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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5893, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625544

RESUMO

Despite the involvement of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in many important biological pathways, the target residues of PARP1-mediated ADP-ribosylation remain ambiguous. To explicate the ADP-ribosylation regulome, we analyze human cells depleted for key regulators of PARP1 activity, histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Using quantitative proteomics, we characterize 1,596 ADP-ribosylation sites, displaying up to 1000-fold regulation across the investigated knockout cells. We find that HPF1 and ARH3 inversely and homogenously regulate the serine ADP-ribosylome on a proteome-wide scale with consistent adherence to lysine-serine-motifs, suggesting that targeting is independent of HPF1 and ARH3. Notably, we do not detect an HPF1-dependent target residue switch from serine to glutamate/aspartate under the investigated conditions. Our data support the notion that serine ADP-ribosylation mainly exists as mono-ADP-ribosylation in cells, and reveal a remarkable degree of histone co-modification with serine ADP-ribosylation and other post-translational modifications.


Assuntos
Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosilação , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Serina/metabolismo
2.
Nature ; 574(7779): 571-574, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645724

RESUMO

To safeguard genome integrity in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), mammalian cells mobilize the neighbouring chromatin to shield DNA ends against excessive resection that could undermine repair fidelity and cause damage to healthy chromosomes1. This form of genome surveillance is orchestrated by 53BP1, whose accumulation at DSBs triggers sequential recruitment of RIF1 and the shieldin-CST-POLα complex2. How this pathway reflects and influences the three-dimensional nuclear architecture is not known. Here we use super-resolution microscopy to show that 53BP1 and RIF1 form an autonomous functional module that stabilizes three-dimensional chromatin topology at sites of DNA breakage. This process is initiated by accumulation of 53BP1 at regions of compact chromatin that colocalize with topologically associating domain (TAD) sequences, followed by recruitment of RIF1 to the boundaries between such domains. The alternating distribution of 53BP1 and RIF1 stabilizes several neighbouring TAD-sized structures at a single DBS site into an ordered, circular arrangement. Depletion of 53BP1 or RIF1 (but not shieldin) disrupts this arrangement and leads to decompaction of DSB-flanking chromatin, reduction in interchromatin space, aberrant spreading of DNA repair proteins, and hyper-resection of DNA ends. Similar topological distortions are triggered by depletion of cohesin, which suggests that the maintenance of chromatin structure after DNA breakage involves basic mechanisms that shape three-dimensional nuclear organization. As topological stabilization of DSB-flanking chromatin is independent of DNA repair, we propose that, besides providing a structural scaffold to protect DNA ends against aberrant processing, 53BP1 and RIF1 safeguard epigenetic integrity at loci that are disrupted by DNA breakage.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(4): 487-497, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804506

RESUMO

Failure to complete DNA replication is a stochastic by-product of genome doubling in almost every cell cycle. During mitosis, under-replicated DNA (UR-DNA) is converted into DNA lesions, which are inherited by daughter cells and sequestered in 53BP1 nuclear bodies (53BP1-NBs). The fate of such cells remains unknown. Here, we show that the formation of 53BP1-NBs interrupts the chain of iterative damage intrinsically embedded in UR-DNA. Unlike clastogen-induced 53BP1 foci that are repaired throughout interphase, 53BP1-NBs restrain replication of the embedded genomic loci until late S phase, thus enabling the dedicated RAD52-mediated repair of UR-DNA lesions. The absence or malfunction of 53BP1-NBs causes premature replication of the affected loci, accompanied by genotoxic RAD51-mediated recombination. Thus, through adjusting replication timing and repair pathway choice at under-replicated loci, 53BP1-NBs enable the completion of genome duplication of inherited UR-DNA and prevent the conversion of stochastic under-replications into genome instability.


Assuntos
Estruturas do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA , Período de Replicação do DNA , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Segregação de Cromossomos , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Humanos , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética , Fase S/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/fisiologia
4.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 37, 2018 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic instability promotes evolution and heterogeneity of tumors. Unraveling its mechanistic basis is essential for the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we reported an unexpected oncogenic property of p21WAF1/Cip1, showing that its chronic expression in a p53-deficient environment causes genomic instability by deregulation of the replication licensing machinery. RESULTS: We now demonstrate that p21WAF1/Cip1 can further fuel genomic instability by suppressing the repair capacity of low- and high-fidelity pathways that deal with nucleotide abnormalities. Consequently, fewer single nucleotide substitutions (SNSs) occur, while formation of highly deleterious DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is enhanced, crafting a characteristic mutational signature landscape. Guided by the mutational signatures formed, we find that the DSBs are repaired by Rad52-dependent break-induced replication (BIR) and single-strand annealing (SSA) repair pathways. Conversely, the error-free synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) repair route is deficient. Surprisingly, Rad52 is activated transcriptionally in an E2F1-dependent manner, rather than post-translationally as is common for DNA repair factor activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results signify the importance of mutational signatures as guides to disclose the repair history leading to genomic instability. We unveil how chronic p21WAF1/Cip1 expression rewires the repair process and identifies Rad52 as a source of genomic instability and a candidate therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , DNA/biossíntese , Humanos
5.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13887, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976684

