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1.
Obes Facts ; 14(5): 510-519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cortisol is involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization. In morbid obesity (MO), the association of cortisol excretion with metabolic parameters is not well-characterized. In our study, we evaluated cortisol excretion in nondiabetic subjects with MO and its effect on glucose metabolism. METHODS: We included 1,249 nondiabetic patients with MO (79.8% females, mean BMI 44.9 ± 6.5 kg/m2, mean age 38 ± 11 years). Anthropometric data and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed, and an oral glucose tolerance test for calculation of insulin resistance was performed. Cortisol excretion was assessed on 2 consecutive days (24 h urine specimens). RESULTS: Regarding cortisol excretion, patients were divided into 3 tertiles (urinary cortisol ≤51.6, >51.6 and <117.6, and ≥117.6 µg/24 h, respectively). Patients in the highest tertile were younger (p = 0.003), more obese (BMI: p = 0.040), had lower diastolic blood pressure ([DBP]; p = 0.012), lower total (p = 0.032) and LDL cholesterol (p = 0.021), fasting (p = 0.049) and 2-h glycemia (p = 0.028), 2-h insulinemia (p = 0.020), and HbA1c (p < 0.001), and a higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p < 0.001). The glucose (p < 0.001) and insulin (p = 0.011) area under the curve (AUC) were also lower. Urinary cortisol excretion adjusted for age, sex, and eGFR was positively correlated with body weight (BW, beta = 0.076, p = 0.004) and overall glucose tolerance (oral disposition index, beta = 0.090, p = 0.011), and negatively with HbA1c (beta = -0.179, p < 0.001), 2-h glycemia (beta = -0.075, p = 0.032), AUC glucose (beta = -0.103, p = 0.002), and DBP (beta = -0.139, p < 0.001). HbA1c, BW, and DBP remained significant after multivariable analysis. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Despite being more obese, patients with higher cortisol excretion have a more favorable metabolic profile. These results deserve further attention regarding the respective mechanisms.

