Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 360
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 473-480, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229696

RESUMO

Objective: Co-aggregation of autoimmune diseases is common, suggesting partly shared etiologies. Genetic factors are believed to be important, but objective measures of environmental vs heritable influences on co-aggregation are absent. With a novel approach to twin studies, we aimed at estimating heritability and genetic overlap in seven organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Design: Prospective twin cohort study. Methods: We used a cohort of 110 814 twins to examine co-aggregation and heritability of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes, vitiligo and Addison's disease. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for twins developing the same or different disease as compared to their co-twin. The differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the genetic influence on co-aggregation. Heritability for individual disorders was calculated using structural equational modeling adjusting for censoring and truncation of data. Results: Co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic twins (median HR: 3.2, range: 2.2-9.2) than in dizygotic twins (median HR: 2.4, range: 1.1-10.0). Heritability was moderate for atrophic gastritis (0.38, 95% CI: 0.23-0.53) but high for all other diseases, ranging from 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49-0.71) for Graves' disease to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00) for Addison's disease. Conclusions: Overall, co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins, suggesting that disease overlap is largely attributable to genetic factors. Co-aggregation was common, and twins faced up to a ten-fold risk of developing diseases not present in their co-twin. Our results validate and refine previous heritability estimates based on smaller twin cohorts.

