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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 65, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American-style football (ASF) athletes are at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and exhibit elevated levels of serum neurofilament light (Nf-L), a biomarker of axonal injury that is associated with repetitive head impact exposure over the course of a season of competition. Supplementation with the w-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuates serum Nf-L elevations and improves aspects of CVD, such as the omega-3 index (O3I). However, the effect of combining the w-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) with DHA on, specifically, serum Nf-L in ASF athletes is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of supplemental w-3 FA (EPA+DPA+DHA) on serum Nf-L, plasma w-3 FAs, the O3I, and surrogate markers of inflammation over the course of a season. METHODS: A multi-site, non-randomized design, utilizing two American football teams was employed. One team (n = 3 1) received supplementation with a highly bioavailablew-3 FA formulation (2000mg DHA, 560mg EPA, 320mg DPA, Mindset®, Struct Nutrition, Missoula, MT) during pre-season and throughout the regular season, while the second team served as the control (n = 35) and did not undergo supplementation. Blood was sampled at specific times throughout pre- and regular season coincident w ith changes in intensity, physical contact, and changes in the incidence and severity of head impacts. Group differences were determined via a mixed-model between-within subjects ANOVA. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's dfor all between-group differences. Significance was set a priori at p< .05. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, ASF athletes in the treatment group experienced large increases in plasma EPA (p < .001, d = 1.71) and DHA (p < .001, d = 2.10) which contributed to increases in the O3I (p < .001, d = 2.16) and the EPA:AA ratio (p = .001, d = 0.83) and a reduction in the w-6: w-3 ratio (p < .001, d = 1.80). w-3 FA supplementation attenuated elevations in Nf-L (p = .024). The control group experienced a significant increase in Nf-L compared to baseline at several measurement time points (T2, T3, and T4 [p range < .001 - .005, drange = 0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a cardio- and neuroprotective effect of combined EPA+DPA+DHA w-3 FA supplementation in American-style football athletes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN90306741 ).


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/sangue , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Futebol Americano/lesões , Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(2): 368-376, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585801

RESUMO

Objective: To quantify the occurrence rate of abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and symptoms following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we studied adult patients (>18 years old) who were participating in collegiate athletics and previously tested positive for COVID-19 between August 1, 2020, and December 30, 2020. The athletes underwent general examinations and ECG screening prior to being medically cleared for a return to sports following their COVID-19 diagnosis. Predetermined predictors were grouped into categorical variables including (1) sex, (2) symptom severity, and (3) body mass index (normal vs overweight [≥24 kg/m2]). These variables were used to examine differences of abnormal rates that occurred between different predictor categories. Results: Of the 170 athletes screened, 6 (3.5%) presented with abnormal ECG findings and were referred to cardiologists. We found no evidence that sex, symptom severity, and body mass index category were associated with a higher rate of abnormal ECG findings (all P>.05). Greater severity of COVID-19 symptoms was associated with a higher percentage of ST depression, T-wave inversion, ST-T changes, and the presence of fragmented QRS complex. Loss of smell, loss of taste, headache, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms, with 38.8% (66), 36.5% (62), 32.9% (56), and 25.3% (43), respectively, of the 170 athletes reporting each symptom. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate a low risk of myocardial injury secondary to COVID-19 infection, with less than 4% of the 170 patients in our study presenting with abnormal ECG findings and a total of 16 patients (9.4%) requiring referral to a cardiologist. Although viral myocarditis was not detected in any athlete referred for cardiological assessment, 2 patients experienced effusive viral pericarditis.

4.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545603

RESUMO

Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women's collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 ± 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 ± 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 ± 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 ± 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 ± 2588 m and 1019 ± 552 m at high speeds (>249.6 m·m-1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 ± 14.7 m·m-1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 ± 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 ± 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.

5.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 623068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426521

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 government-enforced shutdown measures on the training habits and perceptions of athletes. A web-based electronic survey was developed and distributed online to athletes. The survey contained questions regarding currently available resources, changes in weekly training habits, and perceptions of training such as intensity, motivation, and enjoyment. A total of 105 (males: n = 31; females: n = 74) athletes completed the survey (mean ± SD age = 19.86 ± 2.13 years). Ninety-nine (94.3%) athletes continued to receive guidance from their primary sport coach or strength training staff. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease (mean ± SD) in self-reported participation time for strength training (-1.65 ± 4.32 h. week-1), endurance (-1.47 ± 3.93 h. week-1), and mobility (-1.09 ± 2.24 h. week-1), with the largest reduction coming from participation time in sport-specific activities (-6.44 ± 6.28 h. week-1) pre- to post-shutdown. When asked to rate their current state of emotional well-being using a visual analog scale of 0-100, with 100 being exceptional, the mean score was 51.6 ± 19.6 AU. Athletes experienced notable reductions in training frequency and time spent completing various training related activities. In the future, practitioners should have preparations in place in the event of another lockdown period or future pandemic to avoid or minimize significant disruptions in training. Special considerations may be needed when athletes are allowed to return to sport in the event of significant levels of detraining that may have occurred.

6.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(4)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467311

RESUMO

(1) Background: Limited information exists on the prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in collegiate team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of LEA in collegiate women soccer players. (2) Methods: Collegiate women soccer athletes (n = 18, height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.3 ± 7.9 kg; body fat %: 24.9 ± 5.6%) had their body composition and sport nutrition knowledge assessed in the pre-season. Energy availability was assessed mid-season using a 4-day dietary log and activity energy expenditure values from a team-based monitoring system. A validated screening tool was used to screen for LEA. (3) Results: The screening tool classified 56.3% of athletes as at risk of LEA (<30 kcal/kg of FFM); however, the actual dietary intake identified 67% as LEA. Athletes identified as non-LEA consumed significantly more absolute (p = 0.040) and relative (p = 0.004) energy than LEA athletes. (4) Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of LEA among collegiate women soccer athletes. Although previously validated in women endurance athletes, the LEA screening tool was not effective in identifying those at risk of LEA in this sample of athletes.

