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1.
Schizophr Res ; 231: 115-121, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The corpus callosum (CC) is known to be altered in patients with schizophrenia. However, its morphologic characteristics are less well studied in treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients, as is the effect of antipsychotic treatment on this structure. METHODS: T-1 weighted MRI scans were obtained from 160 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients (AN-FES) and 155 healthy controls (HCs) before treatment initiation. Among the patients, forty-four were available for follow-up studies after one year of antipsychotic treatment, and were divided into good-outcome (n = 31) and poor-outcome subgroups (n = 13) based on whether there was a 50% reduction in Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline. A computer algorithm was applied to automatically identify the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and obtain morphological measurement parameters of the CC. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, AN-FES patients showed a significant reduction of thickness in the posterior midbody of the CC. This deficit was correlated with severity of negative symptoms. After one year of antipsychotic treatment, there was no significant change in CC morphological measurements in schizophrenia patients, nor was there a significant difference of CC morphological measurements between good-outcome and poor-outcome subgroups at baseline or at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Thickness of the posterior midbody of the CC is reduced in the early course of schizophrenia before treatment. This alteration was not affected by antipsychotic treatment and was unrelated to treatment outcome at 1-year.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 582519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716959

RESUMO

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) brain structure and resting state of functional activity have remained unexplored. Purpose: To investigate gray matter volume (GMV) and regional brain activity with the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) patients before and after treatment. Material and Methods: We enrolled 54 SCH and 41 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls. GMV and fALFF of SCH were compared with controls and between pre- and post-treatment within SCH group. Correlations of GMV and fALFF in SCH with thyroid function status and mood scales were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GMV in SCH was significantly decreased in Orbital part of inferior frontal, superior frontal, pre-/postcentral, inferior occipital, and temporal pole gyrus. FALFF values in SCH were significantly increased in right angular, left middle frontal, and left superior frontal gyrus. After treatment, there were no significant changes in GMV and the local brain function compared to pre-treatment, however the GMV and fALFF of the defective brain areas were improved. Additionally, decreased values of fALFF in left middle frontal gyrus were correlated with increased mood scales. Conclusion: In this study we found that patients with SCH, the gray matter volume in some brain areas were significantly reduced, and regional brain activity was significantly increased. After treatment, the corresponding structural and functional deficiencies had a tendency for improvement. These changes may reveal the neurological mechanisms of mood disorder in SCH patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753882

RESUMO

The goals of the current study were to determine whether topological organization of brain structural networks is altered in youth with bipolar disorder, whether such alterations predict treatment outcomes, and whether they are normalized by treatment. Youth with bipolar disorder were randomized to double-blind treatment with quetiapine or lithium and assessed weekly. High-resolution MRI images were collected from children and adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a mixed or manic episode (n = 100) and healthy youth (n = 63). Brain networks were constructed based on the similarity of morphological features across regions and analyzed using graph theory approaches. We tested for pretreatment anatomical differences between bipolar and healthy youth and for changes in neuroanatomic network metrics following treatment in the youth with bipolar disorder. Youth with bipolar disorder showed significantly increased clustering coefficient (Cp) (p = 0.009) and characteristic path length (Lp) (p = 0.04) at baseline, and altered nodal centralities in insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor area. Cp, Lp, and nodal centrality of the insula exhibited normalization in patients following treatment. Changes in these neuroanatomic parameters were correlated with improvement in manic symptoms but did not differ between the two drug therapies. Baseline structural network matrices significantly differentiated medication responders and non-responders with 80% accuracy. These findings demonstrate that both global and nodal structural network features are altered in early course bipolar disorder, and that pretreatment alterations in neuroanatomic features predicted treatment outcome and were reduced by treatment. Similar connectome normalization with lithium and quetiapine suggests that the connectome changes are a downstream effect of both therapies that is related to their clinical efficacy.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that blood oxygenation level-dependent signaling in white matter (WM) reflects WM functional activity. Whether this activity is altered in schizophrenia remains uncertain, as does whether it is related to established alterations of gray matter (GM) or the microstructure of WM tracts. METHODS: A total of 153 antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 153 healthy comparison subjects were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging. We tested for case-control differences in the functional activity of WM, and examined their relation to the functional activity of GM and WM microstructure. The relations between fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM and GM-WM functional synchrony were investigated as well. Then, we examined the associations of identified abnormalities to age, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and symptom severity. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients displayed reductions of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), GM-WM functional synchrony, and FA in widespread regions. Specifically, the genu of corpus callosum not only had weakening in the synchrony of functional activity but also had reduced ALFF and FA. Positive associations were found between FA and functional synchrony in the genu of corpus callosum as well. No significant association was found between identified abnormalities and DUP, and symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread weakening in the synchrony of functional activity of GM and WM provided novel evidence for functional alterations in schizophrenia. Regarding the WM function as a component of brain systems and investigating its alternation represent a promising direction for future research.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 241-248, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486391