RESUMO

Genome integrity relies on precise coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Whereas replication stress attracted much attention, the consequences of mitotic perturbations for genome integrity are less understood. Here, we knockdown 47 validated mitotic regulators to show that a broad spectrum of mitotic errors correlates with increased DNA breakage in daughter cells. Unexpectedly, we find that only a subset of these correlations are functionally linked. We identify the genuine mitosis-born DNA damage events and sub-classify them according to penetrance of the observed phenotypes. To demonstrate the potential of this resource, we show that DNA breakage after cytokinesis failure is preceded by replication stress, which mounts during consecutive cell cycles and coincides with decreased proliferation. Together, our results provide a resource to gauge the magnitude and dynamics of DNA breakage associated with mitotic aberrations and suggest that replication stress might limit propagation of cells with abnormal karyotypes.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Dano ao DNA/genética , Mitose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinese/genética , Quebras de DNA , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia Confocal , Fenótipo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
6.
Mol Cell ; 64(6): 1127-1134, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984746

RESUMO

Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose depletion inhibited G1 to S phase progression when oncogenic cyclin E was overexpressed. RAD52, a gene dispensable for normal development in mice, was among the top hits. In cells in which fork collapse was induced by oncogenes or chemicals, the Rad52 protein localized to DRS foci. Depletion of Rad52 by siRNA or knockout of the gene by CRISPR/Cas9 compromised restart of collapsed forks and led to DNA damage in cells experiencing DRS. Furthermore, in cancer-prone, heterozygous APC mutant mice, homozygous deletion of the Rad52 gene suppressed tumor growth and prolonged lifespan. We therefore propose that mammalian RAD52 facilitates repair of collapsed DNA replication forks in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Ciclina E/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/deficiência , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina E/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Fase G1 , Expressão Gênica , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , Fase S , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 23(8): 714-21, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348077

RESUMO

Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals is coordinated by the ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of 53BP1 at DSB-flanking chromatin. Owing to its ability to limit DNA-end processing, 53BP1 is thought to promote nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and to suppress homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we show that silencing 53BP1 or exhausting its capacity to bind damaged chromatin changes limited DSB resection to hyper-resection and results in a switch from error-free gene conversion by RAD51 to mutagenic single-strand annealing by RAD52. Thus, rather than suppressing HDR, 53BP1 fosters its fidelity. These findings illuminate causes and consequences of synthetic viability acquired through 53BP1 silencing in cells lacking the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. We show that such cells survive DSB assaults at the cost of increasing reliance on RAD52-mediated HDR, which may fuel genome instability. However, our findings suggest that when challenged by DSBs, BRCA1- and 53BP1-deficient cells may become hypersensitive to, and be eliminated by, RAD52 inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Transporte Proteico , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(10): 4950-61, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25916843

RESUMO

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) formed during S phase are preferentially repaired by homologous recombination (HR), whereas G1 DSBs, such as those occurring during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR), are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The DNA damage response proteins 53BP1 and BRCA1 regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. 53BP1 promotes CSR in part by mediating synapsis of distal DNA ends, and in addition, inhibits 5' end resection. BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 dependent DNA end-blocking activity during S phase, which would otherwise promote mutagenic NHEJ and genome instability. Recently, it was shown that supra-physiological levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168 results in the hyper-accumulation of 53BP1/BRCA1 which accelerates DSB repair. Here, we ask whether increased expression of RNF168 or 53BP1 impacts physiological versus mutagenic NHEJ. We find that the anti-resection activities of 53BP1 are rate-limiting for mutagenic NHEJ but not for physiological CSR. As heterogeneity in the expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 is found in human tumors, our results suggest that deregulation of the RNF168/53BP1 pathway could alter the chemosensitivity of BRCA1 deficient tumors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
9.
Nat Cell Biol ; 16(8): 792-803, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25064736

RESUMO

Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in trans signalling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient recruitment of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1), a central regulator of DNA damage responses, into the nucleoli. We further identify TCOF1 (also known as Treacle), a nucleolar factor implicated in ribosome biogenesis and mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, as an interaction partner of NBS1, and demonstrate that NBS1 translocation and accumulation in the nucleoli is Treacle dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that Treacle-mediated NBS1 recruitment into the nucleoli regulates rRNA silencing in trans in the presence of distant chromosome breaks.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
10.
Cell ; 155(5): 1088-103, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267891

RESUMO

ATR, activated by replication stress, protects replication forks locally and suppresses origin firing globally. Here, we show that these functions of ATR are mechanistically coupled. Although initially stable, stalled forks in ATR-deficient cells undergo nucleus-wide breakage after unscheduled origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells commonly feature intrinsically high replication stress, this study also provides a molecular rationale for their hypersensitivity to ATR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Origem de Replicação
11.
Mol Cell ; 52(2): 206-20, 2013 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24055346

