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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 187, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383853

RESUMO

The identification of generalizable treatment response classes (TRC[s]) in major depressive disorder (MDD) would facilitate comparisons across studies and the development of treatment prediction algorithms. Here, we investigated whether such stable TRCs can be identified and predicted by clinical baseline items. We analyzed data from an observational MDD cohort (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature [MARS] study, N = 1017), treated individually by psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic means, and a multicenter, partially randomized clinical/pharmacogenomic study (Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP], N = 809). Symptoms were evaluated up to week 16 (or discharge) in MARS and week 12 in GENDEP. Clustering was performed on 809 MARS patients (discovery sample) using a mixed model with the integrated completed likelihood criterion for the assessment of cluster stability, and validated through a distinct MARS validation sample and GENDEP. A random forest algorithm was used to identify prediction patterns based on 50 clinical baseline items. From the clustering of the MARS discovery sample, seven TRCs emerged ranging from fast and complete response (average 4.9 weeks until discharge, 94% remitted patients) to slow and incomplete response (10% remitted patients at week 16). These proved stable representations of treatment response dynamics in both the MARS and the GENDEP validation sample. TRCs were strongly associated with established response markers, particularly the rate of remitted patients at discharge. TRCs were predictable from clinical items, particularly personality items, life events, episode duration, and specific psychopathological features. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when cluster-derived slopes were modelled instead of individual slopes. In conclusion, model-based clustering identified distinct and clinically meaningful treatment response classes in MDD that proved robust with regard to capturing response profiles of differently designed studies. Response classes were predictable from clinical baseline characteristics. Conceptually, model-based clustering is translatable to any outcome measure and could advance the large-scale integration of studies on treatment efficacy or the neurobiology of treatment response.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295515

RESUMO

Major depression is a stress-related disorder with robust clinical and preclinical data implicating that both, dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and of the neurotrophin system of the brain are involved in the pathophysiology. Genetic variations within the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene region, a major representative of the brain neurotrophins, are suggested to influence response to antidepressant treatment. Specifically, we recently identified two BDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs2049046 and rs11030094, as associated with antidepressant treatment response in a large pharmacogenetic study of hospitalized patients. We now analyzed these two SNPs in a sub-sample for their association with HPA axis dysregulation using the combined dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin releasing hormone challenge (dex/CRH) test at hospital admission (N = 266) and at discharge (N = 190). Rs11030094, located 3' outside the coding region of BDNF, is also located in an intron of BDNFOS coding for a functional antagonist of BDNF. We further included the non-synonymous Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism in our analysis, for which - albeit being extensively studied - conflicting results in respect to its role in antidepressant treatment response have been reported. Similar to the previous analysis, rs2049046 and rs11030094 showed a significant effect on antidepressant response. In a gene-dose dependent manner, we found significant lower cortisol responses to the dex/CRH test at discharge in carriers of the respective SNP alleles ('T' of rs2049046 and 'G' of rs11030094) that were associated with antidepressant response (beneficial alleles). These genetic effects on HPA axis regulation were independent of age, sex, medication and depressive symptomatology. Although not reaching statistical significance, the same direction of effect was observed for cortisol at admission, as well as the ACTH response at admission and discharge. An interaction analysis of both SNPs revealed highest cortisol levels in subjects that were non-carriers of both beneficial alleles. The Val66Met (rs6265) was neither associated with antidepressant response nor with HPA axis regulation. Our findings provide further evidence for an interaction of the HPA axis and the neurotrophin system in major depression. This study stresses the importance investigating BDNF variants beyond the extensively studied Val66Met polymorphism. In-depth analyses of both pathophysiologically relevant systems may point to possible new targets for pharmaceutical intervention and precision medicine of major depression in the future.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678080