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness for which the mainstay of treatment is antipsychotics. Up to 30% of schizophrenia patients show limited response to antipsychotics. Identifying these patients before treatment could guide individualized treatment for improving outcomes in those not likely to show robust benefit from antipsychotics. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with 56 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 69 matched healthy controls. Patients were followed clinically after one-year of antipsychotic treatment and classified at that point into groups of 17 poor outcome and 39 good outcome patients based on whether they showed at least a 50% reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from baseline. Tract-based spatial statistics were applied to assess white matter microstructure in the two patient subgroups and healthy controls. Poor outcome patients showed reduced pretreatment fractional anisotropy (FA) in left cingulum and anterior thalamic radiation and increased FA in right superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus compared with good outcome patients. FA in each of these four tracts was decreased in both patient subgroups relative to healthy controls. Considered together, the four altered tracts showed promising ability to differentiate poor from good outcome patients (sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 95.2%, AUC = 0.90, p < 0.001), and superior prediction of clinical outcome to baseline PANSS scores (p < 0.015). Prediction of outcomes using DTI features was not related to duration of untreated psychosis. Baseline alterations in white matter integrity may identify schizophrenia patients less likely to respond to treatment, which could be useful information for stratification in clinical trials and for individualized treatment planning.

6.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(3): 334-344, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315100

RESUMO

The hippocampus, a key structure with distinct subfield functions, is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few studies of hippocampus subfields in PTSD have focused on pediatric patients. We therefore investigated the hippocampal subfield volume using an automated segmentation method and explored the subfield-centered functional connectivity aberrations related to the anatomical changes, in a homogenous population of traumatized children with and without PTSD. To investigate the potential diagnostic value in individual patients, we used a machine learning approach to identify features with significant discriminative power for diagnosis of PTSD using random forest classifiers. Compared to controls, we found significant mean volume reductions of 8.4% and 9.7% in the right presubiculum and hippocampal tail in patients, respectively. These two subfields' volumes were the most significant contributors to group discrimination, with a mean classification accuracy of 69% and a specificity of 81%. These anatomical alterations, along with the altered functional connectivity between (pre)subiculum and inferior frontal gyrus, may underlie deficits in fear circuitry leading to dysfunction of fear extinction and episodic memory, causally important in post-traumatic symptoms such as hypervigilance and re-experience. For the first time, we suggest that hippocampal subfield volumes might be useful in discriminating traumatized children with and without PTSD.

7.
Pain Pract ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that amputees have altered cortical reorganization and functional connectivity (FC). This study aimed to investigate whether patients with phantom limb pain (PLP) and PLP-free lower limb amputees exhibit changes in corresponding primary cortical motor area/somatosensory cortex (M1/S1) cortical reorganization and supplementary motor area (SMA) network FC. The association between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes and clinical parameters is also explored. METHODS: A total of 10 PLP patients were matched with 10 PLP-free amputees and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Before undergoing fMRI, all participants completed questionnaires evaluating pain, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Task-related activation and regions of interest (ROI)-wise connectivity analysis were applied to differentiate the brain regions of amputees from those of HCs. Linear correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between altered FC and clinical manifestations. RESULTS: As compared with HCs, PLP patients showed increased cortical activation in M1/S1 when moving the intact foot, imagining phantom big toe movement, or having the corresponding thumb stimulated. The increased FC in the SMA network included the SMA-caudate nucleus, SMA-bilateral insula, and SMA-anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, results of the linear correlation analysis demonstrated that this increased FC was positively correlated with VAS scores, negatively correlated with Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) scores, and not correlated with anxiety or depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Phantom limb pain in lower limb amputees is associated with M1/S1 cortical reorganization and altered SMA network FC in different areas of the brain, which could help to support our understanding of the central mechanism of PLP.

