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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 506, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder represents (MDD) a major cause of disability and disease burden. Beside antidepressant medication, psychotherapy is a key approach of treatment. Schema therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially personality disorders, in a variety of settings and patient groups. Nevertheless, there is no evidence on its effectiveness for MDD in an inpatient nor day clinic setting and little is known about the factors that drive treatment response in such a target group. METHODS: In the current protocol, we outline OPTIMA (OPtimized Treatment Identification at the MAx Planck Institute): a single-center randomized controlled trial of schema therapy as a treatment approach for MDD in an inpatient and day clinic setting. Over the course of 7 weeks, we compare schema therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy and individual supportive therapy, conducted in individual and group sessions and with no restrictions regarding concurrent antidepressant medication, thus approximating real-life treatment conditions. N = 300 depressed patients are included. All study therapists undergo a specific training and supervision and therapy adherence is assessed. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity as self-assessment (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and secondary outcomes are clinical ratings of MDD (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), recovery rates after 7 weeks according to the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, general psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory), global functioning (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule), and clinical parameters such as dropout rates. Further parameters on a behavioral, cognitive, psychophysiological, and biological level are measured before, during and after treatment and in 2 follow-up assessments after 6 and 24 months after end of treatment. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, the OPTIMA-Trial is the first to investigate the effectiveness of schema therapy as a treatment approach of MDD, to investigate mechanisms of change, and explore predictors of treatment response in an inpatient and day clinic setting by using such a wide range of parameters. Insights from OPTIMA will allow more integrative approaches of psychotherapy of MDD. Especially, the identification of intervention-specific markers of treatment response can improve evidence-based clinical decision for individualizing treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier on clinicaltrials.gov : NCT03287362 ; September, 12, 2017.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 210, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612257

RESUMO

Antidepressant therapy is still associated with delays in symptomatic improvement and low response rates. Incomplete understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant effects hampered the identification of objective biomarkers for antidepressant response. In this work, we studied transcriptome-wide expression followed by pathway analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 17 patients documented for response to SSRI antidepressants from the Munich Antidepressant Response Signatures (MARS) study upon short-term incubation (24 and 48 h) with citalopram. Candidate transcripts were further validated with qPCR in MARS LCLs from responders (n = 33) vs. non-responders (n = 36) and afterward in an independent cohort of treatment-resistant patients (n = 20) vs. first-line responders (n = 24) from the STAR*D study. In MARS cohort we observed significant associations of GAD1 (glutamate decarboxylase 1; p = 0.045), TBC1D9 (TBC1 Domain Family Member 9; p = 0.014-0.021) and NFIB (nuclear factor I B; p = 0.015-0.025) expression with response status, remission status and improvement in depression scale, respectively. Pathway analysis of citalopram-altered gene expression indicated response-status-dependent transcriptional reactions. Whereas in clinical responders neural function pathways were primarily up- or downregulated after incubation with citalopram, deregulated pathways in non-responders LCLs mainly involved cell adhesion and immune response. Results from the STAR*D study showed a marginal association of treatment-resistant depression with NFIB (p = 0.068) but not with GAD1 (p = 0.23) and TBC1D9 (p = 0.27). Our results propose the existence of distinct pathway regulation mechanisms in responders vs. non-responders and suggest GAD1, TBC1D9, and NFIB as tentative predictors for clinical response, full remission, and improvement in depression scale, respectively, with only a weak overlap in predictors of different therapy outcome phenotypes.

3.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).

5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007616, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012148

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with traits or diseases. GWAS never directly link variants to regulatory mechanisms. Instead, the functional annotation of variants is typically inferred by post hoc analyses. A specific class of deep learning-based methods allows for the prediction of regulatory effects per variant on several cell type-specific chromatin features. We here describe "DeepWAS", a new approach that integrates these regulatory effect predictions of single variants into a multivariate GWAS setting. Thereby, single variants associated with a trait or disease are directly coupled to their impact on a chromatin feature in a cell type. Up to 61 regulatory SNPs, called dSNPs, were associated with multiple sclerosis (MS, 4,888 cases and 10,395 controls), major depressive disorder (MDD, 1,475 cases and 2,144 controls), and height (5,974 individuals). These variants were mainly non-coding and reached at least nominal significance in classical GWAS. The prediction accuracy was higher for DeepWAS than for classical GWAS models for 91% of the genome-wide significant, MS-specific dSNPs. DSNPs were enriched in public or cohort-matched expression and methylation quantitative trait loci and we demonstrated the potential of DeepWAS to generate testable functional hypotheses based on genotype data alone. DeepWAS is available at https://github.com/cellmapslab/DeepWAS.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Análise Multivariada , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 187, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383853

