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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 202-214, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004449

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cf.DNA) is a powerful noninvasive biomarker for cancer and prenatal testing, and it circulates in plasma as short fragments. To elucidate the biology of cf.DNA fragmentation, we explored the roles of deoxyribonuclease 1 (DNASE1), deoxyribonuclease 1 like 3 (DNASE1L3), and DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta (DFFB) with mice deficient in each of these nucleases. By analyzing the ends of cf.DNA fragments in each type of nuclease-deficient mice with those in wild-type mice, we show that each nuclease has a specific cutting preference that reveals the stepwise process of cf.DNA fragmentation. Essentially, we demonstrate that cf.DNA is generated first intracellularly with DFFB, intracellular DNASE1L3, and other nucleases. Then, cf.DNA fragmentation continues extracellularly with circulating DNASE1L3 and DNASE1. With the use of heparin to disrupt the nucleosomal structure, we also show that the 10 bp periodicity originates from the cutting of DNA within an intact nucleosomal structure. Altogether, this work establishes a model of cf.DNA fragmentation.

2.
EMBO J ; : e102675, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943281

RESUMO

Site-specific recombinase-mediated genetic technology, such as inducible Cre-loxP recombination (CreER), is widely used for in vivo genetic manipulation with temporal control. The Cre-loxP technology improves our understanding on the in vivo function of specific genes in organ development, tissue regeneration, and disease progression. However, inducible CreER often remains inefficient in gene deletion. In order to improve the efficiency of gene manipulation, we generated a self-cleaved inducible CreER (sCreER) that switches inducible CreER into a constitutively active Cre by itself. We generated endocardial driver Npr3-sCreER and fibroblast driver Col1a2-sCreER, and compared them with conventional Npr3-CreER and Col1a2-CreER, respectively. For easy-to-recombine alleles such as R26-tdTomato, there was no significant difference in recombination efficiency between sCreER and the conventional CreER. However, for alleles that were relatively inert for recombination such as R26-Confetti, R26-LZLT, R26-GFP, or VEGFR2flox/flox alleles, sCreER showed a significantly higher efficiency in recombination compared with conventional CreER in endocardial cells or fibroblasts. Compared with conventional CreER, sCreER significantly enhances the efficiency of recombination to induce gene expression or gene deletion, allowing temporal yet effective in vivo genomic modification for studying gene function in specific cell lineages.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636078

RESUMO

Understanding how coronary blood vessels form and regenerate during development and progression of cardiac diseases will shed light on the development of new treatment options targeting coronary artery diseases. Recent studies with the state-of-the-art technologies have identified novel origins of, as well as new, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coronary vessels in the postnatal heart, including collateral artery formation, endocardial-to-endothelial differentiation and mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition. These new mechanisms of coronary vessel formation and regeneration open up new possibilities targeting neovascularization for promoting cardiac repair and regeneration. Here, we highlight some recent studies on cellular mechanisms of coronary vessel formation, and discuss the potential impact and significance of the findings on basic research and clinical application for treating ischemic heart disease.