8.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158705

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A need for adequate and early exposure to radiology practice is rising in undergraduate students, taking competency development as the orientation. We aimed to develop a competency-based model of practice-based learning for undergraduate radiology education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of practice-based learning was constructed upon an e-learning smart class environment, with case-based learning and simulators for competency development. To assess the model effectiveness, a randomized controlled experiment was performed, where 57 third-year medical students received the model (Smart-Class group) and another 57 received traditional teaching (Traditional group). Seven quizzes, a final exam, and a survey were performed in both groups. RESULTS: Smart-Class group achieved higher mean score in the quizzes (r = -0.4, p < 0.001) and application subscore in the final exam (r = -0.3, p = 0.005) compared to Traditional group. Smart-Class group also gave higher ratings in students' perceptions concerning promotion of learning interests, radiology skills, and diagnostic reasoning (r = -0.2 to -0.3, p = 0.001-0.034). CONCLUSION: Practice-based learning using smart class improved students' application ability and satisfactions in undergraduate radiology education, suggesting it a practical model for early exposure to radiology practice and competency development for undergraduate medical students.

9.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; : e27392, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been increasingly conceptualized as a disconnection syndrome. However, most studies have only focused on functional connectivity (FC) alterations in gray matter (GM), and the functional alterations in white matter (WM) remain largely unknown in MDD. PURPOSE: To investigate WM functional alterations and the functional interaction between GM and WM networks in medication-naïve MDD. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Sixty-eight patients with MDD and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Resting state-functional MRI (fMRI) using a gradient-echo imaging sequence and T1 -weighted images were acquired at 3.0T. ASSESSMENT: Functional GM and WM networks, based on resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, were identified by the K-means clustering algorithm, and FC matrices were obtained for each subject. STATISTICAL TESTS: Two-sample t-tests, Pearson chi-square test, and Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: Both the GM and WM of the visual network (GM1 and WM11) showed reduced FC with the sensorimotor network (WM5 and GM8), lateral temporal network (GM5 and WM6), cingulo-opercular network (GM9), and dorsal attention network (GM7) in MDD patients compared to controls (P < 0.05, false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected). Reduced FC between the anterior cingulum network (WM3) and the lateral temporal network (GM5 and WM6) and temporal pole network (GM13) and between GM13 and the medial temporal network (GM4) and medial prefrontal-subcortical network (GM10) were also observed in MDD patients (P < 0.05, FDR-corrected). In addition, the WM BOLD signal in the sensorimotor network was negatively correlated with illness duration (r = -0.286, P = 0.018). DATA CONCLUSION: Disconnectivity between the GM and WM networks in the perception-motor system may be the foundation of extensively disrupted connections in MDD. Furthermore, the observed decoupling between subsystems of the default mode network may help explain previous findings of persistent negative rumination and theory of mind deficits in depression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3. TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102910, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of functional activation and cortical volume in brain regions involved in the neurobiology of fear and anxiety have been implicated in the pathophysiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, few studies have performed separate measurements of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA) which reflect different neurobiological processes. Thus, we aimed to explore the cortical morphological anomaly separately in SAD using FreeSurfer. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were obtained from 32 non-comorbid never-treated adult SAD patients and 32 demography-matched healthy controls. Cortical morphometry indices including CT and CSA were separately determined by FreeSurfer and compared between the two groups via whole-brain vertex-wise analysis, while partial correlation analysis using age and gender as covariates were conducted. FINDINGS: The patients with SAD showed decreased CT but increased CSA near-symmetrically in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventromedial subdivisions, as well as the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex; increased CSA in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was also observed in SAD. The CSA in the left PFC was negatively correlated with the disease duration. INTERPRETATION: As the balloon model hypothesis suggests that the tangentially stretched cortex may cause dissociations in cortical morphometry and affect the cortical capacity for information processing, our findings of dissociated morphological alterations in the PFC and cortical expansion in the STG may reflect the morphological alterations of the functional reorganization in those regions, and highlight the important role of those structures in the pathophysiology and neurobiology of SAD. FUNDING: This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31700964, 31800963, 81621003, and 81820108018).

