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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113802, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638039

RESUMO

The ability to detect human fecal pollution in water is of great importance when assessing the associated health risks. Many microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been proposed to determine the origin of fecal pollution, but their application remains challenging. A range of factors, not yet sufficiently analyzed, may affect MST markers in the environment, such as dilution and inactivation processes. In this work, a statistical framework based on Monte Carlo simulations and non-linear regression was used to develop a classification procedure for use in MST studies. The predictive model tested uses only two parameters: somatic coliphages (SOMCPH), as an index of general fecal pollution, and human host-specific bacteriophages that infect Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain GA17 (GA17PH). Taking into account bacteriophage dilution and differential inactivation, the threshold concentration of SOMCPH was calculated to be around 500 PFU/100 mL for a limit of detection of 10 PFU/100 mL. However, this threshold can be lowered by increasing the analyzed volume sample, which in turn lowers the limit of detection. The resulting model is sufficiently accurate for application in practical cases involving MST and could be easily used with markers other than those tested here.

2.
Water Res ; 203: 117543, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433109

RESUMO

According to the European Directives (UE) 2020/2184 and 2009/54/EC, which establishes the sanitary criteria for water intended for human consumption in Europe, water suitable for human consumption must be free of the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus spp. Drinking water is also monitored for heterotrophic bacteria, which are not a human health risk, but can serve as an index of bacteriological water quality. Therefore, a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for the identification of these colonies would improve our understanding of the culturable bacteria of drinking water and facilitate the task of water management by treatment facilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is potentially such a method, although most of the currently available mass spectral libraries have been developed in a clinical setting and have limited environmental applicability. In this work, a MALDI-TOF MS drinking water library (DWL) was defined and developed by targeting bacteria present in water intended for human consumption. This database, made up of 319 different bacterial strains, can contribute to the routine microbiological control of either treated drinking water or mineral bottled water carried out by water treatment and distribution operators, offering a faster identification rate compared to a clinical sample-based library. The DWL, made up of 96 bacterial genera, 44 of which are not represented in the MALDI-TOF MS bacterial Bruker Daltonics (BDAL) database, was found to significantly improve the identification of bacteria present in drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Bactérias , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
3.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 52: 103025, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865072

RESUMO

The inclusion of the smartphone in society has brought many advantages, but also disadvantages, such as nomophobia, considered as a digital disease generated by the excessive use of the smartphone. The general objective of the research is to know and analyse the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students and knowing the influence of time to rest. The research design is descriptive, correlational, transversal and predictive with a quantitative research methodology. The sample consist of nursing students from the University of Granada (N = 880) in Spain. A descriptive analysis has been carried out, as well as a bivariate correlation of Pearson, the student T test and a multiple linear regression. The results show an average level of nomophobia among nursing students. Although the students can recognize that the use of the smartphone can reduce their rest period, mainly focused on the hours they spend sleeping, there is no significant relationship between the two facts, confirming also that the levels of nomophobia are significantly more related in those who claim not to have problems in their rest due to the use of the mobile phone. A large percentage of them claim to rest less time due to excessive use of their smartphone.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Smartphone , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Water Res ; 188: 116537, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126005

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) pollution adversely impacts surface and groundwater quality. In recent decades, many countries have implemented measures to control and reduce anthropogenic nitrate pollution in water resources. However, to effectively implement mitigation measures at the origin of pollution,the source of nitrate must first be identified. The stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of NO3- (ẟ15N and ẟ18O) have been widely used to identify NO3- sources in water, and their combination with other stable isotopes such as boron (ẟ11B) has further improved nitrate source identification. However, the use of these datasets has been limited due to their overlapping isotopic ranges, mixing between sources, and/or isotopic fractionation related to physicochemical processes. To overcome these limitations, we combined a multi-isotopic analysis with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to improve nitrate origin identification. We applied this novel approach on 149 groundwater and 39 surface water samples distributed across Catalonia (NE Spain). A further 18 wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were also isotopically and biologically characterized. The groundwater and surface water results confirm that isotopes and MST analyses were complementary and provided more reliable information on the source of nitrate contamination. The isotope and MST data agreed or partially agreed in most of the samples evaluated (79 %). This approach was especially useful for nitrate pollution tracing in surface water but was also effective in groundwater samples influenced by organic nitrate pollution. Furthermore, the findings from the WWTP effluents suggest that the use of literature values to define the isotopic ranges of anthropogenic sources can constrain interpretations. We therefore recommend that local sources be isotopically characterized for accurate interpretations. For instance, the detection of MST inferred animal influence in some WWTP effluents, but the ẟ11B values were higher than those reported in the literature for wastewater. The results of this study have been used by local water authorities to review uncertain cases and identify new vulnerable zones in Catalonia according to the European Nitrate Directive (91/676/CEE).


