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2.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 231-239, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599547

RESUMO

Egypt has a large traditional and exotic poultry sector which is challenged regularly by poultry diseases in endemic and epidemic proportions. The household poultry in particular is a source of livelihoods and employment for millions of low income citizens. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and Newcastle disease are the most important poultry diseases in this sector. Whereas poultry vaccines are available to reduce the incidence of disease in Egypt, their effectiveness is doubtful. We conducted a biological evaluation of selected viral vaccines of poultry in three governorates in Egypt. Fifty­four percent of the vaccines had reduced vaccine titres and the effect of secondary vaccine distributions was associated with the observed vaccine titres. External contamination was observed in some vaccines and break in cold chain was reported. Whereas no vaccine distributor used purpose­built vaccine refrigerator, none also had prescribed protocol for vaccine handling or kept record of vaccine. There is a need to review vaccine handling procedure, monitor of vaccine cold chain more critically and review the whole chain that support vaccine distributions in Egypt.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Egito , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
4.
Ecohealth ; 15(2): 372-387, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549589

RESUMO

Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices. Primary and secondary MERS-CoV seroprevalence data from specific sites were analyzed, and location-based prevalence matching with camel densities was conducted. High-risk convergence points (migration zones, trade routes, camel markets, slaughter slabs) were profiled and frequent cross-border camel movement mapped. Results showed that high camel-dense areas and interaction (markets and migration zones) were potential hotspot for transmission and spread. Cross-border contacts occurred with in-migrated herds at hotspot locations. AEZ differential did not influence risk distribution and plausible risk factors for spatial MERS-CoV hotspots were camel densities, previous cases of MERS-CoV, high seroprevalence and points of camel convergences. Although Kenyan camels are predisposed to MERS-CoV, no shedding is documented to date. These potential hotspots, determined using anthropogenic, system and trade characterizations should guide selection of sampling/surveillance sites, high-risk locations, critical areas for interventions and policy development in Kenya, as well as instigate further virological examination of camels.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Mapeamento Geográfico , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Quênia/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Euro Surveill ; 22(11)2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333616

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84.5%) had MERS-CoV neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in imported (614/692; 88.7%) than resident camels (257/339; 5.8%) (p < 0.05). Camels from Sudan (543/594; 91.4%) had a higher seroprevalence than those from East Africa (71/98; 72.4%) (p < 0.05). Sampling site and age were also associated with MERS-CoV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). All tested samples from domestic animals and bats were negative for MERS-CoV antibodies except one sheep sample which showed a 1:640 titre. Of 1,078 camels, 41 (3.8%) were positive for MERS-CoV genetic material. Sequences obtained were not found to cluster with clade A or B MERS-CoV sequences and were genetically diverse. The presence of neutralising antibodies in one sheep apparently in contact with seropositive camels calls for further studies on domestic animals in contact with camels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos/sangue , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Cabras/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/sangue , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
Geospat Health ; 11(3): 492, 2016 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903065

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt. The H5N1 virus persists in the Egyptian poultry displaying a seasonal pattern with peak prevalence between January and March. There was no specific geographic pattern, but chickens and ducks were more affected. However, relatively higher disease incidences were recorded in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic studies of the haemagglutinin gene sequences of H5N1 viruses indicated that multiple clusters circulated between 2006 and 2015, with significant deviations in circulation. Epidemiological dynamics of HPAI has changed with the origins of majority of outbreaks shifted to household poultry. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 in poultry with recurrent and sporadic infections in humans can influence virus evolution spatio-temporally. Household poultry plays significant roles in the H5N1 virus transmission to poultry and humans, but the role of commercial poultry needs further clarifications. While poultry trading supports the persistence and transmission of H5N1, the role of individual species may warrant further investigation. Surveillance activities, applying a multi-sectoral approach, are recommended.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156747, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27304069

RESUMO

In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge.