2.
Lancet ; 398(10300): 583-598, 2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and GLP-1 receptor agonist under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide versus titrated insulin degludec in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel-group, multicentre (122 sites), multinational (13 countries), phase 3 study, eligible participants (aged ≥18 years) had a baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7·0-10·5%, body-mass index of at least 25 kg/m2, stable weight, and were insulin-naive and treated with metformin alone or in combination with an SGLT2 inhibitor for at least 3 months before screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), using an interactive web-response system, to once-weekly subcutaneous injection of tirzepatide (5, 10, or 15 mg) or once-daily subcutaneous injection of titrated insulin degludec, and were stratified by country, HbA1c, and concomitant use of oral antihyperglycaemic medications. Tirzepatide was initially given at 2·5 mg and the dose was escalated by 2·5 mg every 4 weeks until the assigned dose was reached. Insulin degludec was initially given at 10 U per day and was titrated once weekly to a fasting self-monitored blood glucose of less than 5·0 mmol/L (<90 mg/dL), following a treat-to-target algorithm, for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was non-inferiority of tirzepatide 10 mg or 15 mg, or both, versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52. Key secondary efficacy endpoints were non-inferiority of tirzepatide 5 mg versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52, superiority of all doses of tirzepatide versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c and bodyweight, and the proportion of participants achieving HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52. We used a boundary of 0·3% to establish non-inferiority in HbA1c difference between treatments. Efficacy and safety analyses were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all participants who received at least one dose of study drug). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03882970, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and Nov 15, 2019, we assessed 1947 participants for eligibility, 1444 of whom were randomly assigned to treatment. The modified intention-to-treat population was 1437 participants from the tirzepatide 5 mg (n=358), tirzepatide 10 mg (n=360), tirzepatide 15 mg (n=359), and insulin degludec (n=360) groups. From a mean baseline HbA1c of 8·17% (SD 0·91), the reductions in HbA1c at week 52 were 1·93% (SE 0·05) for tirzepatide 5 mg, 2·20% (0·05) for tirzepatide 10 mg, and 2·37% (0·05) for tirzepatide 15 mg, and 1·34% (0·05) for insulin degludec. The non-inferiority margin of 0·3% was met. The estimated treatment difference (ETD) versus insulin degludec ranged from -0·59% to -1·04% for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The proportion of participants achieving a HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52 was greater (p<0·0001) in all three tirzepatide groups (82%-93%) versus insulin degludec (61%). At week 52, from a baseline of 94·3 kg (SD 20·1), all three tirzepatide doses decreased bodyweight (-7·5 kg to -12·9 kg), whereas insulin degludec increased bodyweight by 2·3 kg. The ETD versus insulin degludec ranged from -9·8 kg to -15·2 kg for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The most common adverse events in tirzepatide-treated participants were mild to moderate gastrointestinal events that decreased over time. A higher incidence of nausea (12-24%), diarrhoea (15-17%), decreased appetite (6-12%), and vomiting (6-10%) was reported in participants treated with tirzepatide than in those treated with insulin degludec (2%, 4%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). Hypoglycaemia (<54 mg/dL or severe) was reported in five (1%), four (1%), and eight (2%) participants on tirzepatide 5, 10, and 15 mg, respectively, versus 26 (7%) on insulin degludec. Treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event was more common in the tirzepatide groups than in the insulin degludec group. Five participants died during the study; none of the deaths were considered by the investigators to be related to the study treatment. INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide (5, 10, and 15 mg) was superior to titrated insulin degludec, with greater reductions in HbA1c and bodyweight at week 52 and a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. Tirzepatide showed a similar safety profile to that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Obes Facts ; 14(4): 397-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stunkard's figure rating scale is a widely used tool to assess weight status and, more recently, body image perception in people with obesity. However, large population-based studies on Europeans linking this scale's silhouettes with measured BMI values are lacking. Therefore, we used measured weight and height data from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) reference cohort to assign a mean BMI to each of the 9 Stunkard Scale silhouettes and to define silhouette cutoff values for categorizing people with obesity and overweight. METHODS: A total of 1,128 participants from the SOS reference cohort were included (54% females, BMI = 25.2 [ranging from 17.6 to 45.4] ±3.8 kg/m2, and age = 50 [ranging from 36 to 62] ±7 years [means ± standard deviation]). Patients estimated their own body size by choosing a silhouette of the Stunkard Scale. A mean BMI, based on measured weight and height, was assigned to each male and female silhouette of the Stunkard Scale. Measured BMI values were compared with BMI values calculated by simple linear regression analysis. ROC analysis was used to test accuracy of discrimination and the Youden index to assess optimal cutoff. RESULTS: Figure ratings and BMI were strongly correlated in men, r (518) = 0.76, p < 0.001 and women, r (606) = 0.80, p < 0.001. Silhouette selection significantly predicted BMI values in men, ß = 16.03, t (518) = 25.30, p < 0.001, and women, ß = 12.06, t (606) = 32.98, p < 0.001, and explained a significant proportion of variance in BMI values in men, R2 = 0.55, F (1, 518) = 639.98, p < 0.001, and women, R2 = 0.64, F (1, 606) = 1,087.88, p < 0.001. ROC curve analyses resulted in an optimal cutoff value of 6 for identifying people with obesity and 5 for overweight. CONCLUSION: Stunkard's figure rating scale can be used with confidence to assess weight status. Silhouette selection accurately classifies subjects as overweight or obese.

4.
Obes Facts ; 14(2): 197-204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794530

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While vitamin deficiency after bariatric surgery has been repeatedly described, few studies have focused on adequate micronutrient status. In this study, we examine the prevalence of vitamin and micronutrient deficiency for the first 3 years after surgery. METHODS: Out of 1,216 patients undergoing surgery, 485 who underwent postoperative follow-up in an outpatient clinic between 2010 and 2019 were included in this evaluation (76.9% women, mean age 42 ± 12 years, mean BMI: year 1, 33.9 ± 19.2; year 2, 29.7 ± 8.7; year 3, 26.2 ± 4.0). Weight and cardiovascular risk factors as well as ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, 25-OH-vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, copper, and selenium were evaluated. Deficits were defined as follows: ferritin <15 µg/L, vitamin B12 <197 pg/mL, folic acid <4.4 ng/mL, 25-OH-vitamin D <75 nmol/L, vitamin A <1.05 µmol/L, vitamin E <12 µmol/L, zinc <0.54 mg/L, copper <0.81 mg/L, and selenium <50 µg/L. All patients underwent dietary counselling and substitution of the respective deficits as appropriate. RESULTS: One year after bariatric surgery, 485 patients completed follow-up. This number decreased to 114 patients in year 2, and 80 patients in year 3. Overall, 42.7% (n = 207) underwent sleeve gastrectomy, 43.7% (n = 211) Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass, and 13.9% (n = 67) gastric banding. The following deficits were found (year 1/2/3): ferritin, 21.6/35.0/32.5%; vitamin B12, 14.3/1.8/6.3%; folic acid, 29.7/21.6/15.3%; 25-OH-vitamin D, 70.8/67.0/57.4%; vitamin A, 13.2/8.9/12.8%; vitamin E, 0%; zinc, 1.7/0/1.5%; copper, 10.4/12.2/11.9%; selenium, 11.1/4.3/0%. CONCLUSION: As seen in other studies, the follow-up frequency decreased over the years. Despite intensive substitution, the extent of some deficiencies increased or did not improve. These results suggest reinforcing measures to motivate patients for regular follow-up visits, considering closer monitoring schedules, and improving supplementation strategies.