RESUMO

The identification of generalizable treatment response classes (TRC[s]) in major depressive disorder (MDD) would facilitate comparisons across studies and the development of treatment prediction algorithms. Here, we investigated whether such stable TRCs can be identified and predicted by clinical baseline items. We analyzed data from an observational MDD cohort (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature [MARS] study, N = 1017), treated individually by psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic means, and a multicenter, partially randomized clinical/pharmacogenomic study (Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP], N = 809). Symptoms were evaluated up to week 16 (or discharge) in MARS and week 12 in GENDEP. Clustering was performed on 809 MARS patients (discovery sample) using a mixed model with the integrated completed likelihood criterion for the assessment of cluster stability, and validated through a distinct MARS validation sample and GENDEP. A random forest algorithm was used to identify prediction patterns based on 50 clinical baseline items. From the clustering of the MARS discovery sample, seven TRCs emerged ranging from fast and complete response (average 4.9 weeks until discharge, 94% remitted patients) to slow and incomplete response (10% remitted patients at week 16). These proved stable representations of treatment response dynamics in both the MARS and the GENDEP validation sample. TRCs were strongly associated with established response markers, particularly the rate of remitted patients at discharge. TRCs were predictable from clinical items, particularly personality items, life events, episode duration, and specific psychopathological features. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when cluster-derived slopes were modelled instead of individual slopes. In conclusion, model-based clustering identified distinct and clinically meaningful treatment response classes in MDD that proved robust with regard to capturing response profiles of differently designed studies. Response classes were predictable from clinical baseline characteristics. Conceptually, model-based clustering is translatable to any outcome measure and could advance the large-scale integration of studies on treatment efficacy or the neurobiology of treatment response.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Farmacogenética , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295515

RESUMO

Major depression is a stress-related disorder with robust clinical and preclinical data implicating that both, dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and of the neurotrophin system of the brain are involved in the pathophysiology. Genetic variations within the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene region, a major representative of the brain neurotrophins, are suggested to influence response to antidepressant treatment. Specifically, we recently identified two BDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs2049046 and rs11030094, as associated with antidepressant treatment response in a large pharmacogenetic study of hospitalized patients. We now analyzed these two SNPs in a sub-sample for their association with HPA axis dysregulation using the combined dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin releasing hormone challenge (dex/CRH) test at hospital admission (N = 266) and at discharge (N = 190). Rs11030094, located 3' outside the coding region of BDNF, is also located in an intron of BDNFOS coding for a functional antagonist of BDNF. We further included the non-synonymous Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism in our analysis, for which - albeit being extensively studied - conflicting results in respect to its role in antidepressant treatment response have been reported. Similar to the previous analysis, rs2049046 and rs11030094 showed a significant effect on antidepressant response. In a gene-dose dependent manner, we found significant lower cortisol responses to the dex/CRH test at discharge in carriers of the respective SNP alleles ('T' of rs2049046 and 'G' of rs11030094) that were associated with antidepressant response (beneficial alleles). These genetic effects on HPA axis regulation were independent of age, sex, medication and depressive symptomatology. Although not reaching statistical significance, the same direction of effect was observed for cortisol at admission, as well as the ACTH response at admission and discharge. An interaction analysis of both SNPs revealed highest cortisol levels in subjects that were non-carriers of both beneficial alleles. The Val66Met (rs6265) was neither associated with antidepressant response nor with HPA axis regulation. Our findings provide further evidence for an interaction of the HPA axis and the neurotrophin system in major depression. This study stresses the importance investigating BDNF variants beyond the extensively studied Val66Met polymorphism. In-depth analyses of both pathophysiologically relevant systems may point to possible new targets for pharmaceutical intervention and precision medicine of major depression in the future.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Íntrons , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Inflamação/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678080