4.
Theranostics ; 9(15): 4324-4341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285764

RESUMO

The neonatal mouse heart is capable of transiently regenerating after injury from postnatal day (P) 0-7 and macrophages are found important in this process. However, whether macrophages alone are sufficient to orchestrate this regeneration; what regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation; why cardiomyocytes do not proliferate after P7; and whether adaptive immune cells such as regulatory T-cells (Treg) influence neonatal heart regeneration have less studied. Methods: We employed both loss- and gain-of-function transgenic mouse models to study the role of Treg in neonatal heart regeneration. In loss-of-function studies, we treated mice with the lytic anti-CD25 antibody that specifically depletes Treg; or we treated FOXP3DTR with diphtheria toxin that specifically ablates Treg. In gain-of-function studies, we adoptively transferred hCD2+ Treg from NOD.Foxp3 hCD2 to NOD/SCID that contain Treg as the only T-cell population. Furthermore, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing of Treg to uncover paracrine factors essential for cardiomyocyte proliferation. Results: Unlike their wild type counterparts, NOD/SCID mice that are deficient in T-cells but harbor macrophages fail to regenerate their injured myocardium at as early as P3. During the first week of injury, Treg are recruited to the injured cardiac muscle but their depletion contributes to more severe cardiac fibrosis. On the other hand, adoptive transfer of Treg results in mitigated fibrosis and enhanced proliferation and function of the injured cardiac muscle. Mechanistically, single-cell transcriptomic profiling reveals that Treg could be a source of regenerative factors. Treg directly promote proliferation of both mouse and human cardiomyocytes in a paracrine manner; and their secreted factors such as CCL24, GAS6 or AREG potentiate neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. By comparing the regenerating P3 and non-regenerating P8 heart, there is a significant increase in the absolute number of intracardiac Treg but the whole transcriptomes of these Treg do not differ regardless of whether the neonatal heart regenerates. Furthermore, even adult Treg, given sufficient quantity, possess the same regenerative capability. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a regenerative role of Treg in neonatal heart regeneration. Treg can directly facilitate cardiomyocyte proliferation in a paracrine manner.

5.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 343-355, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185811

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The developing heart is composed of cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes since the early stage. It is generally believed that noncardiomyocytes including the cardiac progenitors contribute to new cardiomyocytes of the looping heart. However, it remains unclear what the cellular dynamics of nonmyocyte to cardiomyocyte conversion are and when the lineage segregation occurs during development. It also remains unknown whether nonmyocyte to cardiomyocyte conversion contributes to neonatal heart regeneration. OBJECTIVE: We quantify the lineage conversion of noncardiomyocytes to cardiomyocytes in the embryonic and neonatal hearts and determine when the 2 cell lineages segregate during heart development. Moreover, we directly test if nonmyocyte to cardiomyocyte conversion contributes to neonatal heart regeneration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated a dual genetic lineage tracing strategy in which cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes of the developing heart could be simultaneously labeled by 2 orthogonal recombination systems. Genetic fate mapping showed that nonmyocyte to cardiomyocyte conversion peaks at E8.0 (embryonic day) to E8.5 and gradually declines at E9.5 and E10.5. Noncardiomyocytes do not generate any cardiomyocyte at and beyond E11.5 to E12.5. In the neonatal heart, noncardiomyocytes also do not contribute to any new cardiomyocyte in homeostasis or after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Noncardiomyocytes contribute to new cardiomyocytes of the developing heart at early embryonic stage before E11.5. The noncardiomyocyte and cardiomyocyte lineage segregation occurs between E10.5 and E11.5, which is maintained afterward even during neonatal heart regeneration.

6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(3): 624-638, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773487

RESUMO

Elucidation of the role of different cell lineages in the liver could offer avenues to drive liver regeneration. Previous studies showed that SOX9+ hepatocytes can differentiate into ductal cells after liver injuries. It is unclear whether SOX9+ hepatocytes are uni- or bipotent progenitors at a single-cell level during liver injury. Here, we developed a genetic tracing system to delineate the lineage potential of SOX9+ hepatocytes during liver homeostasis and regeneration. Fate-mapping data showed that these SOX9+ hepatocytes respond specifically to different liver injuries, with some contributing to a substantial number of ductal cells. Clonal analysis demonstrated that a single SOX9+ hepatocyte gives rise to both hepatocytes and ductal cells after liver injury. This study provides direct evidence that SOX9+ hepatocytes can serve as bipotent progenitors after liver injury, producing both hepatocytes and ductal cells for liver repair and regeneration.

7.
Cell Rep ; 26(4): 884-892.e4, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673611

RESUMO

DNA variants in the SLC16A11 coding region were identified to be strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Mexican population. Previous studies suggested that these variants disrupt SLC16A11 function and therefore proposed to revive SLC16A11 levels or activity to achieve therapeutic benefit. However, with knockout mouse models, here we show that Slc16a11 depletion has no significant metabolic defects. Further studies demonstrate that reconstitution of the mutant, but not the wild-type Slc16a11, in the liver of knockout mice causes more triglyceride accumulation and induction of insulin resistance via upregulation of lipin 1, suggesting gaining of aberrant functions of the mutant protein that affects lipid metabolism. Our findings offer a different explanation to the function of these diabetic variants, challenging the concept of enhancing SLC16A11 function to treat T2DM. The contradictory results by our and previous studies suggest that how the SLC16A11 locus contributes to human metabolism warrants further investigation.