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its benefits, a major concern regarding antipsychotic treatment is its possible impact on the brain's structure and function. This study sought to explore the characteristics of white matter structural networks in chronic never treated schizophrenia and those treated with clozapine or risperidone, and its potential association with cognitive function. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was performed on a unique sample of 34 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic monotherapy for over five years (17 treated with clozapine and 17 treated with risperidone), 17 never-treated schizophrenia patients with illness duration over five years, and 27 healthy control subjects. Graph theory and network-based statistic (NBS) approaches were employed. RESULTS: We observed a disrupted organization of white matter structural networks as well as decreased nodal and connectivity characteristics across the schizophrenia groups, mainly involving thalamus, prefrontal and occipital regions. Alterations in nodal and connectivity characteristics were relatively milder in risperidone-treated patients than clozapine-treated patients and never-treated patients. Altered global network measures were significantly associated with cognitive performance levels. Structural connectivity as reflected by NBS mediated the difference in cognitive performance levels between clozapine-treated and risperidone-treated patients. LIMITATIONS: Those results are constrained by the lack of random assignment to different types of antipsychotic treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insight into the white matter structural network deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia, either being treated or untreated, and suggest white matter structural networks supporting cognitive function may benefit from antipsychotic treatment, especially in those treated with risperidone.

12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587507

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may have, at least in part, a common etiology. However, the unique and the shared neuroanatomical characteristics of the two disorders have not been fully identified. The aim of this study was to compare the topological organization of gray matter networks between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid medication-naive SAD patients, and 41 healthy controls. Single-subject gray matter graphs were extracted from structural MRI scans, and whole-brain neuroanatomic organization was compared across the three groups. The relationships between brain network measures and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Relative to healthy controls, both the MDD and the SAD patients showed global decreases in clustering coefficient, normalized clustering coefficient, and small-worldness and locally decreased nodal centralities and morphological connections in the left insular, lingual, and calcarine cortices. Compared with healthy controls, the SAD patients exhibited increased nodal centralities and morphological connections mainly involving the prefrontal cortex and the sensorimotor network. Furthermore, compared to the SAD patients, the MDD patients showed increased characteristic path length, reduced global efficiency, and decreased nodal centralities and morphological connections in the right middle occipital gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus. Our findings provide new evidence for shared and specific similarity-based gray matter network alterations in MDD and SAD and emphasize that the psychopathological changes in the right middle occipital gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus might be different between the two disorders.

13.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 35: 39-48, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402652

RESUMO

Hippocampal volume deficits have been reported in chronically-treated schizophrenia patients, however, the longer-term effects of antipsychotic medications on hippocampal anatomy are unclear. This case-control study investigated volume differences in hippocampal subfields of never-treated and antipsychotic-treated patients with long-term schizophrenia. High spatial-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from 29 never-treated and 40 antipsychotic-treated patients with long-term schizophrenia matched for illness duration (all ≥ 5 years), and 40 demographically-matched healthy controls. Hippocampal subfield volumes were measured using FreeSurfer v6.0, compared across groups and between hemispheres, and correlated with clinical features. Volume reductions were found in both patient groups compared to healthy controls in 8 of 26 hippocampal subfields (Cohen's d = 0.46 - 1.17, P = < .001 - .03), and more diffusely and obviously in never-treated than treated patients (Cohen's d = 0.50 - 0.90, P = < .001 - .04). Greater right-than-left volumes were seen in treated patients and healthy controls in 11 of 13 subfields (T = 2.30 - 7.29, P = < .001 - .03), but not in never-treated patients, in whom the volumes were reduced more on the right than on the left. Subfield volumes were negatively correlated with symptom severity and illness duration, and declined with age in never-treated patients. Findings indicate clinically-relevant and age-related volume reductions in hippocampal subfields of never-treated patients with long-term schizophrenia. Broader and greater subfield deficits in never-treated than treated patients, especially in the right hippocampus, suggest that long-term antipsychotic treatment may benefit hippocampal structures over the longer-term course of illness.