RESUMO

Adverse experiences and chronic stress are well-known risk factors for the development of major depression, and an impaired stress response regulation is frequently observed in acute depression. Impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling plays an important role in these alterations, and a restoration of GR signalling appears to be a prerequisite of successful antidepressant treatment. Variants in genes of the stress response regulation contribute to the vulnerability to depression in traumatized subjects. Consistent findings point to an important role of FKBP5, the gene expressing FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), which is a strong inhibitor of the GR, and thus, an important regulator of the stress response. We investigated the role of FKBP5 and FKB51 expression with respect to stress response regulation and antidepressant treatment outcome in depressed patients. This study included 297 inpatients, who participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and were treated for acute depression. In this open-label study, patients received antidepressant treatment according to the attending doctor's choice. In addition to the FKBP5 genotype, changes in blood FKBP51 expression during antidepressant treatment were analyzed using RT-PCR and ZeptoMARKTM reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM). Stress response regulation was evaluated in a subgroup of patients using the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test. As expected, increased FKBP51 expression was associated with an impaired stress response regulation at baseline and after six weeks was accompanied by an elevated cortisol response to the combined dex/CRH test. Further, we demonstrated an active involvement of FKBP51 in antidepressant treatment outcome. While patients responding to antidepressant treatment had a pronounced reduction of FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein expression, increasing expression levels were observed in nonresponders. This effect was moderated by the genotype of the FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, with carriers of the minor allele showing the most pronounced association. Our findings demonstrate that FKBP5 and, specifically, its expression product FKBP51 are important modulators of antidepressant treatment outcome, pointing to a new, promising target for future antidepressant drug development.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
JCI Insight ; 4(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain and metabolic changes during treatment with antidepressant drugs have emerged as an important concern, particularly in long-term treatment. It is still a matter of ongoing debate whether weight gain and metabolic perturbations with antidepressant use are the consequence of increased appetite and weight gain, respectively, or represents direct pharmacological effects of the drug on metabolism. METHODS: We therefore conducted a proof-of-concept, open-label clinical trial, hypothesizing that in exceptionally healthy men no change of metabolic parameters would occur under mirtazapine, when environmental factors such as nutrition, sleep, and physical exercise were controlled and kept constant. Over a 3-week preparation phase, 10 healthy, young men were attuned to a standardized diet adjusted to their individual caloric need, to a regular sleep/wake cycle and moderate exercise. Continuing this protocol, we administered 30 mg mirtazapine daily for 7 days. RESULTS: While no significant weight gain or changes in resting energy expenditure were observed under these conditions, hunger and appetite for sweets increased with mirtazapine, accompanied by a shift in energy substrate partitioning towards carbohydrate substrate preference as assessed by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, with mirtazapine, insulin and C-peptide release increased in response to a standardized meal. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide important insights into weight-independent metabolic changes associated with mirtazapine and allow a better understanding of the long-term metabolic effects observed in patients treated with antidepressant drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00878540. FUNDING: Nothing to declare.

7.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

8.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 94: 134-142, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants. The mediation analysis using a case-control approach included childhood trauma, i.e., physical and sexual abuse, as predictor variables and an allostatic load index comprised of 12 stress-related biomarkers as mediator. Age and sex were included as covariates. RESULTS: Mediation analyses revealed that the influence of physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, during childhood on depression in adulthood was mediated by allostatic load. This effect was moderated by age: particularly young (18-42 years) and middle-aged (43-54 years) adults with a history of physical abuse during childhood exhibited high allostatic load, which in turn was associated with increased rates of depression, but this was not the case for older participants (55-81 years). CONCLUSIONS: Results support the theoretical assumption of allostatic load mediating the effect of physical abuse during childhood on depression in adulthood. This predominantly holds for younger participants, while depression in older participants was independent of physical abuse and allostatic load. The effect of sexual abuse on depression, however, was not mediated by allostatic load. Identifying allostatic load biomarkers prospectively in the developmental course of depression is an important target for future research.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 228: 20-25, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 397 Reactome pathways and 24,025 patients with BD and controls. RNA expression of implicated individual genes and gene sets were examined in post-mortem brains across lifespan. RESULTS: Two pathways showed a significant enrichment after correction for multiple comparisons in the GSEA: GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, for which 6 of 21 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0377), and NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, for which 11 out of 62 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0451). Most pathway genes showed peaks of RNA co-expression during fetal development and infancy and mapped to neocortical areas and parts of the limbic system. LIMITATIONS: Pathway associations were technically reproduced by two methods, although they were not formally replicated in independent samples. Gene expression was explored in controls but not in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway analysis in large GWAS data of BD and follow-up of gene expression patterns in healthy brains provide support for an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in the etiology of this neuropsychiatric disease. Future studies are required to further evaluate the relevance of the implicated genes on pathway functioning and clinical aspects of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/metabolismo
10.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 10: 272, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912679