8.
FASEB J ; 33(1): 484-493, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004796

RESUMO

Like conventional transplants, immunosuppression is required to facilitate survival and function of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivatives after implantation into xenogeneic recipients. We have previously reported that T cells alone are sufficient to reject allogeneic murine ESC derivatives; and strategies that inhibit T-cell activation, including coreceptor and costimulation blockade, prevent hESC derivatives from being rejected. This study aimed to investigate, in addition to T cells, whether macrophages contribute to transplant rejection of hESC xenografts with nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice that lack functional T and B cells but have macrophages. We show that acute rejection against hESC-derived endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) was mediated, to some degree, by infiltrating macrophages that phagocytosed them. Transgenic expression of murine CD47 on cell surface of hESC-ECs mitigates macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and improves their survival after transplantation. Our results highlight that innate immune cells, such as macrophages, can reject hESC derivatives, raising concern against the use of NOD/SCID as transplant recipients for testing in vivo function of hESC-derived tissues. Augmenting CD47 signaling promotes survival and function of hESC derivatives after xenogeneic transplantation.-Leung, C. S., Li, J., Xu, F., Wong, A. S. L., Lui, K. O. Ectopic expression of recipient CD47 inhibits mouse macrophage-mediated immune rejection against human stem cell transplants.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Antígeno CD47/genética , Células Cultivadas , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Fagocitose , Transplante Heterólogo
10.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 71, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported an antigen-specific protocol to induce transplant tolerance and linked suppression to human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived tissues in immunocompetent mice through coreceptor and costimulation blockade. However, the exact mechanisms of acquired immune tolerance in this model have remained unclear. METHODS: We utilize the NOD.Foxp3hCD2 reporter mouse line and an ablative anti-hCD2 antibody to ask if CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are required for coreceptor and costimulation blockade-induced immune tolerance. We also perform genome-wide single-cell RNA-sequencing to interrogate Treg during immune rejection and tolerance and to indicate possible mechanisms involved in sustaining Treg function. RESULTS: We show that Treg are indispensable for tolerance induced by coreceptor and costimulation blockade as depletion of which with an anti-hCD2 antibody resulted in rejection of hESC-derived pancreatic islets in NOD.Foxp3hCD2 mice. Single-cell transcriptomic profiling of 12,964 intragraft CD4+ T cells derived from rejecting and tolerated grafts reveals that Treg are heterogeneous and functionally distinct in the two outcomes of transplant rejection and tolerance. Treg appear to mainly promote chemotactic and ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism during transplant rejection while seeming to harness proliferative and immunosuppressive function during tolerance. We also demonstrate that this form of acquired transplant tolerance is associated with increased proliferation and PD-1 expression by Treg. Blocking PD-1 signaling with a neutralizing anti-PD-1 antibody leads to reduced Treg proliferation and graft rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that short-term coreceptor and costimulation blockade mediates immune tolerance to hESC-derived pancreatic islets by promoting Treg proliferation through engagement of PD-1. Our findings could give new insights into clinical development of hESC-derived pancreatic tissues, combined with immunotherapies that expand intragraft Treg, as a potentially sustainable alternative treatment for T1D.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Genoma , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/citologia
11.
Nat Protoc ; 13(10): 2217-2246, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250288