RESUMO

Adverse experiences and chronic stress are well-known risk factors for the development of major depression, and an impaired stress response regulation is frequently observed in acute depression. Impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling plays an important role in these alterations, and a restoration of GR signalling appears to be a prerequisite of successful antidepressant treatment. Variants in genes of the stress response regulation contribute to the vulnerability to depression in traumatized subjects. Consistent findings point to an important role of FKBP5, the gene expressing FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), which is a strong inhibitor of the GR, and thus, an important regulator of the stress response. We investigated the role of FKBP5 and FKB51 expression with respect to stress response regulation and antidepressant treatment outcome in depressed patients. This study included 297 inpatients, who participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and were treated for acute depression. In this open-label study, patients received antidepressant treatment according to the attending doctor's choice. In addition to the FKBP5 genotype, changes in blood FKBP51 expression during antidepressant treatment were analyzed using RT-PCR and ZeptoMARKTM reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM). Stress response regulation was evaluated in a subgroup of patients using the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test. As expected, increased FKBP51 expression was associated with an impaired stress response regulation at baseline and after six weeks was accompanied by an elevated cortisol response to the combined dex/CRH test. Further, we demonstrated an active involvement of FKBP51 in antidepressant treatment outcome. While patients responding to antidepressant treatment had a pronounced reduction of FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein expression, increasing expression levels were observed in nonresponders. This effect was moderated by the genotype of the FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, with carriers of the minor allele showing the most pronounced association. Our findings demonstrate that FKBP5 and, specifically, its expression product FKBP51 are important modulators of antidepressant treatment outcome, pointing to a new, promising target for future antidepressant drug development.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JCI Insight ; 4(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain and metabolic changes during treatment with antidepressant drugs have emerged as an important concern, particularly in long-term treatment. It is still a matter of ongoing debate whether weight gain and metabolic perturbations with antidepressant use are the consequence of increased appetite and weight gain, respectively, or represents direct pharmacological effects of the drug on metabolism. METHODS: We therefore conducted a proof-of-concept, open-label clinical trial, hypothesizing that in exceptionally healthy men no change of metabolic parameters would occur under mirtazapine, when environmental factors such as nutrition, sleep, and physical exercise were controlled and kept constant. Over a 3-week preparation phase, 10 healthy, young men were attuned to a standardized diet adjusted to their individual caloric need, to a regular sleep/wake cycle and moderate exercise. Continuing this protocol, we administered 30 mg mirtazapine daily for 7 days. RESULTS: While no significant weight gain or changes in resting energy expenditure were observed under these conditions, hunger and appetite for sweets increased with mirtazapine, accompanied by a shift in energy substrate partitioning towards carbohydrate substrate preference as assessed by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, with mirtazapine, insulin and C-peptide release increased in response to a standardized meal. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide important insights into weight-independent metabolic changes associated with mirtazapine and allow a better understanding of the long-term metabolic effects observed in patients treated with antidepressant drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00878540. FUNDING: Nothing to declare.

12.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 94: 134-142, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants. The mediation analysis using a case-control approach included childhood trauma, i.e., physical and sexual abuse, as predictor variables and an allostatic load index comprised of 12 stress-related biomarkers as mediator. Age and sex were included as covariates. RESULTS: Mediation analyses revealed that the influence of physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, during childhood on depression in adulthood was mediated by allostatic load. This effect was moderated by age: particularly young (18-42 years) and middle-aged (43-54 years) adults with a history of physical abuse during childhood exhibited high allostatic load, which in turn was associated with increased rates of depression, but this was not the case for older participants (55-81 years). CONCLUSIONS: Results support the theoretical assumption of allostatic load mediating the effect of physical abuse during childhood on depression in adulthood. This predominantly holds for younger participants, while depression in older participants was independent of physical abuse and allostatic load. The effect of sexual abuse on depression, however, was not mediated by allostatic load. Identifying allostatic load biomarkers prospectively in the developmental course of depression is an important target for future research.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Affect Disord ; 228: 20-25, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 397 Reactome pathways and 24,025 patients with BD and controls. RNA expression of implicated individual genes and gene sets were examined in post-mortem brains across lifespan. RESULTS: Two pathways showed a significant enrichment after correction for multiple comparisons in the GSEA: GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, for which 6 of 21 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0377), and NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, for which 11 out of 62 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0451). Most pathway genes showed peaks of RNA co-expression during fetal development and infancy and mapped to neocortical areas and parts of the limbic system. LIMITATIONS: Pathway associations were technically reproduced by two methods, although they were not formally replicated in independent samples. Gene expression was explored in controls but not in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway analysis in large GWAS data of BD and follow-up of gene expression patterns in healthy brains provide support for an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in the etiology of this neuropsychiatric disease. Future studies are required to further evaluate the relevance of the implicated genes on pathway functioning and clinical aspects of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/metabolismo
15.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 10: 272, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912679