RESUMO

The current inability of clinical psychiatry to objectively select the most appropriate treatment is a major factor contributing to the severity and clinical burden of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have attempted to identify plasma protein signatures in 39 MDD patients to predict response over a 6-week treatment period with antidepressants. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that differences in the levels of 29 proteins at baseline were found in the group with a favorable treatment outcome. Most of these proteins were components of metabolism or immune response pathways as well as multiple components of the coagulation cascade. After 6 weeks of treatment, 43 proteins were altered in responders of which 2 (alpha-actinin and nardilysin) had been identified at baseline. In addition, 46 proteins were altered in non-responders and 9 of these (alpha-actinin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein B-100, attractin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain, nardilysin and serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1) had been identified at baseline. However, it should be stressed that the small sample size precludes generalization of the main results. Further studies to validate these as potential biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response are warranted considering the potential importance to the field of psychiatric disorders. This study provides the groundwork for development of novel objective clinical tests that can help psychiatrists in the clinical management of MDD through improved prediction and monitoring of patient responses to antidepressant treatments.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(7)2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

12.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(2): 70-76, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642257

RESUMO

BackgroundDepression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.AimsTo confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.MethodThe sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.ResultsIn the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (ß = 0.12, P = 2.7 × 10-4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10-7) but not with traditional random effects (ß = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (ß = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10-8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTOConclusionsThis meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
13.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 312-321, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second largest cause of global disease burden. It has an estimated heritability of 37%, but published genome-wide association studies have so far identified few risk loci. Haplotype-block-based regional heritability mapping (HRHM) estimates the localized genetic variance explained by common variants within haplotype blocks, integrating the effects of multiple variants, and may be more powerful for identifying MDD-associated genomic regions. METHODS: We applied HRHM to Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health Study, a large family- and population-based Scottish cohort (N = 19,896). Single-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype-based association tests were used to localize the association signal within the regions identified by HRHM. Functional prediction was used to investigate the effect of MDD-associated SNPs within the regions. RESULTS: A haplotype block across a 24-kb region within the TOX2 gene reached genome-wide significance in HRHM. Single-SNP- and haplotype-based association tests demonstrated that five of nine genotyped SNPs and two haplotypes within this block were significantly associated with MDD. The expression of TOX2 and a brain-specific long noncoding RNA RP1-269M15.3 in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens basal ganglia, respectively, were significantly regulated by MDD-associated SNPs within this region. Both the regional heritability and single-SNP associations within this block were replicated in the UK-Ireland group of the most recent release of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), the PGC2-MDD (Major Depression Dataset). The SNP association was also replicated in a depressive symptom sample that shares some individuals with the PGC2-MDD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of HRHM for MDD and provides an important target within TOX2 for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas HMGB/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
14.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171595, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166306