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113628, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038613

RESUMO

A safe water supply requires distinct treatments and monitoring to guarantee the absence of pathogens and substances potentially hazardous for human health. In this study we assessed the efficiency of the dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) method to concentrate faecal indicator organisms (FIO) and pathogens in water samples with different physicochemical characteristics. Water samples were collected at the treatment stages of two drinking water treatment plants to analyse the concentration of a variety of 7 FIO and 4 reference microbes which have some species that are pathogenic to humans: Campylobacter spp., enteroviruses, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. The samples were analysed before and after concentration by DEUF, detecting FIO concentrations about 1 log10 higher in non-concentrated samples from both catchments. Percent recoveries were highly variable with a mean of 43.8 ± 17.5%, depending on the FIO and inherent sample characteristics. However, DEUF enabled FIO concentration in high volumes of water (100-500 l), allowing a reduction in the detection limit compared to the non-concentrated samples due to the high volume processing capabilities of the method. As a consequence, the detection of FIO removal from water in the drinking water treatment process was 1.0-1.5 logarithms greater in DEUF-treated water compared to unfiltered samples. The DEUF method improved the detection of target indicators and allowed for the detection of pathogens in low concentrations in water after the treatment stages, confirming the suitability of DEUF to concentrate high volumes of different types of water. This method could be useful for microbial analysis in water treatment monitoring and risk assessment, allowing the identification of critical points during the water treatment process and potential hazards in water destined for several uses.

6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108850, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919261

RESUMO

The complex and highly diverse microbial environment of drinking water, consisting mainly of bacteria at different metabolic states, is still underexplored. The aim of this work was to characterize the bacterial communities in tap water and bottled mineral water, the two predominant sources of drinking water in modern societies. A total of 11 tap water samples from a range of locations and distribution networks and 10 brands of bottled natural mineral water were analysed using two approaches: a) heterotrophic plate counts by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the culturable heterotrophic communities, and b) Illumina amplicon sequencing for total bacteria including non-culturable bacteria. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated in WPCA (ISO) agar at 22 ± 2 °C for 72 h and 2046 isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF MS. The Bruker Daltonics Library and a previously customized library (Drinking Water Library) were used as reference databases. For the total bacteria fraction, DNA was extracted from 6 L of water and submitted to Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing of the v4 region. Significant differences were observed between mineral and tap water, with a general dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (mainly the genus Blastomonas) in tap water and Gammaproteobacteria in mineral water with Acidovorax being the dominant genus in 3 out of 7 mineral water brands. The bacterial communities in the different brands of mineral water were highly diverse and characteristic of each one. Moreover, the season in which the water was bottled also affected the species distribution, with some of them identified in only one season. Among the culturable bacteria, the most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (around 85% of the isolates), followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Proteobacteria was also the most abundant phylum detected with Illumina sequencing (>99% of the reads). The two methods gave distinct results at the different taxonomic levels and could therefore have a complimentary application in the study of microbiota in mineral water environments. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising method for the rapid identification of heterotrophic bacteria in routine water analysis in the bottling industry. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The complementarity of MALDI-TOF MS and NGS in the assessment of bacterial community diversity has been demonstrated in water intended for human consumption. The two methods are suitable for routine use in the water industry for water quality management.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiota , Águas Minerais/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
7.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115254, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721842