5.
Obes Surg ; 31(6): 2545-2550, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is expressed and secreted by adipocytes. DPP4 induces insulin resistance independently of its effect on glucagon-like peptide 1, thus it is conceivable that DPP4 directly contributes to metabolic dysfunction in patients with morbid obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on DPP4 activity, and whether these changes are associated with improvements in markers of metabolic dysfunction and fatty liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 68 non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Serum DPP4 activity was measured using a fluorogenic substrate before and after surgery. RESULTS: Results: After a median follow-up period of 12 (IQR 11-17) months, median serum DPP4 activity decreased from 230 (IQR: 194-273) to 193 (164-252) pmol/min (p=0.012). The decrease in DPP4 activity was significantly correlated with decreases in BMI, improved cholesterol levels, reduced hepatic injury markers as well as improved post-prandial insulin sensitivity. After multivariable adjustment, ΔDPP4 activity remained significantly associated with Δcholesterol (beta=0.341, p=0.025), ΔLDL cholesterol (beta=0.350, p=0.019), Δgamma-glutamyltransferase (beta=0.323, p=0.040) and ΔMatsuda index (beta=-0.386, p=0.045). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that weight loss induced by bariatric surgery results in decreased circulating DPP4 activity beyond the initial phase of weight loss. The associations between decreased DPP4 activity and improved cholesterol levels as well as hepatic injury markers point towards pleiotropic effects of DPP4 beyond glucose metabolism which warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Obesidade Mórbida , Perda de Peso , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18405, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110226

RESUMO

The changes in depressive symptomatology during the first year following one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) were evaluated and its association with uric acid (sUA). Fifty patients were included in this analysis. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for measuring depressive symptomatology, blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were assessed before (T0), at 6 (T6), and 12 months (T12) after surgery. There was a significant reduction in BDI total score at T6 (- 5.6 (95% CI - 2.1, - 9.1) points; p = 0.001) and at T12 (- 4.3 (95% CI - 0.9, - 7.9) points; p = 0.011). BMI loss was unrelated to depressive symptomatology. Patients with moderate to severe depressive symptomatology presented lower sUA levels than patients with none or minimal to mild (p = 0.028). ROC analysis revealed that sUA levels below 5.0 at T6 and 4.5 mg/dl at T12 had a prognostic accuracy for depression severity. Furthermore, delta sUA was significantly associated with delta BMI (ß = 0.473; p = 0.012) and delta waist circumference (ß = 0.531; p = 0.003). These findings support an improvement in depressive symptomatology in the first year postoperatively, however, without relation to BMI loss. Patients with moderate to severe depressive symptomatology presented with lower sUA levels over time. Therefore, sUA could be useful to predict moderate to severe depressive symptomatology in patients undergoing OAGB in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica , Depressão/patologia , Derivação Gástrica , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/sangue , Derivação Gástrica/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2379-2388, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric patients often suffer from vitamin D (VD) deficiency, and both, morbid obesity and VD deficiency, are related to an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, we assessed the change of known CVD risk factors and its associations during the first 12 months following one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this secondary analysis, CVD risk factors, medical history and anthropometric data were assessed in fifty VD deficient (25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/l) patients, recruited for a randomized controlled trial of VD supplementation. Based on previous results regarding bone-mass loss and the association between VD and CVD risk, the study population was divided into patients with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/l (adequate VD group; AVD) and into those <50 nmol/l (inadequate VD group; IVD) at 6 and 12 months (T6/12) postoperatively. In the whole cohort, substantial remission rates for hypertension (38%), diabetes (30%), and dyslipidaemia (41%) and a significant reduction in CVD risk factors were observed at T12. Changes of insulin resistance markers were associated with changes of total body fat mass (TBF%), 25(OH)D, and ferritin. Moreover, significant differences in insulin resistance markers between AVD and IVD became evident at T12. CONCLUSION: These findings show that OAGB leads to a significant reduction in CVD risk factors and amelioration of insulin resistance markers, which might be connected to reduced TBF%, change in 25(OH)D and ferritin levels, as an indicator for subclinical inflammation, and an adequate VD status. REGISTERED AT CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: (Identifier: NCT02092376) and EudraCT (Identifier: 2013-003546-16).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Áustria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
8.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443510