2.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176276

RESUMO

Importance: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been linked to increased risk of fracture in adults. Despite a trend in prescription of PPIs in children, there is scarce evidence regarding this safety concern in pediatric patients. Objective: To evaluate the association between PPI use and risk of fracture in children. Design: This nationwide register-based cohort study included data from Sweden from July 2006 to December 2016. Children younger than 18 years who initiated PPI use were matched on propensity score and age with those who did not initiate PPI use. Exposure: Initiation of PPI use. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox regression was adopted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for a first fracture of any type and 5 subtypes of fracture, with follow-up for up to 5 years. To address potential residual confounding, high-dimensional propensity score matching and a direct comparison with histamine-2 receptor antagonists were performed. Results: There were a total of 115 933 pairs of children included. During a mean (SD) of 2.2 (1.6) years of follow-up, 5354 and 4568 cases of any fracture occurred among those who initiated PPIs vs those who did not, respectively (20.2 vs 18.3 events per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 1.06-1.15]). Use of PPIs was associated with increased risk of upper-limb fracture (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.03-1.13]), lower-limb fracture (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.29]), and other fractures (HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.16-1.97]) but not head fracture (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.76-1.13]) or spine fracture (HR, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.95-1.81]). The HRs for fracture according to cumulative duration of PPI use were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for 30 days or less, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.09-1.20) for 31 to 364 days, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.13-1.58) for 365 days or more. The association was consistent in most sensitivity analyses, including high-dimensional propensity score matching (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.06-1.15]), although the analysis of PPI vs histamine-2 receptor antagonist did not reach statistical significance (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large pediatric cohort, PPI use was associated with a small but significant increased risk of any fracture. Risk of fracture should be taken into account when weighing the benefits and risks of PPI treatment in children.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term colorectal cancer incidence and mortality after colorectal polyp removal remains unclear. We aimed to assess colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with removal of different histological subtypes of polyps relative to the general population. METHODS: We did a matched cohort study through prospective record linkage in Sweden in patients aged at least 18 years with a first diagnosis of colorectal polyps in the nationwide gastrointestinal ESPRESSO histopathology cohort (1993-2016). For each polyp case, we identified up to five matched reference individuals from the Total Population Register on the basis of birth year, age, sex, calendar year of biopsy, and county of residence. We excluded patients and reference individuals with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer either before or within the first 6 months after diagnosis of the index polyp. Polyps were classified by morphology codes into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps, tubular adenomas, tubulovillous adenomas, and villous adenomas. Colorectal cancer cases were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry, and cause-of-death data were retrieved from the Cause of Death Register. We collected information about the use of endoscopic examination before and after the index biopsy from the Swedish National Patient Registry, and counted the number of endoscopies done before and after the index biopsies. We calculated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years, and computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model within each of the matched pairs. FINDINGS: 178 377 patients with colorectal polyps and 864 831 matched reference individuals from the general population were included in our study. The mean age of patients at polyp diagnosis was 58·6 (SD 13·9) years for hyperplastic polyps, 59·7 (14·2) years for sessile serrated polyps, 63·9 (12·9) years for tubular adenomas, 67·1 (12·1) years for tubulovillous adenomas, and 68·9 (11·8) years for villous adenomas. During a median of 6·6 years (IQR 3·0-11·6) of follow-up, we documented 4278 incident colorectal cancers and 1269 colorectal cancer-related deaths in patients with a polyp, and 14 350 incident colorectal cancers and 5242 colorectal cancer deaths in general reference individuals. The 10-year cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer was 1·6% (95% CI 1·5-1·7) for hyperplastic polyps, 2·5% (1·9-3·3) for sessile serrated polyps, 2·7% (2·5-2·9) for tubular adenomas, 5·1% (4·8-5·4) for tubulovillous adenomas, and 8·6% (7·4-10·1) for villous adenomas compared with 2·1% (2·0-2·1) in reference individuals. Compared with reference individuals, patients with any polyps had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, with multivariable HR of 1·11 (95% CI 1·02-1·22) for hyperplastic polyps, 1·77 (1·34-2·34) for sessile serrated polyps, 1·41 (1·30-1·52) for tubular adenomas, 2·56 (2·36-2·78) for tubulovillous adenomas, and 3·82 (3·07-4·76) for villous adenomas (p<0·05 for all polyp subtypes). There was a higher proportion of incident proximal colon cancer in patients with serrated (hyperplastic and sessile) polyps (52-57%) than in those with conventional (tubular, tubulovillous, and villous) adenomas (30-46%). For colorectal cancer mortality, a positive association was found for sessile serrated polyps (HR 1·74, 95% CI 1·08-2·79), tubulovillous adenomas (1·95, 1·69-2·24), and villous adenomas (3·45, 2·40-4·95), but not for hyperplastic polyps (0·90, 0·76-1·06) or tubular adenomas (0·97, 0·84-1·12). INTERPRETATION: In a largely screening-naive population, compared with individuals from the general population, patients with any polyps had a higher colorectal cancer incidence, and those with sessile serrated polyps, tubulovillous adenomas, and villous adenomas had a higher colorectal cancer mortality. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, American Cancer Society, American Gastroenterological Association, Union for International Cancer Control.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 382(11): 1018-1028, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More information is needed about the long-term effects of low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg) on incident hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related mortality, and gastrointestinal bleeding in persons with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS: Using nationwide Swedish registries, we identified all adults who received a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C from 2005 through 2015 and who did not have a history of aspirin use (50,275 patients). Patients who were starting to take low-dose aspirin (14,205 patients) were identified by their first filled prescriptions for 90 or more consecutive doses of aspirin. We constructed a propensity score and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance baseline characteristics between groups. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, we estimated the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related mortality, accounting for competing events. RESULTS: With a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, the estimated cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was 4.0% among aspirin users and 8.3% among nonusers of aspirin (difference, -4.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to -3.6; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.76). This inverse association appeared to be duration-dependent; as compared with short-term use (3 months to <1 year), the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06) for 1 to less than 3 years of use, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78) for 3 to less than 5 years of use, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.70) for 5 or more years of use. Ten-year liver-related mortality was 11.0% among aspirin users and 17.9% among nonusers (difference, -6.9 percentage points [95% CI, -8.1 to -5.7]; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81]). However, the 10-year risk of gastrointestinal bleeding did not differ significantly between users and nonusers of aspirin (7.8% and 6.9%, respectively; difference, 0.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.6 to 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide study of patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Sweden, use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a significantly lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and lower liver-related mortality than no use of aspirin, without a significantly higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at increased risk of death, but studies have rarely investigated the significance of histological severity or estimated relative risks compared with a general population. We examined mortality in a nationwide cohort of biopsy-proven ALD. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study in Sweden comparing 3453 individuals with an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for ALD and a liver biopsy from 1969 to 2017 with 16 535 matched general population individuals. Swedish national registers were used to ascertain overall and disease-specific mortality, starting follow-up at the latest of first ICD diagnosis or liver biopsy plus 3 months. Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders was used to estimate HRs in ALD and histopathological subgroups. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 58 years, 65% were men and 52% had cirrhosis at baseline. Five-year cumulative mortality was 40.9% in patients with ALD compared with 5.8% in reference individuals. The risk for overall mortality was significantly increased (adjusted HR (aHR)=4.70, 95% CI 4.35 to 5.08). The risk of liver-related death was particularly high (43% of all deaths, aHR=167.6, 95% CI 101.7 to 276.3). Mortality was significantly increased also in patients with ALD without cirrhosis and was highest in the first year after baseline but persisted after ≥10 years of follow-up (aHR=2.74, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.16). CONCLUSION: Individuals with biopsy-proven ALD have a near fivefold increased risk of death compared with the general population. Individuals with ALD without cirrhosis were also at increased risk of death, reaffirming the need to increase vigilance in the management of these individuals.