RESUMO

Water quality monitoring is essential to safeguard human and environmental health. The advent of next-generation sequencing techniques in recent years, which allow a more in-depth study of environmental microbial communities in the environment, could broaden the perspective of water quality monitoring to include impact of faecal pollution bacteria on ecosystem. In this study, 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on autochthonous microbial communities of a temporary Mediterranean stream characterized by high flow seasonality (from 0.02 m3/s in winter to 0.006 m3/s in summer). Seven sampling campaigns were performed under different temperatures and streamflow conditions (winter and summer). Water samples were collected upstream (Upper) of the WWTP, the secondary effluent (EF) discharge and 75 m (P75) and 1000 m (P1000) downstream of the WWTP. A total of 5,593,724 sequences were obtained, giving rise to 20,650 amplicon sequence variants (ASV), which were further analysed and classified into phylum, class, family and genus. Each sample presented different distribution and abundance of taxa. Although taxon distribution and abundance differed in each sample, the microbial community structure of P75 resembled that of EF samples, and Upper and P1000 samples mostly clustered together. Alpha diversity showed the highest values for Upper and P1000 samples and presented seasonal differences, being higher in winter conditions of high streamflow and low temperature. Our results suggest the microbial ecology re-establishment, since autochthonous bacterial communities were able to recover from the impact of the WWTP effluent in 1 km. Alpha diversity results indicates a possible influence of environmental factors on the bacterial community structure. This study shows the potential of next-generation sequencing techniques as useful tools in water quality monitoring and management within the climate change scenario.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Águas Residuárias
8.
J Microbiol Methods ; 173: 105940, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387115

RESUMO

Somatic and F-specific coliphages are gaining ground as indicators of fecal/viral pollution. Guidelines and regulations worldwide for monitoring water, biosolids and food are including them as parameters to assess quality and treatment efficiency. Robust methods to detect and quantify both groups of phages in water samples have been launched by agencies such as the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the USA Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Although these methods have proved readily implementable in routine microbiology laboratories, faster and more user-friendly protocols will be highly welcome if coliphage detection becomes routine in water quality analysis. We here provide an overview of new approaches seeking to facilitate the detection of infectious coliphages included in guidelines and regulations. The improvements achieved suggest that streamlined kits able to provide results in a few hours at very reasonable costs will become available in the near future. The potential of molecular procedures and methods based on microelectronic sensors is also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Colífagos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água
9.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(2): 137-141, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The collaboration between professionals from different countries has become a claim in the globalised world where we live. In this scenario, collaborative social networks play a fundamental role in bringing people from different territories together in the same virtual space that it favours the exchange of information. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the use and integration of social networks to favour international collaboration between medical students from the University of Granada (Spain) and the University of Sheffield (UK). METHODOLOGY: A quantitative methodology has been used using a questionnaire developed ad hoc to quantify the degree of student satisfaction after participation in the collaborative social network. The sample was composed of 110 students of the degree in medicine, 74 from the University of Granada and 36 from the University of Sheffield. RESULTS: We find high percentages according to the improvement of learning from collaboration, as well as the relevance for the exchange of information and collaborative work between countries. CONCLUSION: This type of experience highlights the need to collaborate from digital networks with health professionals from other countries to improve student learning and know different methods and systems of action that improve daily medical practice


INTRODUCCIÓN: La colaboración entre profesionales de diferentes países se ha convertido en un reclamo en el mundo globalizado donde vivimos. En este escenario, las redes sociales colaborativas juegan un papel fundamental al reunir a personas de diferentes territorios en el mismo espacio virtual para favorecer el intercambio de información. OBJETIVO: Analizar el uso y la integración de las redes sociales para favorecer la colaboración internacional entre estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad de Granada (España) y la Universidad de Sheffield (Reino Unido). METODOLOGÍA: Se ha utilizado una metodología cuantitativa empleando un cuestionario ad hoc para cuantificar el grado de satisfacción del estudiante después de participar en la red social colaborativa. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 110 estudiantes del grado de medicina, 74 de la Universidad de Granada y 36 de la Universidad de Sheffield. RESULTADOS: Encontramos altos porcentajes de acuerdo con la mejora del aprendizaje a partir de la colaboración, así como la relevancia para el intercambio de información y el trabajo colaborativo entre países. CONCLUSIONES: Este tipo de experiencia resalta la necesidad de colaborar desde redes digitales con profesionales de la salud de otros países para mejorar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes y conocer diferentes métodos y sistemas de actuación que mejoran la práctica médica diaria


Assuntos
Humanos , Rede Social , Educação Médica/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Cooperação Internacional , Espanha , Reino Unido , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Pers Med ; 10(1)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121589

RESUMO

Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia in the student population. Traditionally, exposure therapy has been used as a treatment. However, the use of virtual reality (VR) is increasingly common to treat PSA. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the published scientific literature on VR as a treatment for PSA in students. The articles indexed in two databases (Web of Science and Scopus) were analyzed, with a time period from the beginning of the first publications until 2019 included. The systematic literature review was based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 13 studies were identified which included 481 students. The results collected indicate that the duration of treatments to have positive effects was at least one week, where the number of sessions was between one and twelve. Furthermore, most VR treatments reported positive effects. Finally, this study showed evidence that VR treatment for PSA is effective while being less invasive than in vivo exposure.