RESUMO

Patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are regarded to have reduced serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations. We aimed to assess the changes in serum Mg concentrations at 12-month follow-up in patients, with and without T2DM, who underwent one anastomosis gastric bypass surgery. Overall, 50 patients (80% female, age 42.2 (12.5) years) with morbid obesity (mean baseline BMI 43.8 (4.3) kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Half of the included patients had T2DM diagnosed at baseline, and these patients showed lower serum Mg concentration (0.78 (0.07)) vs. 0.83 (0.05) mmol/L; p = 0.006), higher blood glucose levels (129.9 (41.3) vs. 87.6 (8.1) mg/dL; p < 0.001) as well as HbA1c concentrations (6.7 (1.4) vs. 5.3 (0.5)%; p < 0.001). During follow-up, BMI and glucose levels showed a decrease; however, serum Mg levels remained stable. At baseline 42% of patients were found to be Mg deficient, which was reduced to 33% at six months and to 30% at 12 months follow-up. Moreover, patients with T2DM had an odds ratio of 9.5 (95% CI = 3.0-29.7; p < 0.001) for magnesium deficiency when compared to patients without T2DM. Further research into the role of Mg and its role in T2DM and other obesity-related comorbidities are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Derivação Gástrica , Deficiência de Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência de Magnésio/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Obes Surg ; 29(11): 3581-3588, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with morbid obesity are at an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, which are not only linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, we evaluated (a) the prevalence of albuminuria in non-diabetic and diabetic morbidly obese patients and (b) the effect of weight loss following bariatric surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 1307 patients (77% women, mean age 40 ± 12 years, BMI 45.6 ± 6.6 kg/m2) in a cross-sectional study. A subgroup (n = 318) was followed up for 2 years after bariatric surgery. Weight, cardiovascular risk markers and a 75-g glucose tolerance test were determined. Albuminuria was assessed by collecting 24-h urine on three consecutive days. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.0% (n = 209), of macroalbuminuria 3.1% (n = 41). The chi-square for the association of albuminuria and diabetes was 31.937 (p < 0.001). Of all patients with albuminuria, 42.0% exhibited normal glucose tolerance. In a multivariate regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.236; p < 0.001), log fasting insulin (beta = 0.309; p < 0.001) and log 2-h postprandial insulin (beta = - 0.173; p = 0.033) were predictive risk factors for albuminuria. Longitudinally, albumin excretion decreased significantly from 11.1 (6.4, 18.4 mg/24 h) to 7.8 mg/24 h (4.9, 13.0 mg/24 h; p < 0.001). In the group with albuminuria preoperatively, albumin excretion decreased from 65.7 (38.2, 147.1 mg/24 h) to 13.5 mg/24 h (8.4, 36.8 mg/24 h; p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex and baseline albuminuria, patients with lower creatinine clearance showed a smaller decrease of albuminuria (beta = 0.117; p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: A substantial portion of patients with morbid obesity exhibits microalbuminuria, nearly half of those present with normal glucose tolerance. After weight loss, we found a significant decrease of albuminuria, potentially indicating or even contributing to the known reduction of cardiovascular mortality after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Obes Facts ; 12(4): 397-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The frequency of postprandial hypoglycaemia after different operative procedures of bariatric surgery (BS) is unknown, although this complication is potentially dangerous. Predictors and severity of hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric banding were investigated in a large prospective study. METHODS: This study was performed at an excellence centre for BS at a tertiary care institution. Data of 333 patients (mean BMI: 44.9 ± 9.6 kg/m2; mean age: 40 ± 10 years; 80.7% women) were analysed in a prospective study with a 2-year observation period after BS. All patients underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements of blood glucose (BG) and insulin. For the purpose of this study, hypoglycaemia was defined as a post-challenge BG <2.8 mmol/L during the OGTT. RESULTS: 72 (25.6%) of 281 patients showed post-challenge hypoglycaemia after surgery. Hypoglycaemia was different after various procedures: 32.6% of patients after RYGB, 22.6% after sleeve gastrectomy, but only 2.3% after gastric banding had hypoglycaemia. In the whole group, patients with hypoglycaemia had lost more weight (p = 0.013), had a slightly greater decrease in BMI (p = 0.037), a greater change in 2-hour post-challenge BG (p = 0.001), and a smaller change in 1-hour post-challenge insulin (p = 0.004) compared to patients without hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSION: This prospective study shows a higher prevalence of severe hypoglycaemia (25.6%) after BS than anticipated from retrospective registers. A systematic evaluation of glucose and insulin levels by OGTT 2 years post-surgery may help to identify patients at increased risk for symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycaemia.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 27-38, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980148