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. BD shows substantial clinical and genetic overlap with other psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia (SCZ). The genes underlying this etiological overlap remain largely unknown. A recent SCZ genome wide association study (GWAS) by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium identified 128 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present study investigated whether these SCZ-associated SNPs also contribute to BD development through the performance of association testing in a large BD GWAS dataset (9747 patients, 14278 controls). After re-imputation and correction for sample overlap, 22 of 107 investigated SCZ SNPs showed nominal association with BD. The number of shared SCZ-BD SNPs was significantly higher than expected (p = 1.46x10-8). This provides further evidence that SCZ-associated loci contribute to the development of BD. Two SNPs remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The most strongly associated SNP was located near TRANK1, which is a reported genome-wide significant risk gene for BD. Pathway analyses for all shared SCZ-BD SNPs revealed 25 nominally enriched gene-sets, which showed partial overlap in terms of the underlying genes. The enriched gene-sets included calcium- and glutamate signaling, neuropathic pain signaling in dorsal horn neurons, and calmodulin binding. The present data provide further insights into shared risk loci and disease-associated pathways for BD and SCZ. This may suggest new research directions for the treatment and prevention of these two major psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 69: 161-71, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27107207

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid challenge tests such as the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (dex-CRH) test are considered to be able to sensitively measure hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in stress-related psychiatric and endocrine disorders. We used mass-spectrometry to assess the relationship of plasma dexamethasone concentrations and the outcome of these tests in two independent cohorts. Dexamethasone concentrations were measured after oral ingestion of 1.5mg dexamethasone in two cohorts that underwent a standard (dexamethasone at 23:00h) as well as modified (18:00h) DST and dex-CRH test. The first study population was a case/control cohort of 105 depressed patients and 133 controls in which peripheral blood mRNA expression was also measured. The second was a cohort of 261 depressed patients that underwent a standard dex-CRH test at baseline and after 12 weeks' treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressants. Dexamethasone concentrations explained significant proportions of the variance in the DST in both the first (24.6%) and the second (5.2%) cohort. Dexamethasone concentrations explained a higher proportion of the variance in the dex-CRH test readouts, with 41.9% of the cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in the first sample and 24.7% in the second sample. In contrast to these strong effects at later time points, dexamethasone concentrations did not impact cortisol or ACTH concentrations or mRNA expression 3hours after ingestion. In the second sample, dexamethasone concentrations at baseline and week 12 were highly correlated, independent of treatment type and response status. Importantly, a case/control effect in the Dex-CRH test was only apparent when controlling for dexamethasone concentrations. Our results suggest that the incorporation of plasma dexamethasone concentration or measures of earlier endocrine read-outs may help to improve the assessment of endocrine dysfunction in depression.


Assuntos
Receptores de Glucocorticoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Dexametasona/análise , Dexametasona/sangue , Dexametasona/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Sci Signal ; 8(404): ra119, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26602018