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(8): 789-800, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth retardation is well described in childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: To study if childhood-onset IBD is associated with reduced final adult height. METHODS: We identified 4201 individuals diagnosed with childhood-onset IBD 1990-2014 (Crohn's disease: n = 1640; ulcerative colitis: n = 2201 and IBD-unclassified = 360) in the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Patients with IBD attained a lower adult height compared to reference individuals (adjusted mean height difference [AMHD] -0.9 cm [95% CI -1.1 to -0.7]) and to their healthy siblings (AMHD -0.8 cm [-1.0 to -0.6]). Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were slightly shorter than patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; -1.3 cm vs -0.6 cm). Lower adult height was more often seen in patients with pre-pubertal disease onset (AMHD -1.6 cm [-2.0 to -1.2]), and in patients with a more severe disease course (AMHD -1.9 cm, [-2.4 to -1.4]). Some 5.0% of CD and 4.3% of UC patients were classified as growth retarded vs 2.5% of matched reference individuals (OR 2.42 [95% CI 1.85-3.17] and 1.74 [1.36-2.22] respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with childhood-onset IBD on average attain a slightly lower adult height than their healthy peers. Adult height was more reduced in patients with pre-pubertal onset of disease and in those with a more severe disease course.

7.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202343

RESUMO

AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognoses in children are rare. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the Medline and EMBASE databases between 1 January and 18 March 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognoses than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of early life antibiotic treatment on the risk of type 1 diabetes is debated. This study assessed this question, applying a register-based design in children up to age 10 years including a large sibling-control analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All singleton children (n = 797,318) born in Sweden between 1 July 2005 and 30 September 2013 were included and monitored to 31 December 2014. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for parental and perinatal characteristics, were applied, and stratified models were used to account for unmeasured confounders shared by siblings. RESULTS: Type 1 diabetes developed in 1,297 children during the follow-up (median 4.0 years [range 0-8.3]). Prescribed antibiotics in the 1st year of life (23.8%) was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.19 [95% CI 1.05-1.36]), with larger effect estimates among children delivered by cesarean section (P for interaction = 0.016). The association was driven by exposure to antibiotics primarily used for acute otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Further, we found an association of antibiotic prescriptions in pregnancy (22.5%) with type 1 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.00-1.32]). In general, sibling analysis supported these results, albeit often with statistically nonsignificant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Dispensed prescription of antibiotics, mainly for acute otitis media and respiratory tract infections, in the 1st year of life is associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes before age 10, most prominently in children delivered by cesarean section.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality concern is a frequent driver of care seeking in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Data on mortality in IBS are scarce, and population-based studies have been limited in size. We examined mortality in IBS. METHODS: A nationwide, matched, population-based cohort study was conducted in Sweden. We identified 45,524 patients undergoing a colorectal biopsy at any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments and with a diagnosis of IBS from 2002 to 2016 according to the National Patient Register, a nationwide registry of inpatient and outpatient specialty care. We compared the mortality risk between these individuals with IBS and age- and sex-matched reference individuals (n = 217,316) from the general population and siblings (n = 53,228). In separate analyses, we examined the role of mucosal appearance for mortality in IBS. Finally, we examined mortality in 41,427 patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death. RESULTS: During follow-up, there were 3,290 deaths in individuals with IBS (9.4/1,000 person-years) compared with 13,255 deaths in reference individuals (7.9/1,000 person-years), resulting in an HR of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.14). After adjustment for confounders, IBS was not linked to mortality (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.92-1.00). The risk estimates were neutral when patients with IBS were compared with their siblings. The underlying mucosal appearance on biopsy had only a marginal impact on mortality, and patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy were at no increased risk of death (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.99-1.06). DISCUSSION: IBS does not seem to confer an increased risk of death.