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia significantly contributes to complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. While lifestyle interventions remain cornerstones of disease prevention and treatment, most patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control. The definition of individual targets regarding optimal therapeutic efficacy and safety as well as cardiovascular effects is of great importance. In this guideline we present the most current evidence-based best clinical practice data for healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estilo de Vida
14.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 71-76, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980154

RESUMO

For several years obesity and type 2 diabetes have been increasingly summarized under the name "diabesity". This is due to the fact that in most cases obesity precedes diabetes and is the most important risk factor for the worldwide increase of type 2 diabetes. The body mass index (BMI) is a very crude measure of body fatness in individuals. Even normal weight persons can have too much body fat in cases of a lack of muscle mass (sarcopenia), which is why additional measurements of waist circumference and body fatness, e. g. bioimpedance analysis (BIA), are recommended. Lifestyle management including nutrition modification and increase in physical activity are important measures for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes, body weight is increasingly used as a secondary target parameter. The choice of anti-diabetic treatment and also concomitant treatment is increasingly influenced by body weight. The significance of anti-obesity medications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes will have to be clarified by future studies with body weight as the primary endpoint. Bariatric surgery is at present indicated with a BMI >35 kg/m2 with concomitant risk factors, such as diabetes and can lead at least to partial diabetes remission but has to be incorporated into an appropriate lifelong care concept.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 229-235, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980158

RESUMO

The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context sociocultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.The fasting month Ramadan is widely practiced by the Muslim population worldwide. Ensuring the optimal care of the many people with diabetes who fast during Ramadan is crucial. The IDF-DAR Practical Guidelines (International Diabetes Federation - Diabetes and Ramadan International Alliance) provide healthcare professionals with relevant background information and practical recommendations to enable them to help patients with diabetes participate in fasting during Ramadan while minimizing the risk of complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Emigração e Imigração , Jejum , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Religião , Áustria/etnologia , Cultura , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Islamismo , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 110-114, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980161

RESUMO

Diabetes education and self-management play a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and subsequent treatment modification as well as the ability of patients to integrate diabetes into their daily life and to appropriately adapt it to their life style situation. Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all persons with the disease. In order to be able to provide a structured and validated education program, adequate personnel as well as space, organizational and financial prerequisites are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that a structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome as measured by parameters, such as blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes into everyday life, stress physical activity besides healthy eating as important components of life style therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility. Specific situations (e. g. impaired hypoglycemia awareness, illness, travel) and technical innovations, such as glucose sensor systems and insulin pumps require additional educational measures by information exchange in small groups supported by adequate electronic tools (diabetes apps and diabetes web portals).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Autocuidado
17.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 212-217, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980169

RESUMO

This position statement reflects the opinion of the Austrian Diabetes Association concerning the perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus based on the available scientific evidence. The paper covers necessary preoperative examinations from an internal/diabetological point of view as well as the perioperative metabolic control by means of oral antidiabetics and/or insulin therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Áustria , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 54-60, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980170