Assuntos
Patos/imunologia , Herpesvirus Meleagrídeo 1/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Patos/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perus/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
9.
Avian Dis ; 60(1 Suppl): 245-52, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309063

RESUMO

The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from <30% to >60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Egito , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/embriologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
10.
Virol J ; 13: 49, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequence data is important to understand the transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus. This work describes the phylogenetic dynamics of H5N1 based on molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of isolates collected from February 2006 to May 2014. METHODS: Full-length HA sequences of 368 H5N1 viruses were generated and were genetically analysed to study their genetic evolution. They were collected from different poultry species, production sectors, and geographic locations in Egypt. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) method was applied to estimate the evolutionary rates among different virus clusters; additionally, an analysis of selection pressures in the HA gene was performed using the Single Likelihood Ancestor Counting (SLAC) method. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis of the H5 gene from 2006-14 indicated the presence of one virus introduction of the classic clade (2.2.1) from which two main subgroups were originated, the variant subgroup which was further subdivided into 2 sub-divisions (2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.1a) and the endemic subgroup (2.2.1.2). The clade 2.2.1.2 showed a high evolution rate over a period of 6 years (6.9 × 10(-3) sub/site/year) in comparison to the 2.2.1.1a variant cluster (7.2 × 10(-3) over a period of 4 years). Those two clusters are under positive selection as they possess 5 distinct positively selected sites in the HA gene. The mutations at 120, 154, and 162 HA antigenic sites and the other two mutations (129∆, I151T) that occurred from 2009-14 were found to be stable in the 2.2.1.2 clade. Additionally, 13 groups of H5N1 HPAI viruses were identified based on their amino acid sequences at the cleavage site and "EKRRKKR" became the dominant pattern beginning in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt has been observed in all poultry farming and production systems in almost all regions of the country. The wide circulation of the 2.2.1.2 clade carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors is an alarming finding of public health importance.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Sítios de Ligação , Aves , Análise por Conglomerados , Egito/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Seleção Genética
11.
Avian Pathol ; 44(5): 333-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023824

RESUMO

Vaccination is the main tool implemented in Egypt since 2007 to control H5N1 avian influenza. The present study aimed at comparing the effectiveness of three avian influenza vaccination regimes in commercial broiler chickens carrying high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). Day-old chicks were divided into four experimental groups. Group I received only the rHVT-H5 vaccine (recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) which carries a H5 clade 2.2 insert) administered at D1. Group II received only the KV-H5 (an oil emulsion killed vaccine prepared from reassortant HPAI virus (A/duck/Anhui/1/06)) vaccine (inactivated reverse genetic H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus) administered at D8. Group III received rHVT-H5 and KV-H5 as prime/boost. Group IV served as unvaccinated control. Weekly serological monitoring was conducted using the haemagglutination inhibition test. Two challenge experiments were conducted at D28 and D35 using HPAI H5N1 clade 2.2.1 virus. Birds were monitored daily 14 days post-challenge for morbidity and mortality, and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virological monitoring. Initially, day-old chicks had high mean MDA titres (9 + 0.9 log2). The MDA half-life was >7 and <7 days, respectively, for unvaccinated and vaccinated birds. Group III showed the highest post-vaccination humoral immune response and seroconversion rate. The highest protection rate against morbidity (80-90%) and mortality (90-90%) was obtained in Group III after challenge at D28 and D35, respectively, as compared to Group I (70-70%) and (80-90%) and Group II (0-0%) and (30-30%). Groups I and III had lower number of shedder birds. The vaccination regime with prime/boost conferred the highest and earliest protection, and can hence be recommended for the broiler production sector in endemic and high HPAI H5N1 challenge areas.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Animais , Galinhas , Egito , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
12.
Avian Pathol ; 43(6): 514-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25245772

RESUMO

The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Herpesvirus Meleagrídeo 1/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Egito , Feminino , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 46(1): 57-63, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23868547

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) due to H5N1 virus was first reported in Egypt in February 2006; since then, the government has allowed avian influenza vaccination in poultry. The present study evaluated the impact of AI vaccination in terms of cumulative annual flock immunity (CAFI): the percentage of bird × weeks protected by immunity. This evaluation took account of the combined effects of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE), and different characteristics of household poultry production on the effectiveness of the adopted vaccination strategy (VS), and provided alternative options for improvement. The evaluation used a population and vaccination model that calculates the CAFI. Participatory approaches were employed in 21 villages to develop the vaccination and flock parameters required for the model. The adopted VS were compared in the model with three alternative VS scenarios in terms of the CAFI. Vaccination coverage varied among villages but was generally low (between 1 and 48 %; median 14 %). Under the adopted VS, the CAFI predicted for the villages ranged from 2 to 31 %. It was concluded that despite the enormous effort put into rural household poultry AI vaccination by the Egyptian government, village CAFI is unlikely to be maintained at the levels required to significantly reduce the virus load and restrict transmission. In HPAI-endemic countries that consider AI vaccination as one of the disease control options, the high cost of mass AI vaccination campaigns and their achievable benefits must be compared with other available control measures, which may include targeted vaccination. Achievable vaccination coverage, VE and the different characteristics of commercial and household (village) poultry production are key parameters determining the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of different AI vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , Vacinação/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 113(2): 175-84, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24299903