10.
Fertil Steril ; 113(3): 524-532, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess infant (<1 year) and childhood (1-18 years) mortality in singletons conceived through assisted reproductive techniques (ART) versus naturally conceived singletons. DESIGN: Nationwide prospective study. SETTING: Sweden. PATIENT(S): All singleton liveborn infants born from 1983 to 2012 in Sweden identified using the Medical Birth Register (N = 2,847,108), of whom 43,506 were conceived through ART treatments including in vitro fertilization with and without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES(S): Infant (<1 year) and childhood (1-18 years) mortality. RESULT(S): Data on ART treatment and covariates were retrieved from population-based registers using the unique personal identity number assigned to all permanent residents in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of association between ART treatments and death. The analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics, infertility, child sex, and birth cohort and were restricted to individuals with complete information on covariates for fully adjusted analysis. Compared with naturally conceived singletons, higher infant mortality risks were seen in infants conceived through ART (adjusted HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.19-1.77), especially after transfer of cryopreserved embryos (adjusted HR 2.30; 95% CI, 1.46-3.64). Early neonatal mortality risk (deaths during the first week) was increased in children born after transfer of blastocysts (HR 2.40; 95% CI, 1.05-5.48). No increased mortality risk was observed between the ages of 1 and 18 years. CONCLUSION(S): Singletons conceived through ART had an increased risk of infant mortality from birth up to 1 year of life, predominantly in the early neonatal period and in pregnancies after transfer of frozen and thawed embryos.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, available studies reflect older treatment and surveillance strategies, and most have assessed risks for incident CRC without taking surveillance and lead-time bias into account. Such biases can be accounted for by assessing CRC incidence by tumour stage and CRC mortality by tumour stage. We aimed to assess rates of incident CRC and CRC mortality among patients with Crohn's disease compared with the general population. METHODS: For this nationwide register-based cohort study, we used International Classification of Disease codes in national patient registers and pathology reports to identify incident cases of Crohn's disease. In Denmark we searched for incident cases between January, 1977, and December, 2011, and in Sweden between January, 1969, and December, 2017. For each patient with Crohn's disease, we identified up to ten reference individuals in national population registers and matched them by sex, age, calendar year, and place of residence. Matched reference individuals had to be alive and free of inflammatory bowel disease at the start of follow-up of index patients with Crohn's disease, and stopped contributing to reference person-years if they were diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Our main outcome was death from CRC (main or contributory cause of death) as captured in the cause-of-death registers. Our secondary outcome was incident CRC, as defined by the cancer registers. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CRC and CRC mortality, taking tumour stage into account. We used a series of Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs of the different competing outcomes (CRC diagnosis, CRC death, and other causes of death) and adjusted for tumour stage at CRC diagnosis. FINDINGS: During the 1969-2017 study period, we identified 47 035 patients with incident Crohn's disease (13 056 in Denmark and 33 979 in Sweden) and 463 187 matched reference individuals. During follow-up, 296 (0·47 per 1000 person-years) CRC deaths occurred among individuals with Crohn's disease compared with 1968 (0·31 per 1000 person-years) in reference individuals, corresponding to an overall adjusted HR of 1·74 (1·54-1·96). 499 (0·82 per 1000 person-years) cases of incident CRC were diagnosed in patients with Crohn's disease compared with 4084 (0·64 per 1000 person-years) cases in reference individuals, corresponding to an overall adjusted HR of 1·40 (95% CI 1·27-1·53). Patients with Crohn's disease who were diagnosed with CRC were at increased risk of CRC mortality compared with reference individuals also diagnosed with CRC (HR 1·42 [1·16-1·75] when adjusted for tumour stage), and tumour stage at CRC diagnosis did not differ between groups (p=0·27). Patients with Crohn's disease who had follow-up of 8 years or longer or who were diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and hence were potentially eligible for CRC surveillance had an increased overall risk of CRC death (HR 1·40 [1·16-1·68]) or CRC diagnosis (HR 1·12 [0·98-1·28]). However, in patients potentially eligible for CRC surveillance we only found significantly increased risks in patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease before the age of 40 years, patients with disease activity in the colon only, or patients with PSC. INTERPRETATION: Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of CRC diagnosis and CRC death. Patients with Crohn's disease who have CRC have a higher mortality than patients without Crohn's disease who are also diagnosed with CRC. CRC surveillance should likely be focused on patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease before the age of 40 years, on patients with colon inflammation, and on those who have PSC. FUNDING: Swedish Medical Society, Karolinska Institutet, Regional Agreement on Medical Training and Clinical Research between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet (ALF), Forte Foundation, Swedish Cancer Foundation, and Independent Research Fund Denmark.

