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Front Immunol ; 10: 1695, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379878


Graves' disease (GD) involves the presence of agonistic auto-antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), which are responsible for the clinical symptoms. While failure of TSHR tolerance is central to GD pathogenesis, the process leading to this failure remains poorly understood. Two mechanisms intimately linked to tolerance have been proposed to explain the association of SNPs located in TSHR intron 1 to GD: (1) differential alternative splicing in the thyroid; and (2) modulation of expression in the thymus. To elucidate the relative contribution to these two mechanisms to GD pathogenesis, we analyzed the level of full-length and ST4 and ST5 isoform expression in the thyroid (n = 49) and thymus (n = 39) glands, and the influence of intron 1-associated SNPs on such expression. The results show that: (1) the level of flTSHR and ST4 expression in the thymus was unexpectedly high (20% that of the thyroid); (2) while flTSHR is the predominant isoform, the levels are similar to ST4 (ratio flTSHR/ST4 = 1.34 in the thyroid and ratio flTSHR/ST4 in the thymus = 1.93); (3) next-generation sequencing confirmed the effect of the TSHR intron 1 polymorphism on TSHR expression in the thymus with a bias of 1.5 ± 0.2 overexpression of the protective allele in the thymus compared to the thyroid; (4) GD-associated intron 1 SNPs did not influence TSHR alternative splicing of ST4 and ST5 in the thyroid and thymus; and (5) three-color confocal imaging showed that TSHR is associated with both thymocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the thymus. Our findings confirm the effect of intron 1 polymorphisms on thymic TSHR expression and we present evidence against an effect on the relative expression of isoforms. The high level of ST4 expression in the thymus and its distribution within the tissue suggest that this would most likely be the isoform that induces central tolerance to TSHR thus omitting most of the hinge and transmembrane portion. The lack of central tolerance to a large portion of TSHR may explain the relatively high frequency of autoimmunity related to TSHR and its clinical consequence, GD.

J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889868


Diabetic retinopathy (DR) may potentially cause vision loss and affect the patient's quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction (TS). Using specific tools, we aimed to assess the impact of DR and clinical factors on the QoL and TS in patients with type 1 diabetes. This was a cross-sectional, two-centre study. A sample of 102 patients with DR and 140 non-DR patients were compared. The Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL-19) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ-s) were administered. Data analysis included bivariate and multivariable analysis. Patients with DR showed a poorer perception of present QoL (p = 0.039), work life (p = 0.037), dependence (p = 0.010), and had a lower average weighted impact (AWI) score (p = 0.045). The multivariable analysis showed that DR was associated with a lower present QoL (p = 0.040), work life (p = 0.036) and dependence (p = 0.016). With regards to TS, DR was associated with a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia (p = 0.019). In patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of DR is associated with a poorer perception of their QoL. With regard to TS, these subjects also show a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia.

J Immunol ; 194(9): 4199-206, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25801430


Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease defined by the production of stimulating autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) (TSAbs) that induce a sustained state of hyperthyroidism in patients. We previously demonstrated that TSHR, the target of this autoimmune response, is also a key susceptibility gene for GD, probably acting through thymic-dependent central tolerance. We also showed that TSHR is, unexpectedly, expressed in thymocytes. In this report, we confirm the expression of TSHR in thymocytes by protein immunoblotting and quantitative PCR, and show that expression is confined to maturing thymocytes. Using functional assays, we show that thymic TSHR is functional and that TSAbs can stimulate thymocytes through this receptor. This new activity of TSAbs on thymocytes may: 1) explain GD-associated thymic enlargement (hyperplasia), and 2) suggest the provocative hypothesis that the continuous stimulation of thymocytes by TSAbs could lead to a vicious cycle of iterative improvement of the affinity and stimulating capability of initially low-affinity antibacterial (e.g., Yersinia) Abs cross-reactive with TSHR, eventually leading to TSAbs. This may help to fill one of the gaps in our present understanding of unusual characteristics of TSAbs.

Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Receptores da Tireotropina/imunologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Receptores da Tireotropina/genética , Timócitos/citologia