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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704655

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to characterize socioeconomic inequalities in the patterns of professionally applied topical fluoride (PATF) in Mexican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3029 Mexican schoolchildren. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers to determine sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. The dependent variable was prevalence of PATF, coded as 0 = without PATF and 1 = with PATF, at any point in life, and separately, in the previous year. Various indicators of socioeconomic position were included. Logistic regression was used in the final multivariate analysis. The prevalence of PATF any time in life was 33.8%, while in the previous year it was 11.4%. The variables associated (p < 0.05) with PATF any time in life were child's older age (OR = 1.12), older age when tooth brushing started (OR = 1.57), higher brushing frequency (OR = 1.60), having health insurance [public (OR = 1.61) or private (OR = 1.45)], if family owned a car (OR = 1.29) and better socioeconomic position [parents' education, second (OR = 1.48) and third (OR = 1.75) tertile]. For PATF in the previous year, the variables associated were older age of mother (OR = 1.03), older age when tooth brushing started (OR = 1.99), higher brushing frequency (OR = 1.68), having health insurance [public (OR = 1.62)] and better socioeconomic position (parents' education, second (OR = 1.57) and third (OR = 1.97) tertile). This study suggests the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in PATF, manifested through socioeconomic position, access to health insurance and household having a car. Identifying and addressing PATF inequalities would improve oral health in the child population.

2.
P R Health Sci J ; 39(2): 203-209, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of dental health services to receive professionally applied topical fluoride (DHSU-PATF) in the 12 months prior to the study among Mexican schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 1,404 schoolchildren selected randomly from 15 public schools in the city of Pachuca, Mexico. Questionnaires were distributed to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. The dependent variable was the DHSU-PATF in the year before the study, which was dichotomized as 0 (no DHSU-PATF) or 1 (yes, DHSU-PATF). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. The analysis was performed in Stata 11.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of DHSU-PATF was 5.1%, but lower among younger children (OR = 0.86) and greater among children with health insurance (private insurance, OR = 3.64; insurance provided by the government owned oil company, the Army, or the Navy, OR = 5.03). The level of knowledge about oral health among guardians/ parents was also a factor (medium, OR = 2.37; high, OR = 4.05). Additionally, among the children whose parents/guardians perceived them (the children) as having good or very good oral health, the OR was 3.33; among children whose parents brushed their teeth with greater relative frequency, the OR was 8.74. Finally, DHSU-PATF was greater among children with relatively higher socioeconomic status (2nd quartile, OR = 3.29; 3rd quartile, OR = 5.99; 4th quartile, OR = 4.64). CONCLUSION: The receipt of PATF was low in this sample of Mexican schoolchildren and is associated with socioeconomic and behavioral factors. This gives us a guideline to create or improve topical fluoride application strategies in the public and private Mexican health systems.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19061, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000455

RESUMO

To analyze whether a correlation exists between the caries status (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth, DMFT Index) of the first permanent molars (FPMs) and that of the full permanent dentition of Mexican adolescents, and to propose its use in large epidemiological studies of dental caries.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1538 adolescents from 12 to 15 years old. Based on a clinical oral examination, we determined the DMFT Indices of their FPMs (FPM-DMFT) and of their full permanent dentition (comprehensive DMFT Index). We explored each FPM to determine whether it was with or without caries, filled, missing or sealed. For our statistical analysis, we used Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation in Stata software.After examining a total of 6157 FPMs, we found that 56.8% of our sample of adolescents had no caries in their 4 FPMs whereas 4.9% experienced caries in all 4. No significant differences emerged by sex (P > .05); however, by age, the older adolescents experienced greater FPM-DMFT (P < .05). Analysis yielded a correlation of r = 0.8693 between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT scores (P < .0001) of participants. The underestimation of caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 5.4% (48.6% vs 43.2%), while the DMFT Index was underestimated at 0.34 (1.15 vs 0.81).The strong correlation between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT Indices suggests that overall caries status can be inferred on the basis of FPM caries status. This evidence is useful when conducting large epidemiological studies such as national surveys.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição Permanente , Dente Molar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195612