12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis that defines the worldwide incidence of celiac disease (CD) and examines temporal trends. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for population-based studies reporting the incidence of CD in the overall population, children, or adults. No limits were placed on year or language of publication. Studies solely examining at-risk populations (e.g., patients with type 1 diabetes) were excluded. Random-effects models were performed to meta-analyze sex- and age-specific incidence in the 21st century. Temporal trend analyses assessed the average annual percent change in CD incidence over time. RESULTS: Of 11,189 citations, 86 eligible studies were identified for inclusion, of which 50 were deemed suitable for analyses. In the 21st century, the pooled female incidence of CD was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.7, 21.1) (I = 99.5%) per 100,000 person-years, compared with 7.8 (95% CI: 6.3, 9.2) (I = 98.6%) in males. Child-specific incidence was 21.3 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 15.9, 26.7) (I = 99.7%) compared with 12.9 (95% CI: 7.6, 18.2) (I = 99.9%) in adults. Pooling average annual percent changes showed the incidence of CD to be increasing by 7.5% (95% CI: 5.8, 9.3) (I = 79.6%) per year over the past several decades. DISCUSSION: Incidence of CD is highest in females and children. Overall, the incidence has been significantly rising in the latter half of the 20th century and into the 21st century throughout the Western world. Population-based studies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of the global incidence of CD.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal conditions may be associated with future allergic disease; however, data are conflicting and incomplete for childhood allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy outcome (cesarean delivery, preterm birth, low birthweight) and offspring AR as defined by national registers. METHODS: Nationwide longitudinal cohort study using prospectively recorded register data from 1 059 600 singleton livebirths born in Sweden in 2001-2012. Cox regression adjusted for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index, and asthma/pulmonary disease) estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for AR during childhood. RESULTS: During the study period 2001-2013, 22 386 (2.11%) children were diagnosed with AR. AR was more common in infants born through cesarean delivery (2.34%) than in those born vaginally (2.10%) (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08-1.16). This was equivalent to one extra case of AR in 383 children followed up in our study. AR was also associated with moderately preterm birth (≥32-36 weeks of gestation: HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.20), large for gestational age (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10), and low (<7) 5-minute Apgar score (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.30). Similar risk estimates were obtained when we restricted the outcome to ≥2 hospital-based records of AR. No association was observed between very preterm birth, post-term birth, low birthweight, or small for gestational age and AR. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates an association between pregnancy outcomes and childhood AR, although observed effect sizes were generally modest.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microscopic colitis shares pathogenetic mechanisms with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We studied the association between microscopic colitis and risk of incident IBD using data from a nationwide cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all adults who received a diagnosis of microscopic colitis from 1990 through 2017 in Sweden and risk of incident IBD. Cases of microscopic colitis (n= 13,957) were identified through Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, which included gastrointestinal pathology reports from all of Sweden's 28 centers. Individuals with microscopic colitis were matched to 5 general population controls (n = 66,820) and to unaffected siblings (n =13,943). Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we identified 323 incident cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and 108 incident cases of Crohn's disease (CD) in patients with microscopic colitis compared with 94 UC and 42 CD cases in population comparators. Mean times from diagnosis of microscopic colitis to diagnosis of CD was 3.3 ± 3.2 years and to diagnosis of UC was 3.2 ± 3.5 years. In multivariable models, microscopic colitis was associated with an aHR of 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) for CD, 17.3 (95% CI 13.7-21.8) for UC, and 16.8 (95% CI 13.9-20.3) for IBD. The 10-year absolute excess risks of CD and UC were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-2.9) percentage points, respectively. In sensitivity analyses, comparing patients with microscopic colitis with their unaffected siblings, the aHRs of CD and UC were 5.4 (95% CI 3.2-9.2) and 9.4 (95% CI 6.4-13.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study in Sweden, we found a significant increase in risk of incident IBD among patients with microscopic colitis. Future studies should focus on potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations.