RESUMO

Unraveling the fates of resident stem cells during tissue regeneration is an important objective in clinical and basic research. Genetic lineage tracing based on Cre-loxP recombination provides an effective strategy for inferring cell fate and cell conversion in vivo. However, the determination of the exact fates of resident stem cells or their derivatives in disease states and during tissue regeneration remains controversial in many fields of study, partly because of technical limitations associated with Cre-based lineage tracing, such as, for example, off-target labeling. Recently, we generated a new lineage-tracing platform we named DeaLT (dual-recombinase-activated lineage tracing) that uses the Dre-rox recombination system to enhance the precision of Cre-mediated lineage tracing. Here, we describe as an example a detailed protocol using DeaLT to trace the fate of c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells and their derivatives, in the absence of any interference from nontarget cells such as cardiomyocytes, during organ homeostasis and after tissue injury. This lineage-tracing protocol can also be used to delineate the fate of resident stem cells of other organ systems, and takes ~10 months to complete, from mouse crossing to final tissue analysis.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Miocárdio/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/análise , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/genética , Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Recombinação Genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia
12.
Development ; 145(18)2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111655

RESUMO

In vivo genomic engineering is instrumental for studying developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Development of novel systems with more site-specific recombinases (SSRs) that complement with the commonly used Cre-loxP would be valuable for more precise lineage tracing and genome editing. Here, we introduce a new SSR system via Nigri-nox. By generating tissue-specific Nigri knock-in and its responding nox reporter mice, we show that the Nigri-nox system works efficiently in vivo by targeting specific tissues. As a new orthogonal system to Cre-loxP, Nigri-nox provides an additional control of genetic manipulation. We also demonstrate how the two orthogonal systems Nigri-nox and Cre-loxP could be used simultaneously to map the cell fate of two distinct developmental origins of cardiac valve mesenchyme in the mouse heart, providing dynamics of cellular contribution from different origins for cardiac valve mesenchyme during development. This work provides a proof-of-principle application of the Nigri-nox system for in vivo mouse genomic engineering. Coupled with other SSR systems, Nigri-nox would be valuable for more precise delineation of origins and cell fates during development, diseases and regeneration.


Assuntos
DNA Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Valvas Cardíacas/embriologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Cell Rep ; 24(6): 1610-1626, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089270

RESUMO

The role of CD4+ T cells in the ischemic tissues of T2D patients remains unclear. Here, we report that T2D patients' vascular density was negatively correlated with the number of infiltrating CD4+ T cells after ischemic injury. Th1 was the predominant subset, and Th1-derived IFN-γ and TNF-α directly impaired human angiogenesis. We then blocked CD4+ T cell infiltration into the ischemic tissues of both Leprdb/db and diet-induced obese T2D mice. Genome-wide RNA sequencing shows an increased proliferative and angiogenic capability of diabetic ECs in ischemic tissues. Moreover, wire myography shows enhanced EC function and laser Doppler imaging reveals improved post-ischemic blood reperfusion. Mechanistically, functional revascularization after CD4 coreceptor blockade was mediated by Tregs. Genetic lineage tracing via Cdh5-CreER and Apln-CreER and coculture assays further illustrate that Tregs increased vascular density and induced de novo sprouting angiogenesis in a paracrine manner. Taken together, our results reveal that Th1 impaired while Tregs promoted functional post-ischemic revascularization in obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Apelina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica
14.
Cell Res ; 28(8): 871, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959400

RESUMO

The authors apologized for the spelling mistake of author name for Zhengyu Ju. The correct form is Zhenyu Ju. We apologize for any hassle that may have been caused by our mistake.

17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 15(8): 445-456, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748594

RESUMO

Endothelial cells and mesenchymal cells are two different cell types with distinct morphologies, phenotypes, functions, and gene profiles. Accumulating evidence, notably from lineage-tracing studies, indicates that the two cell types convert into each other during cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. During heart development, endothelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells in the endocardial cushion through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), a process that is critical for the formation of cardiac valves. Studies have also reported that EndoMT contributes to the development of various cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac fibrosis, valve calcification, endocardial elastofibrosis, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Conversely, cardiac fibroblasts can transdifferentiate into endothelial cells and contribute to neovascularization after cardiac injury. However, progress in genetic lineage tracing has challenged the role of EndoMT, or its reversed programme, in the development of cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, we discuss the caveats of using genetic lineage-tracing technology to investigate cell-lineage conversion; we also reassess the role of EndoMT in cardiovascular development and diseases and elaborate on the molecular signals that orchestrate EndoMT in pathophysiological processes. Understanding the role and mechanisms of EndoMT in diseases will unravel the therapeutic potential of targeting this process and will provide a new paradigm for the development of regenerative medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Animais , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662491