11.
Environ Res ; 182: 109133, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069755

RESUMO

Solid or semisolid matrices polluted with fecal remnants can be highly loaded with pathogens, especially viruses, and play a substantial role in the persistence and dispersion of pathogens in the water cycle. Water quality regulations and guidelines are increasingly including bacteriophages infecting enteric bacteria as indicators of fecal and/or viral pollution. However, more data are needed about viral indicators in contaminated solids to develop effective sanitation strategies for the management of raw and treated sludge, fecal sludge, manures and slurries. Also, the exact role of sediments and soil in the transmission cycle of viral pathogens still needs to be determined. This review aims to provide an update on available data for concentrations of indicator bacteriophages in different solid matrices as well as their resistance to treatments and persistence in solids. The conclusion reached is that there is a need for improved and standardized methodologies for bacteriophage extraction, detection and enumeration in solids. Reports indicate that these contain higher levels of somatic coliphages in comparison with traditional bacterial indicators and F-specific RNA coliphages. Water body sediments and soil have been found to be notable reservoirs of somatic coliphages, which are more persistent in nature and resistant to sludge treatments than Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphages. Thus, somatic coliphages show up as excellent complementary indicators for the prediction of pathogenic viruses in solids.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos , Biossólidos , Fezes/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia da Água
12.
IEEE Access ; 8: 91761-91769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192098

RESUMO

Mobile learning is a methodology that involves the use of mobile devices to carry out the teaching-learning process. In exceptional situations such as that experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, virtual training methods take on great importance, being the main route for the education of students. The purposes of this paper were to analyse the degree of implementation of the mobile learning methodology in Spanish universities and to check the sociodemographic factors that influence the development of good teaching practices in mobile learning. Ten hypothetical relationships were established and contrasted using a structural equation model. The sample was made up of 1544 university professors from 59 Spanish universities who were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to evaluate mobile learning practices. The results indicated that the degree of implementation of mobile devices was almost 73% of the population surveyed. While the sociodemographic factors that significantly influenced the development of good teaching practices were: teacher status; type of institution; educational technology research; implementing pedagogical innovations on a regular basis; agree that mobile devices are appropriate; belief in the expansion of mobile learning. Finally, the main findings and practical implications derived from the data obtained were discussed.

13.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25030, jan.- dez. 2019. Tabelas, Figuras
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048140

RESUMO

En los últimos años, la Educación Física se ha consolidado como una disciplina de estudio que acapara gran interés. Como consecuencia, la producción científica ha ido en aumento, reflejándose en la cantidad de artículos que se publican sobre el tema. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido analizar la producción científica sobre Educación Física, indexada en Web of Science, desde sus inicios hasta el año 2017. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio bibliométrico, recogiendo los indicadores de producción, dispersión e impacto de la producción científica en la Educación Física. Entre los resultados, se constata que la literatura se encuentra en una etapa de crecimiento exponencial. Además, desde los inicios de la producción científica, en 1902, sobre este tópico se han configurado determinadas revistas, instituciones, países y autores como referentes en la temática. Finalmente, el estudio ofrece una visión general del avance de las publicaciones de impacto sobre Educación Física


Nos últimos anos, a Educação Física se estabeleceu como um campo de estudo de grande interesse. Como consequência, a produção científica tem vindo a aumentar, o que se reflete na quantidade de artigos publicados sobre o assunto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produção científica em Educação Física, indexada em Web of Science, desde o seu início até 2017. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo bibliométrico, reunindo os indicadores de produção, dispersão e impacto da produção científica na Educação Física. Dentre os resultados, observa-se que a literatura está em fase de crescimento exponencial. Além disso, desde o início da produção científica sobre esse tema, em 1902, alguns periódicos, instituições, países e autores foram configurados como referências no tema. Finalmente, o estudo fornece uma visão geral do progresso das publicações de impacto sobre Educação Física