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, and molecular chaperones, including FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), are independently implicated in stress-related mental disorders and antidepressant drug action. FKBP51 associates with cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), which is one of several kinases that phosphorylates and activates DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We searched for a functional link between FKBP51 (encoded by FKBP5) and DNMT1 in cells from mice and humans, including those from depressed patients, and found that FKBP51 competed with its close homolog FKBP52 for association with CDK5. In human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, expression of FKBP51 displaced FKBP52 from CDK5, decreased the interaction of CDK5 with DNMT1, reduced the phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of DNMT1, and diminished global DNA methylation. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary mouse astrocytes, FKBP51 mediated several effects of paroxetine, namely, decreased the protein-protein interactions of DNMT1 with CDK5 and FKBP52, reduced phosphorylation of DNMT1, and decreased the methylation and increased the expression of the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). In human peripheral blood cells, FKBP5 expression inversely correlated with both global and BDNF methylation. Peripheral blood cells isolated from depressed patients that were then treated ex vivo with paroxetine revealed that the abundance of BDNF positively correlated and phosphorylated DNMT1 inversely correlated with that of FKBP51 in cells and with clinical treatment success in patients, supporting the relevance of this FKBP51-directed pathway that prevents epigenetic suppression of gene expression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 76(6): e802-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight gain during psychopharmacologic treatment has considerable impact on the clinical management of depression, treatment continuation, and risk for metabolic disorders. As no profound clinical risk factors have been identified so far, the aim of our analyses was to determine clinical risk factors associated with short-term weight development in 2 large observational psychopharmacologic treatment studies for major depression. METHOD: Clinical variables at baseline (age, gender, depression psychopathology, anthropometry, disease history, and disease entity) were analyzed for association with percent change in body mass index (BMI; normal range, 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) during 5 weeks of naturalistic psychopharmacologic treatment in patients who had a depressive episode as single depressive episode, in the course of recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. 703 patients participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project, an ongoing study since 2002, and 214 patients participated in a study conducted at the University of Muenster from 2004 to 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Lower BMI, weight-increasing side effects of medication, severity of depression, and psychotic symptoms could be identified as clinical risk factors associated with elevated weight gain during the initial treatment phase of 5 weeks in both studies. Based on these results, a composite risk score for weight gain consisting of BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17-item) score > 20, presence of psychotic symptoms, and administration of psychopharmacologic medication with potential weight-gaining side effects was highly discriminative for mean weight gain (F4,909 = 26.77, P = 5.14E-21) during short-term psychopharmacologic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our results, depressed patients with low to normal BMI, severe depression, or psychotic symptoms should be considered at higher risk for weight gain during acute antidepressant treatment. We introduce a new risk score that might be considered in psychopharmacologic decisions for the prevention of weight gain and resulting metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Pharmacogenomics ; 16(7): 689-701, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25943212

RESUMO

AIM: The identification of antidepressant drugs (ADs) response biomarkers in depression is of high clinical importance. We explored CHL1 and ITGB3 expression as tentative response biomarkers. MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro sensitivity to ADs, as well as gene expression and genetic variants of the candidate genes CHL1, ITGB3 and SLC6A4 were measured in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of 58 depressed patients. RESULTS: An association between the clinical remission of depression and the basal expression of CHL1 and ITGB3 was discovered. Individuals whose LCLs expressed higher levels of CHL1 or ITGB3 showed a significantly better remission upon AD treatment. In addition individuals with the CHL1 rs1516338 TT genotype showed a significantly better remission after 5 weeks AD treatment than those carrying a CC genotype. No association between the in vitro sensitivity of LCLs toward AD and the clinical remission could be detected. CONCLUSION: CHL1 expression in patient-derived LCLs correlated with the clinical outcome. Thus, it could be a valid biomarker to predict the success of an antidepressant therapy. Original submitted 8 December 2014; Revision submitted 2 March 2015.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Integrina beta3/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/biossíntese , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Integrina beta3/biossíntese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/biossíntese , Suíça/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 25(6): 864-72, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836355

RESUMO

We analyzed insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in serum of 78 inpatients with depression and 92 healthy controls. Patients were selected according to remission status after 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment with remission defined by Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) 21-item score <10 (39 remitters and 39 non-remitters). IGF-I was analyzed in patients at admission and after 6 weeks of psychopharmacological treatment. IGF-I levels were compared between patients and controls and between remitters and non-remitters with general linear model using age, gender, and body mass index as covariates. In patients, IGF-I levels were significantly higher at admission (p=3.29E-04) and in week 6 (p=0.002) compared to controls. Furthermore, non-remitters showed significantly higher IGF-I levels at admission (p=0.046) and a trend for higher IGF-I levels in week 6 (p=0.11) compared to remitters. In remitters change in IGF-I levels during treatment was significantly correlated with change in cortisol levels (p=0.019). A genetic association analysis of polymorphisms in 10 genes contributing to the IGF-I system (IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP1 to IGFBP7, and IGFBPL1) in the currently largest genetic databases for major depression (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) revealed nominal associations with susceptibility for depression and treatment response, although results did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In our study, elevated IGF-I levels were significantly associated with depression and impaired treatment response. Based on these findings IGF-I signaling could play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and could possibly influence the response to antidepressant treatment.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Adulto , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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