RESUMO

The identification of stem cells and growth factors as well as the development of biomaterials hold great promise for regenerative medicine applications. However, the therapeutic efficacy of regenerative therapies can be greatly influenced by the host immune system, which plays a pivotal role during tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, understanding how the immune system modulates tissue healing is critical to design efficient regenerative strategies. While the innate immune system is well known to be involved in the tissue healing process, the adaptive immune system has recently emerged as a key player. T-cells, in particular, regulatory T-cells (Treg), have been shown to promote repair and regeneration of various organ systems. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which Treg participate in the repair and regeneration of skeletal and heart muscle, skin, lung, bone, and the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Regeneração/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Cicatrização/imunologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunomodulação , Ativação Linfocitária , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Regeneração/genética , Medicina Regenerativa , Cicatrização/genética
19.
Circulation ; 138(8): 793-805, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the adult mammalian heart harbors cardiac stem cells for regeneration of cardiomyocytes is an important yet contentious topic in the field of cardiovascular regeneration. The putative myocyte stem cell populations recognized without specific cell markers, such as the cardiosphere-derived cells, or with markers such as Sca1+, Bmi1+, Isl1+, or Abcg2+ cardiac stem cells have been reported. Moreover, it remains unclear whether putative cardiac stem cells with unknown or unidentified markers exist and give rise to de novo cardiomyocytes in the adult heart. METHODS: To address this question without relying on a particular stem cell marker, we developed a new genetic lineage tracing system to label all nonmyocyte populations that contain putative cardiac stem cells. Using dual lineage tracing system, we assessed whether nonmyocytes generated any new myocytes during embryonic development, during adult homeostasis, and after myocardial infarction. Skeletal muscle was also examined after injury for internal control of new myocyte generation from nonmyocytes. RESULTS: By this stem cell marker-free and dual recombinases-mediated cell tracking approach, our fate mapping data show that new myocytes arise from nonmyocytes in the embryonic heart, but not in the adult heart during homeostasis or after myocardial infarction. As positive control, our lineage tracing system detected new myocytes derived from nonmyocytes in the skeletal muscle after injury. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in vivo genetic evidence for nonmyocyte to myocyte conversion in embryonic but not adult heart, arguing again the myogenic potential of putative stem cell populations for cardiac regeneration in the adult stage. This study also provides a new genetic strategy to identify endogenous stem cells, if any, in other organ systems for tissue repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Coração/embriologia , Integrases/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Recombinases/genética , Regeneração , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Circ Res ; 122(5): 774-789, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496799

RESUMO

Endocardial cells are specialized endothelial cells that form the innermost layer of the heart wall. By virtue of genetic lineage-tracing technology, many of the unexpected roles of endocardium during murine heart development, diseases, and regeneration have been identified recently. In addition to heart valves developed from the well-known endothelial to mesenchymal transition, recent fate-mapping studies using mouse models reveal that multiple cardiac cell lineages are also originated from the endocardium. This review focuses on a variety of different cell types that are recently reported to be endocardium derived during murine heart development, diseases, and regeneration. These multiple cell fates underpin the unprecedented roles of endocardial progenitors in function, pathological progression, and regeneration of the heart. Because emerging studies suggest that developmental mechanisms can be redeployed and recapitulated in promoting heart disease development and also cardiac repair and regeneration, understanding the mechanistic regulation of endocardial plasticity and modulation of their cell fate conversion may uncover new therapeutic potential in facilitating heart regeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Endocárdio/citologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Regeneração , Animais , Endocárdio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endocárdio/metabolismo , Endocárdio/fisiologia , Humanos , Organogênese
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