RESUMO

The current inability of clinical psychiatry to objectively select the most appropriate treatment is a major factor contributing to the severity and clinical burden of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have attempted to identify plasma protein signatures in 39 MDD patients to predict response over a 6-week treatment period with antidepressants. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that differences in the levels of 29 proteins at baseline were found in the group with a favorable treatment outcome. Most of these proteins were components of metabolism or immune response pathways as well as multiple components of the coagulation cascade. After 6 weeks of treatment, 43 proteins were altered in responders of which 2 (alpha-actinin and nardilysin) had been identified at baseline. In addition, 46 proteins were altered in non-responders and 9 of these (alpha-actinin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein B-100, attractin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain, nardilysin and serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1) had been identified at baseline. However, it should be stressed that the small sample size precludes generalization of the main results. Further studies to validate these as potential biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response are warranted considering the potential importance to the field of psychiatric disorders. This study provides the groundwork for development of novel objective clinical tests that can help psychiatrists in the clinical management of MDD through improved prediction and monitoring of patient responses to antidepressant treatments.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(7)2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(2): 70-76, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642257

RESUMO

BackgroundDepression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.AimsTo confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.MethodThe sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.ResultsIn the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (ß = 0.12, P = 2.7 × 10-4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10-7) but not with traditional random effects (ß = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (ß = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10-8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTOConclusionsThis meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171595, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166306

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. BD shows substantial clinical and genetic overlap with other psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia (SCZ). The genes underlying this etiological overlap remain largely unknown. A recent SCZ genome wide association study (GWAS) by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium identified 128 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present study investigated whether these SCZ-associated SNPs also contribute to BD development through the performance of association testing in a large BD GWAS dataset (9747 patients, 14278 controls). After re-imputation and correction for sample overlap, 22 of 107 investigated SCZ SNPs showed nominal association with BD. The number of shared SCZ-BD SNPs was significantly higher than expected (p = 1.46x10-8). This provides further evidence that SCZ-associated loci contribute to the development of BD. Two SNPs remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The most strongly associated SNP was located near TRANK1, which is a reported genome-wide significant risk gene for BD. Pathway analyses for all shared SCZ-BD SNPs revealed 25 nominally enriched gene-sets, which showed partial overlap in terms of the underlying genes. The enriched gene-sets included calcium- and glutamate signaling, neuropathic pain signaling in dorsal horn neurons, and calmodulin binding. The present data provide further insights into shared risk loci and disease-associated pathways for BD and SCZ. This may suggest new research directions for the treatment and prevention of these two major psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 312-321, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second largest cause of global disease burden. It has an estimated heritability of 37%, but published genome-wide association studies have so far identified few risk loci. Haplotype-block-based regional heritability mapping (HRHM) estimates the localized genetic variance explained by common variants within haplotype blocks, integrating the effects of multiple variants, and may be more powerful for identifying MDD-associated genomic regions. METHODS: We applied HRHM to Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health Study, a large family- and population-based Scottish cohort (N = 19,896). Single-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype-based association tests were used to localize the association signal within the regions identified by HRHM. Functional prediction was used to investigate the effect of MDD-associated SNPs within the regions. RESULTS: A haplotype block across a 24-kb region within the TOX2 gene reached genome-wide significance in HRHM. Single-SNP- and haplotype-based association tests demonstrated that five of nine genotyped SNPs and two haplotypes within this block were significantly associated with MDD. The expression of TOX2 and a brain-specific long noncoding RNA RP1-269M15.3 in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens basal ganglia, respectively, were significantly regulated by MDD-associated SNPs within this region. Both the regional heritability and single-SNP associations within this block were replicated in the UK-Ireland group of the most recent release of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), the PGC2-MDD (Major Depression Dataset). The SNP association was also replicated in a depressive symptom sample that shares some individuals with the PGC2-MDD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of HRHM for MDD and provides an important target within TOX2 for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas HMGB/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
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