14.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(8): 1369-1379, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353861

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group versus HC, and between those of each psychiatric disorder and HC. As a group, relatives exhibited gray matter abnormalities in left supramarginal gyrus, right striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral insula, right cerebellum, and right superior frontal gyrus, compared with HC. Decreased right cerebellar gray matter was the only abnormality common to relatives of all three conditions. Subgroup analyses showed disorder-specific gray matter abnormalities in left thalamus and bilateral insula associated with risk for SCZ, in left supramarginal gyrus and right frontal regions with risk for BD, and in right striatum with risk for MDD. While decreased gray matter in right cerebellum might be a common brain structural abnormality associated with shared risk for SCZ, BD, and MDD, regional gray matter abnormalities in neocortex, thalamus, and striatum appear to be disorder-specific.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 136, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398765

RESUMO

Though gray matter deficits have been consistently revealed in chronic treated schizophrenia, it is still not clear whether there are different brain alterations between chronic never treated and treated patients. To explore the different patterns of gray matter alterations among chronic never treated patients and those treated with monotherapy, we recruited 35 never-treated chronic schizophrenia patients with illness durations ranging from 5 to 48 years, 20 illness duration-matched risperidone monotherapy and 20 clozapine monotherapy patients, and 55 healthy controls. GM (surface area, cortical thickness, and cortical volume) measures were extracted and compared using ANCOVA across the four groups followed by post hoc tests. Relative to controls, both treated and never-treated chronic schizophrenia patients showed reduced GM mainly involving the bilateral medial and rostral middle frontal, left banks superior temporal sulcus, left fusiform, and left pericalcarine cortex and increased in the left cuneus. Compared with the untreated patient group, the two treated groups showed reductions mainly in the bilateral prefrontal, temporal, and left inferior parietal lobules. The clozapine monotherapy patients demonstrated more severe decreases in the bilateral prefrontal cortex and left cuneus and less severe decreases in the left ventral temporal lobe than risperidone monotherapy patients. These findings provide new insights into the long-term effects of antipsychotic treatment on gray matter alterations in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, the characteristic findings of reductions in the inferior parietal lobule might be specific for long-term antipsychotic treatment, which could be a possible target for medication development in the future.

16.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(8): 1406, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303695

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

17.
Front Med ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270434

RESUMO

Asthma is a serious health problem that involves not only the respiratory system but also the central nervous system. Previous studies identified either regional or network alterations in patients with asthma, but inconsistent results were obtained. A key question remains unclear: are the regional and neural network deficits related or are they two independent characteristics in asthma? Answering this question is the aim of this study. By collecting resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from 39 patients with asthma and 40 matched health controls, brain functional measures including regional activity (amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations) and neural network function (degree centrality (DC) and functional connectivity) were calculated to systematically characterize the functional alterations. Patients exhibited regional abnormities in the left angular gyrus, right precuneus, and inferior temporal gyrus within the default mode network. Network abnormalities involved both the sensorimotor network and visual network with key regions including the superior frontal gyrus and occipital lobes. Altered DC in the lingual gyrus was correlated with the degree of airway obstruction. This study elucidated different patterns of regional and network changes, thereby suggesting that the two parameters reflect different brain characteristics of asthma. These findings provide evidence for further understanding the potential cerebral alterations in the pathophysiology of asthma.