In recent years, Physical Education has established itself as a field of study of great interest. Consequently, scientific production has been on the rise, reflected in the number of publications on the topic. This article analyzed scientific production on Physical Education indexed in Web of Science, from its beginnings until 2017. For this, a bibliometric study collected the indicators of production, dispersion and impact of the scientific production on Physical Education. Among the results, it found that the literature is in a stage of exponential growth. Furthermore, since scientific production on the topic began in 1902, certain journals, institutions, countries and authors have been established as benchmarks on the topic. Finally, the study reflects a general overview on the progress of impact publications on Physical Education


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Bibliometria , Indicadores de Produção Científica , Fator de Impacto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
14.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505749

RESUMO

Problematic Internet use (PIU) has begun to be linked to the development of certain eating disorders. This uncontrolled use of the Internet is mainly found in the student population. The purposes of this paper were to determine PIU-related eating disorders in students from a systematic review of the literature and to analyze the incidence of PIU in eating disorders through a meta-analysis of the literature. We used two electronic databases (Web of Science and Scopus) from inception to June 2019. The systematic literature review was based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 12 studies were identified (systematic review) and 10 studies for meta-analysis, which included 16,520 students. Different eating disorders were associated with PIU: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, food preoccupation, loss of control eating, and dieting. Furthermore, meta-analysis confirmed that PIU is a predictor of eating disorders in students. The groups of students with PIU presented a higher rate in the presence of eating disorders, these differences being significant. Finally, this study showed empirical evidence on the link between PIU and eating disorders. The need for prevention in childhood and adolescence is highlighted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871185

RESUMO

Pollution is shown as the environmental challenge, which has the greatest impact on global climate change. Faced with this situation, numerous environmental summits agree on the fact that Environmental Education needs to be implemented within the different disciplines and educational institutions. Therefore, Further Education must foster the research and management of environmental education with the aim of developing responsible citizens with sustainable attitudes. Based on this idea, this paper aimed to analyse the attitudes in Further Education students towards different situations and habits linked to pollution, as well as some of its varied typologies (chemical pollution, acoustic pollution and management of solid urban waste and rubbish). To achieve this, a sample of 307 students from different degrees of Preschool and Primary Education was included, using a questionnaire as a measuring instrument. The methodology of the study was both descriptive, through the analysis of its measures, and inferential, with the preparation of a confirmatory conceptual model through the structural equation model (SEM). Results revealed that students are highly concerned about the different situations proposed, and that the predictive model forges strong correlations between the four variables of the study. Hence, the study focused on the idea of trying to enhance environmental awareness in the groups of students from different educational phases, to subsequently foster the implementation of specific actions aimed at preserving and conserving natural resources, and to guide society towards sustainable development.


Assuntos
Atitude , Poluição Ambiental , Estudantes/psicologia , Conscientização , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696048

RESUMO

The environmental challenges of the twenty-first century are a consequence of the impact that human beings have on nature. Because of this, environmental attitudes are paramount in establishing effective measures regarding both biodiversity preservation and environmental pollution. Therefore, the main goal of this paper has been evaluating the environmental attitudes of future primary education teachers, considering their responsibility for teaching the new generations of citizens. A quantitative methodology has been applied to describe the reality observed. The data collection instrument used was the scale of environmental attitudes towards specific problems; this scale was applied to a sample of 307 students of the degree in Primary Education at the University of Granada. More specifically, the subscales corresponding to pollution, biodiversity, natural spaces and recycling were analysed. Results reveal a high level of environmental attitudes in future primary education teachers; moreover, there is a positive interdependence among the different subscales. Finally, it is of great importance to evaluate the environmental attitudes of future primary education teachers, given that the future of biodiversity preservation and environmental pollution are in the hands of new generations.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906054