7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199450

RESUMO

Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, Askow, A, Luedke, J, Erickson, J, Kerksick, CM, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Sex differences in resting metabolic rate among athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) between sexes in Division III National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate athletes and to identify predictors of RMR. Sixty-eight male (M) (age: 20.1 ± 1.5 years; height: 181.8 ± 5.9 cm; body mass (BM): 93.7 ± 16.3 kg; and body fat%: 16.3 ± 8.6%) and 48 female (F) athletes (age: 19.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 166.5 ± 6.0 cm; BM: 63.4 ± 12.7 kg; and body fat%: 21.5 ± 6.3%) participated in a single day of testing, which included determination of RMR using indirect calorimetry and air displacement plethysmography to measure fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM). An independent-samples t-test was used to compare differences in body composition and RMR between sexes, and regression analysis was used to identify predictors of RMR. Men had a significantly higher absolute RMR (M: 2,481 ± 209 vs. F: 1,553 ± 193 kcals·d; p < 0.001), but when adjusted for BM (M: 25.6 ± 8.3 vs. F: 25.9 ± 2.5 kcals·kg BM per day; p = 0.82) and FFM (M: 31.1 ± 10.6 vs. F: 33.6 ± 3.8 kcals·kg FFM per day; p = 0.12), these differences became nonsignificant. Regression analysis indicated that BM in both men (ß = 0.73) and women (ß = 0.88) was the strongest predictor of RMR. The results of the current study indicate minimal differences in RMR between sexes among athletic populations when adjusted for BM and FFM. In the current group of athletes, BM seems to account for the largest variability in RMR.


Assuntos
Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVERepetitive subconcussive head trauma is a consequence of participation in contact sports and may be linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The degree of neurological injury caused by subconcussive head trauma is not easily detectible, and this injury does not induce readily identifiable clinical signs or symptoms. Recent advancements in immunoassays make possible the detection and quantification of blood biomarkers linked to head trauma. Identification of a blood biomarker that can identify the extent of neurological injury associated with subconcussive head trauma may provide an objective measure for informed decisions concerning cumulative exposure to subconcussive head trauma. The purpose of the current study was to examine changes in the blood biomarkers of subconcussive head trauma over the course of an American football season.METHODSThirty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) American football athletes underwent blood sampling throughout the course of a football season. Serial samples were obtained throughout the 2016 season, during which the number and magnitude of head impacts changed. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma concentrations of tau and serum concentrations of neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L). Athletes were grouped based on their starter status, because athletes identified as starters are known to sustain a greater number of impacts. Between-group differences and time-course differences were assessed.RESULTSIn nonstarters, plasma concentrations of tau decreased over the course of the season, with lower values observed in starters; this resulted in a lower area under the curve (AUC) (starters: 416.78 ± 129.17 pg/ml/day; nonstarters: 520.84 ± 163.19 pg/ml/day; p = 0.050). Plasma concentrations of tau could not be used to discern between starters and nonstarters. In contrast, serum concentrations of NF-L increased throughout the season as head impacts accumulated, specifically in those athletes categorized as starters. The higher serum concentrations of NF-L observed in starters resulted in a larger AUC (starters: 1605.03 ± 655.09 pg/ml/day; nonstarters: 1067.29 ± 272.33 pg/ml/day; p = 0.007). The AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses displayed fair to modest accuracy to identify athletes who were starters with the use of serum NF-L following periods of repetitive impacts.CONCLUSIONSThe different patterns observed in serum NF-L and plasma tau concentrations provide preliminary evidence for the use of blood biomarkers to detect the neurological injury associated with repetitive subconcussive head trauma. Although further investigation is necessary, such findings might lay the foundation for the further development of an objective measure for the detection of neurological injury caused by subconcussive head trauma.

9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(7): 1875-1881, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682934

RESUMO

Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, Kisiolek, J, Luedke, J, Erickson, J, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Accuracy of resting metabolic rate prediction equations in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 1875-1881, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 5 different resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in male and female athletes. Twenty-two female (19.7 ± 1.4 years; 166.2 ± 5.5 cm; 63.5 ± 7.3 kg; 49.2 ± 4.3 kg of fat-free mass (FFM); 23.4 ± 4.4 body fat (BF) percent) and 28 male (20.2 ± 1.6 years; 181.9 ± 6.1 cm; 94.5 ± 16.2 kg; 79.1 ± 7.2 kg of FFM; 15.1 ± 8.5% BF) athletes were recruited to participate in 1 day of metabolic testing. Assessments comprised RMR measurements using indirect calorimetry, and body composition analyses using air displacement plethysmography. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with follow-up paired t tests were selected to determine differences between indirect calorimetry and 5 RMR prediction equations. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the accuracy of each RMR prediction method. An alpha level of p ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. All the prediction equations significantly underestimated RMR while the Cunningham equation had the smallest mean difference (-165 kcals). In men, the Harris-Benedict equation was found to be the best prediction formula with the lowest root-mean-square prediction error value of 284 kcals. In women, the Cunningham equation was found to be the best prediction equation with the lowest root-mean-squared error value of 110 kcals. Resting metabolic rate prediction equations consistently seem to underestimate RMR in male and female athletes. The Harris-Benedict equation seems to be most accurate for male athletes, whereas the Cunningham equation may be better suited for female athletes.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Conceitos Matemáticos , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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