15.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 123-131, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, available studies reflect older treatment and surveillance paradigms, and most have assessed risks for incident CRC without taking surveillance and lead-time bias into account, such as by assessing CRC incidence by tumour stage, or stage-adjusted mortality from CRC. We aimed to compare both overall and country-specific risks of CRC mortality and incident CRC among patients with UC. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study of 96 447 patients with UC in Denmark (n=32 919) and Sweden (n=63 528), patients were followed up for CRC incidence and CRC mortality between Jan 1, 1969, and Dec 31, 2017, and compared with matched reference individuals from the general population (n=949 207). Patients with UC were selected from national registers and included in the analysis if they had two or more records with a relevant International Classification of Disease in the patient register (in the country in question) or one such record plus a colorectal biopsy report with a morphology code suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease. For every patient with UC, we selected matched reference individuals from the total population registers of Denmark and Sweden, who were matched for sex, age, birth year, and place of residence. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CRC, and for CRC mortality, taking tumour stage into account. FINDINGS: During follow-up, we observed 1336 incident CRCs in the UC cohort (1·29 per 1000 person-years) and 9544 incident CRCs in reference individuals (0·82 per 1000 person-years; HR 1·66, 95% CI 1·57-1·76). In the UC cohort, 639 patients died from CRC (0·55 per 1000 person-years), compared with 4451 reference individuals (0·38 per 1000 person-years; HR 1·59, 95% CI 1·46-1·72) during the same time period. The CRC stage distribution in people with UC was less advanced (p<0·0001) than in matched reference individuals, but taking tumour stage into account, patients with UC and CRC remained at increased risk of CRC death (HR 1·54, 95% CI 1·33-1·78). The excess risks declined over calendar periods: during the last 5 years of follow-up (2013-17, Sweden only), the HR for incident CRC in people with UC was 1·38 (95% CI 1·20-1·60, or one additional case per 1058 patients with UC per 5 years) and the HR for death from CRC was 1·25 (95% CI 1·03-1·51, or one additional case per 3041 patients with UC per 5 years). INTERPRETATION: Compared with those without UC, individuals with UC are at increased risk of developing CRC, are diagnosed with less advanced CRC, and are at increased risk of dying from CRC, although these excess risks have declined substantially over time. There still seems to be room for improvement in international surveillance guidelines. FUNDING: The Swedish Medical Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm County Council, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, Independent Research Fund Denmark, Forte Foundation, Swedish Cancer Foundation.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(2): 190-194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transition from pediatric to adult care for individuals with chronic conditions is important to prevent gaps in care, though this has not been well-studied in celiac disease (CD). The aim of this study was to discern rates and predictors of successful transition of care for young adults with childhood-diagnosed CD. METHODS: An anonymous 21-question online survey was sent to individuals on our center's email contact list seeking responses from those ages 18 to 25 years diagnosed with CD before age 18 years. Information collected included method of diagnosis, demographics, CD-related care, reasons for not seeking care, and symptoms. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 98), 70% women, had a median age of 21 years (IQR 19--23 years). The majority were full or part-time students (67%; 95% CI 59%-77%). Only 31% of respondents had successfully transitioned to an adult CD provider. Some 37% (95% CI 29%-48%) were not receiving any CD medical care. An older age at diagnosis was associated with successful transition to adult gastroenterology (P = 0.002) as well as with greater symptom scores (P = 0.002). Receiving a referral for ongoing adult CD care predicted successful transition to an adult provider (odds ratio [OR] 3.92, 95% CI 1.58-9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Transition of care for young adults with CD is inconsistent, particularly among asymptomatic patients. Receipt of a referral for an adult provider significantly improves follow-up rates.