RESUMO

Evidence demonstrates that medical diabetes treatment has to be accompanied by lifestyle modifications. Structured nutrition interventions and increased physical activity will help patients to normalise, respectively maintain their body weight.The main target of a medical nutrition therapy aims at achieving normal or nearly normal blood glucose levels, prevention of delay of diabetes associated complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Terapia Nutricional , Peso Corporal , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(5): 356-367, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semaglutide is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue for type 2 diabetes. Few clinical trials have reported on the concomitant use of GLP-1 receptor agonists with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of semaglutide when added to SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The SUSTAIN 9 double-blind, parallel-group trial was done at 61 centres in six countries (Austria, Canada, Japan, Norway, Russia, and the USA). Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c 7·0-10·0% (53-86 mmol/mol), despite at least 90 days of treatment with an SGLT-2 inhibitor, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous semaglutide 1·0 mg or volume-matched placebo once weekly for 30 weeks, after a dose-escalation schedule of 4 weeks of 0·25 mg semaglutide or placebo and 4 weeks of 0·5 mg semaglutide or placebo. Existing antidiabetic medications, including SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment, were continued for the duration of the trial. Rescue medication, defined as intensification of background antidiabetic treatment or the initiation of new glucose-lowering medications, could be given to patients meeting specific criteria at the discretion of the investigator. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline at week 30, assessed in the full analysis set (all patients randomly allocated to treatment) using on-treatment data collected before rescue medication was started. The confirmatory secondary outcome was change in bodyweight from baseline to week 30. Safety was also assessed in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of treatment). The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03086330). FINDINGS: Between March 15, and Dec 4, 2017, 302 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive semaglutide 1·0 mg or placebo (full analysis set), of whom 301 received at least one dose of treatment (safety analysis set). One patient was assigned to semaglutide but was not treated (reason unknown). 294 (97·4%) patients completed the trial and 267 (88·4%) completed treatment. Baseline characteristics were generally comparable between groups. In addition to randomised medication and SGLT-2 inhibitor, 216 (71·5%) patients were taking metformin and 39 (12·9%) were taking sulphonylurea. Patients given semaglutide had greater reductions in HbA1c (estimated treatment difference -1·42% [95% CI -1·61 to -1·24]; -15·55 mmol/mol [-17·54 to -13·56]) and bodyweight (-3·81 kg [-4·70 to -2·93]) versus those randomised to placebo (both p<0·0001). 356 adverse events were reported by 104 (69·3%) patients in the semaglutide group, and 247 adverse events were reported by 91 (60·3%) patients in the placebo group. Gastrointestinal adverse events were most common and were reported in 56 (37·3%) patients in the semaglutide group and 20 (13·2%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events occurred in seven (4·7%) patients in the semaglutide group and six (4·0%) in the placebo group. Severe or blood glucose-confirmed hypoglycaemic events were reported in four patients on semaglutide (2·7%). 16 patients stopped treatment early because of an adverse event, 13 of whom were in the semaglutide group. There were no deaths during the trial. INTERPRETATION: Adding semaglutide to SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy significantly improves glycaemic control and reduces bodyweight in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes, and is generally well tolerated. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(4): 844-853, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456887

RESUMO

AIMS: Optimal diabetes care requires clear understanding of the incidence of hypoglycaemia in real-world clinical practice. Current data on hypoglycaemia are generally limited to those reported from randomised controlled clinical trials. The Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study, a non-interventional real-world study of hypoglycaemia, assessed hypoglycaemia in 27 585 individuals across 24 countries. The present study compared the incidence of hypoglycaemia from the HAT study with other similarly designed, large, real-world studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of PubMed (1995-2017) for population-based studies of insulin-treated patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D), excluding clinical trials and reviews, identified comparable population-based studies reporting the incidence of hypoglycaemia. RESULTS: The 24 comparative studies, including more than 24 000 participants with T1D and more than 160 000 participants with T2D, varied in design, size, inclusion criteria, definitions of hypoglycaemia and method of recording hypoglycaemia. Reported rates (events per patient-year [PPY]) of hypoglycaemia were higher in patients with T1D than in those with T2D (overall T1D, 21.8-73.3 and T2D, 1.3-37.7; mild/non-severe T1D, 29.0-126.7 and T2D, 1.3-41.5; severe T1D, 0.7-5.8 and T2D, 0.0-2.5; nocturnal T1D, 2.6-11.3 and T2D, 0.38-9.7) and were similar to the ranges found in the HAT study. CONCLUSIONS: The HAT data on hypoglycaemia incidence were comparable with those from other real-world studies and indicate a high incidence of hypoglycaemia among insulin-treated patients. Differences in rates among studies are mostly explained by differences in patient populations and study methodology. The goal of reducing hypoglycaemia should be a target for continued educational and evidence-based pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Incidência
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