and the variant minor allele frequency (MAF). GWAS summary statistics and MAF are taken from GWAS meta-analysis results while the traits covariance may be estimated by two strategies: (i) estimates from a subset of the phenotypic data; or (ii) estimates from published studies. We compare our two strategies with estimates using individual level data from the full GWAS sample (gold standard). A simulation study for both binary and continuous traits demonstrates that our approximate approach is accurate. We apply our method to the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) GWAS and to large-scale cardiometabolic GWAS results. We observed a high consistency of genetic effect size estimates between our method and individual level data analysis. Our approach leads to an efficient way to perform approximate conditional analysis using large-scale GWAS summary statistics.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo
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