17.
Gut ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between Mediterranean diet and risk of later-onset Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83 147 participants (age range: 45-79 years) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men and Swedish Mammography Cohort. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate an adherence score to a modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) at baseline in 1997. Incident diagnoses of CD and UC were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to calculate HRs and 95% CI. RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we confirmed 164 incident cases of CD and 395 incident cases of UC with an average follow-up of 17 years. Higher mMED score was associated with a lower risk of CD (Ptrend=0.03) but not UC (Ptrend=0.61). Compared with participants in the lowest category of mMED score (0-2), there was a statistically significant lower risk of CD (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.80) but not UC (HR=1.08, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.58). These associations were not modified by age, sex, education level, body mass index or smoking (all Pinteraction >0.30). The prevalence of poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (mMED score=0-2) was 27% in our cohorts, conferring a population attributable risk of 12% for later-onset CD. CONCLUSION: In two prospective studies, greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a significantly lower risk of later-onset CD.

19.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(1): 133-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691001

RESUMO

Individuals with celiac disease (CD) are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The aim of this study was to explore whether the complement response to Streptococcus pneumoniae differed according to CD status, and could serve as an explanation for the excess risk of IPD in CD. Twenty-two children with CD and 18 controls, born 1999-2008, were included at Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden. The degree of complement activation was evaluated by comparing levels of activation products C3a and sC5b-9 in plasma incubated for 30 min with Streptococcus pneumoniae and in non-incubated plasma. Complement analyses were performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pneumococcal stimulation caused a statistically significant increase in C3a as well as sC5b-9 in both children with CD and controls but there was no difference in response between the groups. After incubation, C3a increased on average 4.6 times and sC5b-9 22 times in both the CD and the control group (p = 0.497 and p = 0.724 respectively).Conclusion: Complement response to Streptococcus pneumoniae seems to be similar in children with and without CD and is thus unlikely to contribute to the increased susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease in CD.What is Known:• An excess risk of pneumococcal infections has been demonstrated in individuals with celiac disease.• Infectious complications can depend on hyposplenism but alternative mechanisms are sparsely examined.What is New:• Complement activation in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae was examined in children with and without celiac disease but no differences could be demonstrated.

20.
Gut ; 69(3): 453-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine all-cause and cause-specific mortality in adult-onset and elderly-onset IBD and to describe time trends in mortality over the past 50 years. DESIGN: Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study 1964-2014, comparing mortality in 82 718 incident IBD cases (inpatient and non-primary outpatient care) with 10 times as many matched general population reference individuals (n=801 180) using multivariable Cox regression to estimate HRs. Among patients with IBD, the number of participants with elderly-onset (≥60 years) IBD was 17 873. RESULTS: During 984 330 person-years of follow-up, 15 698/82 718 (19%) of all patients with IBD died (15.9/1000 person-years) compared with 121 095/801 180 (15.1%) of reference individuals, corresponding to an HR of 1.5 for IBD (95% CI=1.5 to 1.5 (HR=1.5; 95% CI=1.5 to 1.5 in elderly-onset IBD)) or one extra death each year per 263 patients. Mortality was increased specifically for UC (HR=1.4; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.5), Crohn's disease (HR=1.6; 95% CI=1.6 to 1.7) and IBD-unclasssified (HR=1.6; 95% CI=1.5 to 1.8). IBD was linked to increased rates of multiple causes of death, including cardiovascular disease (HR=1.3; 1.3 to 1.3), malignancy (HR=1.4; 1.4 to 1.5) and digestive disease (HR=5.2; 95% CI=4.9 to 5.5). Relative mortality during the first 5 years of follow-up decreased significantly over time. Incident cases of 2002-2014 had 2.3 years shorter mean estimated life span than matched comparators. CONCLUSIONS: Adult-onset and elderly-onset patients with UC, Crohn's disease and IBD-unclassified were all at increased risk of death. The increased mortality remained also after the introduction of biological therapies but has decreased over time.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA