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Water Environ Res ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516457


Electrolysis of blackwater for disinfection and nutrient removal is a portable and scalable technology that can lessen the need for cities to construct large-scale wastewater treatment infrastructure and enable the safe onsite reuse of blackwater. Several systems for treating wastewater from single toilets are described in the literature, but there are few examples of systems designed to use electrolysis to treat blackwater from nearby toilets, which is a situation more common in densely packed urban living environments. In order to scale a single toilet electrolysis system to one that could service multiple toilets, computational fluid dynamic analysis was used to optimize the electrochemical reactor design, and laboratory and field-testing were used to confirm results. Design efforts included optimization of the reactor shape and mixing to improve treatment efficiency, as well as automated cleaning and salt injection to reduce maintenance and service requirements. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Design of a reverse polarity mechanism to enable in situ electrode cleaning and improve long-term electrode performance. Optimization of a hopper design and drainpipe location to collect and remove flaking precipitates and mitigate maintenance issues. Design of an automated salt injection system to guarantee sufficient chloride levels for producing adequate chlorine residuals for consistent disinfection.

Sci Total Environ ; 730: 138957, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402964


A challenge in water reuse for toilet flushing in India and other Asian countries derives from pour flushing practices. It is a common assumption that the amount of pour flushed water used for personal cleansing is small in comparison to the cistern flush volume, however there is a knowledge gap regarding the actual contribution of each water source to the blackwater amount. In this study, digital water meters were used to measure the fraction of water from personal wash tap relative to cistern water that is used for toilet flushing. High temporal resolution measurements were carried in three different urban sites in the city of Coimbatore in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu where onsite sanitation treatment prototypes that may provide reclaimed water for cistern flushing are being tested. Data collected over periods of up to 2 months show that the contribution of the cistern flush to the total blackwater volume is low (14-40%). These data highlight an important factor to inform interventions designed around water reuse for flushing in world geographies where personal toilet cleansing by water is the common practice.