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures (OOPEs) incurred by households on dental care, as well as to analyze the sociodemographic, economic, and oral health factors associated with such expenditures. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 763 schoolchildren in Mexico. A questionnaire was distributed to parents to determine the variables related to OOPEs on dental care. The amounts were updated in 2017 in Mexican pesos and later converted to 2017 international dollars (purchasing power parities-PPP US $). Multivariate models were created: a linear regression model (which modeled the amount of OOPEs), and a logistic regression model (which modeled the likelihood of incurring OOPEs). Results: The OOPEs on dental care for the 763 schoolchildren were PPP US $53,578, averaging a PPP of US $70.2 ± 123.7 per child. Disbursements for treatment were the principal item within the OOPEs. The factors associated with OOPEs were the child's age, number of dental visits, previous dental pain, main reason for dental visit, educational level of mother, type of health insurance, household car ownership, and socioeconomic position. Conclusions: The average cost of dental care was PPP US $70.2 ± 123.7. Our study shows that households with higher school-aged children exhibiting the highest report of dental morbidity-as well as those without insurance-face the highest OOPEs. An array of variables were associated with higher expenditures. In general, higher-income households spent more on dental care. However, the present study did not estimate unmet needs across the socioeconomic gradient, and thus, future research is needed to fully ascertain disease burden.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(11): e14875, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882692

RESUMO

Dental caries-a highly prevalent public health problem in preschoolers and school children-is the main cause of premature dental loss during childhood, and this may be related to loss of space in the posterior sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether interproximal caries and premature tooth loss (D and/or E) are risk factors for loss of space in the posterior sector.A comparative cross-sectional study (split-mouth type) was performed in schoolchildren (6-8 years old). Seventeen gypsum models were evaluated. These children presented with unilateral loss of a dental organ or interproximal caries (teeth D and/or E) and without such affectations on the other side. Measurements were made with a digital Vernier caliper. The dependent variable was the difference (loss of space, mm) between the control and case sides. The independent variables were type of affectation (interproximal caries or tooth loss), sex, age, arcade, and number of interproximal surfaces affected.The mean age was 6.82 ±â€Š0.44 years and 64.7% were boys. The average space loss was 1.09 ±â€Š0.18 mm (control vs case; P < .0001). A greater loss of space was observed among those who lost a dental organ than those with interproximal caries (P = .0119). A correlation was observed between the variable loss of space and the number of interproximal surfaces affected (r = 0.5712, P = .0166).Interproximal caries and tooth loss were risk factors for loss of space in the posterior segment in this sample of Mexican schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/complicações , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Dente/classificação , Perda de Dente/complicações , Dente Decíduo/fisiopatologia
6.
P R Health Sci J ; 35(2): 88-92, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the experience of tooth loss, as well as its associated variables, in a sample of adult Mexicans, aged 60 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger project to measure diverse oral health indicators in a convenience sample: it included 139 adult Mexican seniors (69.1% of whom were women), ages 60 years and older, either living in long-term care facilities or living independently and participating in adult day care services. Each participant underwent an oral examination to determine the number of missing teeth. Questionnaires were administered to collect sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric tests and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean age was 79.06 (±9.78 years). The mean number of missing teeth was 20.02 (±8.61; median, 24); 99.3% of the participants had at least 1 missing tooth, and only 14 had 20 teeth or more. Using a negative binomial regression multivariate model, we found that for each year's increase in age, the mean number of teeth lost increased by 1% (p<0.05). In individuals who brushed their teeth fewer than two times a day, who had received radiotherapy, or who were currently smokers, the average tooth loss increased 49.2%, 22.6%, and 19.0%, respectively (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Tooth-loss experience in these Mexican seniors was very high (20.02±8.61). Older age (within the range of this group of seniors), tooth-brushing patterns, the receipt of radiation therapy, and (current) tobacco use were associated with higher experience of tooth loss.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21147, 2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916132

RESUMO

We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Cárie Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Perda de Dente/patologia , Dente Decíduo/patologia , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prevalência , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/prevenção & controle
8.
Rev Invest Clin ; 61(6): 489-96, 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20184130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between tooth brushing frequency and variables of socioeconomic position in Nicaraguan schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken in 1353 schoolchildren ages 6 to 12 randomly selected from 25 elementary schools in Leon, Nicaragua. Using a questionnaire addressed to mothers, sociodemographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables were collected. The dependent variable was tooth brushing frequency, which was dichotomized in 0 "at least one 7 times/week" and 1 "7 or more times/week". A multivariate analysis was carried out with logistic regression in STATA 9. RESULTS: The average age of child participants was 8.99 +/- 2.00 years and 49.7% were women. In the final model, older age (OR = 2.04), female sex (OR = 1.39) and having a mother with positive attitudes toward oral health (OR = 2.5) were positively associated with the tooth brushing frequency (p < 0.05). Larger family size (OR = 0.89) and having low socioeconomic status (1st quartile; OR = 0.54, 2nd quartile; OR = 0.62, 3rd quartile; OR = 0.67) showed a negative relationship with the tooth brushing frequency. To have had at least one preventive dental visit in the previous year was positively associated (p < 0.10) with tooth brushing frequency. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that existence of indicators of socioeconomic inequalities exist even within less developed countries, and thus emphasize the need to target health promotion programs to vulnerable socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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