RESUMO

The technological characteristics of today's society have favored the inclusion of information and communication technology (ICT) and the emergence of new training methodologies in educational spaces. This study addresses flipped learning as an innovative approach in the teaching and learning processes of physical education at two educational stages, primary and secondary education. The objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of flipped learning with respect to traditional methodology. A descriptive and correlational experimental research design was used through a quantitative perspective. Two study groups were established, one control (traditional methodology) and one experimental (flipped learning) in each educational stage. A total of 119 students from an educational center in Ceuta (Spain) participated. These participants were chosen intentionally. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The results show that the experimental group obtained better evaluations in the academic indicators, highlighting the motivation, autonomy, and interactions between the different agents. Regarding the effectiveness of flipped learning according to the educational stage, its potential was demonstrated in both stages, highlighting a significant improvement in autonomy in secondary education.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Aprendizagem , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Espanha
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17351, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019534

RESUMO

This study was done to determine the time while the binary admixtures with midazolam and haloperidol drugs are administered by perfusion to the patients in the clinical routine. Samples with different concentrations of both drugs were prepared following the usual clinical practice. Solvents used were 0.9 % sodium chloride solution and 5% dextrose, and viaflo plastic bags were used as the containers of the admixtures. Samples were not protected from light and were stored at 20 ºC or at 4 ºC. Compatibility and physicochemical stability were studied by visual inspection, turbidity measurement, pH determination and ultraviolet detection high performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC) was used to determine midazolam and haloperidol concentrations. The assay was validated following the FDA and EMA guidelines. Darunavir was used as internal standard (IS). For the studied admixtures, turbidity measurements and pH determinations showed little changes in function of the time. Haloperidol and midazolam concentrations determined by HPLC are within the acceptable range of drug concentrations, which are considered stable for four days in case of admixtures stored at 20 ºC and for seven days for refrigerated admixtures. Taking into account the microbiological risk matrix, the compatibility and the chemical and microbiological stability of the midazolam and haloperidol in the co-administered admixtures in viaflo plastic bags with 0.9 % sodium chloride solution and 5% dextrose can be set as 48 hours when samples are stored at 20 ºC and one week if they are refrigerated.


Assuntos
Midazolam/farmacologia , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem
19.
J Virol Methods ; 251: 145-150, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029976

RESUMO

Quantitative RT-PCR methods (RT-qPCR) are becoming increasingly desirable for the detection of enteric viruses in solid environmental matrixes such as sediments, soils and sewage sludge. However, effective methodologies that allow the extraction of high quality RNA ready for molecular quantification continue to be evaluated. In the present study, four different methods for enterovirus extraction from solid environmental matrixes were compared in terms of viral recovery and inhibitor removal. Three indirect methods based on glycine elution and concentration by ultracentrifugation were tested. The main differences between indirect methods were the sample to glycine buffer ratio, and the ultracentrifugation protocol applied. One commercial direct method was also tested. The indirect methods produced better results than the direct method. The ultracentrifugation led to viral losses in samples with high titers; however, as the virus concentration reduced, the ultracentrifugation became increasingly important for viral recovery. Two commercial RNA extraction kits were also evaluated and it was selected the most effective in removing RT-qPCR inhibitors. The results obtained allowed the development of a method decision tree with three versions that are suitable for different samples and viral concentrations.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Carga Viral/métodos , Árvores de Decisões , Enterovirus/genética , RNA Viral/genética
20.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 25(4): 200-203, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157019

RESUMO

Background: The chemical stability of coadministered ondansetron (OND) and haloperidol (HAL) in parenteral admixtures has not been described yet. Objective: The aim of the present work is to study the chemical stability and the compatibility of OND and HAL admixtures. Methods: Normal saline solution and dextrose were used to prepare the admixture solutions of the drugs; the materials of the containers were the original plastic bags of the diluents and the stability was studied at 20°C. Compatibility was studied by visual inspection of no colour change and turbidity or precipitation appearance. The concentration of the drugs was studied by ultraviolet detection high-performance liquid chromatography. The method was validated following the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines, and the assay enables the measurement of both drugs with a linear calibration curve (r=0.999) over the concentration range 10-100 µg/mL, with acceptable values of linearity, precision and accuracy. Darunavir was used as internal standard. Results: Most of the admixtures have an adequate concentration until 24 hours(less than 10% of loss). 25% of the samples show a higher loss at 24 hours, and the chemical stability of these samples is 12 hours. Conclusions: The stability and compatibility of OND and HAL in the coadministered admixtures in Viaflo plastic bags with normal saline or dextrose are suggested at 12 hours.

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