18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116647

RESUMO

Background: There is growing evidence supporting behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as extreme points of a disease spectrum. The aim of this study was to delineate the common and different patterns of gray matter atrophy associated with bvFTD and with ALS by pooling together the results of previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies. Methods: We retrieved VBM studies that investigated gray matter atrophy in bvFTD patients vs. controls and in ALS patients vs. controls. Stereotactic data were extracted from those studies and subsequently tested for convergence and differences using activation likelihood estimation (ALE). A behavioral analysis using the BrainMap database was performed to assess the functional roles of the regions affected by bvFTD and/or ALS. Results: Our study demonstrated a convergence of gray matter atrophy in the frontolimbic structures that involve the bilateral anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. Comparing the pattern of GM atrophy in bvFTD and ALS patients revealed greater atrophy in the frontomedial cortex, bilateral caudate, left anterior insula, and right thalamus in those with bvFTD and a higher degree of atrophy in the right motor cortex of those with ALS. Behavioral analysis revealed that the pattern of the affected regions contributed to the dysfunction of emotional and cognitive processing in bvFTD patients and the dysfunction of motor execution in ALS patients. Conclusion: Our results revealed a shared neural basis between bvFTD and ALS subjects, as well as a specific and distinct neural signature that underpinned the clinical manifestations of those two diseases. Those findings outlined the role of the frontomedial-caudate circuit in the development of bvFTD-like deficits in ALS patients.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 43, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatized earthquake survivors may develop poor memory function. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and machine learning techniques may one day aid the clinical assessment of individual psychiatric patients. This study aims to use machine learning with Rs-fMRI from the perspectives of neurophysiology and neuroimaging to explore the association between it and the individual memory function of trauma survivors. METHODS: Rs-fMRI data was acquired for eighty-nine survivors (male (33%), average age (SD):45.18(6.31) years) of Wenchuan earthquakes in 2008 each of whom was screened by experienced psychiatrists based on the clinician-administered post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scale (CAPS), and their memory function scores were determined by the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV (WMS-IV). We explored which memory function scores were significantly associated with CAPS scores. Using simple multiple kernel learning (MKL), Rs-fMRI was used to predict the memory function scores that were associated with CAPS scores. A support vector machine (SVM) was also used to make classifications in trauma survivors with or without PTSD. RESULTS: Spatial addition (SA), which is defined by spatial working memory function, was negatively correlated with the total CAPS score (r = - 0.22, P = 0.04). The use of simple MKL allowed quantitative association of SA scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation = 0.28, P = 0.03; mean squared error = 8.36; P = 0.04). The left middle frontal gyrus and the left precuneus contributed the largest proportion to the simple MKL association frame. The SVM could not make a quantitative classification of diagnosis with statistically significant accuracy. LIMITATIONS: The use of the cross-sectional study design after exposure to an earthquake and the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) increases the risk of overfitting. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous brain activity of the left middle frontal gyrus and the left precuneus acquired by rs-fMRI may be a brain mechanism of visual working memory that is related to PTSD symptoms. Machine learning may be a useful tool in the identification of brain mechanisms of memory impairment in trauma survivors.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Transtornos da Memória , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Sobreviventes , Transferência Psicológica
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008167

RESUMO

Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders, but strategies to predict mood episodes are unavailable. In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline 1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr) levels were calculated. SVM with a linear kernel was adopted to classify converters and non-converters based on their baseline metabolites. SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters across all regions for Cho (accuracy = 76.0%), but not for other metabolites. Considering all metabolites within each region, SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters for left VLPFC (accuracy = 76.5%), but not for right VLPFC or ACC. The combined mI, PCr + Cr, and Cho from left VLPFC achieved the highest accuracy differentiating converters from non-converters (79.0%). Our findings from this exploratory study suggested that 1H-MRS levels of mI, Cho, and PCr + Cr from left VLPFC might be useful to predict the development of first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring using machine learning. Future studies that prospectively examine and validate these metabolites as predictors of mood episodes in high-risk individuals are necessary.

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