RESUMO

In 2011, ten years after the last reported outbreak, the eradication of rinderpest was declared. However, as rinderpest virus stocks still exist, there remains a risk of rinderpest re-introduction. A semi-quantitative risk assessment was conducted to assess this risk, which was defined as the probability of at least one host becoming infected and infectious outside a laboratory anywhere in the world within a one-year period. Pathways leading to rinderpest re-introduction were: deliberate or accidental use of virus in laboratories, deliberate or accidental use of vaccines, host exposure to an environmental source of virus, and use of virus for anti-animal biological warfare. The probability of each pathway step occurring was estimated through expert opinion elicitation. The risk estimate was associated with a high degree of uncertainty. It was estimated to range from negligible to high, with the median being very low. The accidental use of laboratory virus stocks was the highest risk pathway. Reducing the number of virus stocks and restricting their use, as well as upgrading the laboratories to a higher biosafety level, would effectively decrease the maximum and median risks. Likewise, ensuring that remaining vaccine stocks are not used and are instead destroyed or relocated to a limited number of regional repositories would also have a major effect on these estimates. However, these measures are unlikely to eliminate the risk of rinderpest re-introduction so that maintaining response preparedness is essential.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Peste Bovina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peste Bovina/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Peste Bovina/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 366: 65-72, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22949033

RESUMO

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation's view on One Health is broad as it extends from human, animal-domestic and wildlife-and environmental health. Though the nidus of work originated within FAO's animal health service of the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, it is clearly an area of work that would include other departments such as Natural Resources Management and the Environment, Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Economic and Social Development, Legal Services, and communication. In terms of risk assessment and risk mitigation to health threats at the human-animal-ecosystem interface FAO works closely with its global partners, World Health Organisation and the World Organisation for animal health (the "Tripartite"). FAO's animal health service sees its work in One Health as contributing to all eight Millennium Development Goals, recognising the importance of animal health to human health, food safety, nutrition and food security, ameliorating poverty and hunger, natural resource management and partnerships. Some examples of FAO's operationalising One Health approaches or principles are introduced.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Agricultura/organização & administração , Animais , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Nações Unidas
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 19(1): 151-3, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23260811

RESUMO

After the 2011 declaration of rinderpest disease eradication, we surveyed 150 countries about rinderpest virus stocks. Forty-four laboratories in 35 countries held laboratory-attenuated strains, field strains, or diagnostic samples. Vaccine and reagent production and laboratory experiments continued. Rigorous standards are necessary to ensure that stocks are kept under safe conditions.


Assuntos
Derramamento de Material Biológico/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças , Vírus da Peste Bovina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peste Bovina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Humanos , Peste Bovina/imunologia , Peste Bovina/virologia , Vírus da Peste Bovina/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
18.
Lancet ; 380(9857): 1936-45, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200502

RESUMO

More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 18(12): 2076-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23171740

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 95(3-4): 175-85, 2010 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20435359

RESUMO

Determining if outbreak data collected by regional or international organizations can reflect patterns observed in more detailed data collected by national veterinary services is a necessary first step if global databases are to be used for making inference about determinants of disease maintenance and spread and for emergency planning and response. We compared two data sources that capture spatial and temporal information about H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks reported since 2004 in four countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey, and Vietnam. One data source consisted of reports collected as part of each country's national veterinary services surveillance program, while the other data source included reports collected using the Emergency Prevention System for Priority Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES-i) global animal health information system. We computed Spearman rank-order correlation statistics to compare spatial and temporal outbreak distributions, and applied a space-time permutation test to check for consistency between the two data sources. Although EMPRES-i typically captured fewer outbreaks than detailed national reporting data, the overall similarity in space and time, particularly after 2006, reflect the ability of the EMPRES-i system to portray disease patterns comparable to those observed in national data sets. Specifically, we show that the two datasets exhibit higher positive correlations in outbreak timing and reported locations after 2006 when compared to December 2003 through 2006. Strengthening the capacity of global systems to acquire data from national and regional databases will improve global analysis efforts and increase the ability of such systems to rapidly alert countries and the international community of potential disease threats.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Aves , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Egito/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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