RESUMO

Although the general relevance of chromatin modifications for genotoxic stress signaling, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and DNA repair is well established, how these modifications reach initial thresholds in order to trigger robust responses remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify the chromatin-associated scaffold attachment factor SAFB1 as a component of the DNA damage response and show that SAFB1 cooperates with histone acetylation to allow for efficient γH2AX spreading and genotoxic stress signaling. SAFB1 undergoes a highly dynamic exchange at damaged chromatin in a poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase 1- and poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent manner and is required for unperturbed cell-cycle checkpoint activation and guarding cells against replicative stress. Altogether, our data reveal that transient recruitment of an architectural chromatin component is required in order to overcome physiological barriers by making chromatin permissive for DNA damage signaling, whereas the ensuing exclusion of SAFB1 may help prevent excessive signaling.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Acetilação , Western Blotting , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Genéticos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Poli Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
12.
J Biol Chem ; 288(23): 16579-16587, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23615962

RESUMO

Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect of individually overexpressing the majority of human DUBs on RNF8/RNF168-mediated 53BP1 retention at DSB sites, we found that USP44 and USP29 powerfully inhibited this response at the level of RNF168 accrual. Both USP44 and USP29 promoted efficient deubiquitylation of histone H2A, but unlike USP44, USP29 displayed nonspecific reactivity toward ubiquitylated substrates. Moreover, USP44 but not other H2A DUBs was recruited to RNF168-generated ubiquitylation products at DSB sites. Individual depletion of these DUBs only mildly enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates and 53BP1 at DSBs, suggesting considerable functional redundancy among cellular DUBs that restrict ubiquitin-dependent protein assembly at DSBs. Our findings implicate USP44 in negative regulation of the RNF8/RNF168 pathway and illustrate the usefulness of DUB overexpression screens for identification of antagonizers of ubiquitin-dependent cellular responses.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes , Endopeptidases/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina
14.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 19(11): 1084-92, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23042605

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-mediated processes orchestrate critical DNA-damage signaling and repair pathways. We identify human DVC1 (C1orf124; Spartan) as a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex (APC) substrate that accumulates at stalled replication forks. DVC1 recruitment to sites of replication stress requires its ubiquitin-binding UBZ domain and PCNA-binding PIP box motif but is independent of RAD18-mediated PCNA monoubiquitylation. Via a conserved SHP box, DVC1 recruits the ubiquitin-selective chaperone p97 to blocked replication forks, which may facilitate p97-dependent removal of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase η (Pol η) from monoubiquitylated PCNA. DVC1 knockdown enhances UV light-induced mutagenesis, and depletion of human DVC1 or the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog DVC-1 causes hypersensitivity to replication stress-inducing agents. Our findings establish DVC1 as a DNA damage-targeting p97 adaptor that protects cells from deleterious consequences of replication blocks and suggest an important role of p97 in ubiquitin-dependent regulation of TLS.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Imunoprecipitação , Espectrometria de Massas , Mutagênese , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína com Valosina
15.
Cell ; 150(4): 697-709, 2012 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22884692

RESUMO

Histone ubiquitylation is a prominent response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but how these modifications are confined to DNA lesions is not understood. Here, we show that TRIP12 and UBR5, two HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligases, control accumulation of RNF168, a rate-limiting component of a pathway that ubiquitylates histones after DNA breakage. We find that RNF168 can be saturated by increasing amounts of DSBs. Depletion of TRIP12 and UBR5 allows accumulation of RNF168 to supraphysiological levels, followed by massive spreading of ubiquitin conjugates and hyperaccumulation of ubiquitin-regulated genome caretakers such as 53BP1 and BRCA1. Thus, regulatory and proteolytic ubiquitylations are wired in a self-limiting circuit that promotes histone ubiquitylation near the DNA lesions but at the same time counteracts its excessive spreading to undamaged chromosomes. We provide evidence that this mechanism is vital for the homeostasis of ubiquitin-controlled events after DNA breakage and can be subverted during tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Alphapapillomavirus , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Transcrição Genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Ubiquitinação
16.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 19(8): 803-10, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22773103

RESUMO

Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 splice variant (LEDGF) is a chromatin-binding protein known for its antiapoptotic activity and ability to direct human immunodeficiency virus into active transcription units. Here we show that LEDGF promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the homologous recombination repair pathway. Depletion of LEDGF impairs the recruitment of C-terminal binding protein interacting protein (CtIP) to DNA DSBs and the subsequent CtIP-dependent DNA-end resection. LEDGF is constitutively associated with chromatin through its Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain that binds preferentially to epigenetic methyl-lysine histone markers characteristic of active transcription units. LEDGF binds CtIP in a DNA damage-dependent manner, thereby enhancing its tethering to the active chromatin and facilitating its access to DNA DSBs. These data highlight the role of PWWP-domain proteins in DNA repair and provide a molecular explanation for the antiapoptotic and cancer cell survival-activities of LEDGF.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apoptose , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Endodesoxirribonucleases , HIV/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Integração Viral
17.
J Cell Biol ; 197(2): 189-99, 2012 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22492721

RESUMO

Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks (DSBs), mediated by the RNF8/RNF168 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in recruiting repair factors, including 53BP1 and BRCA1, to reestablish genome integrity. In this paper, we show that human RNF169, an uncharacterized E3 ubiquitin ligase paralogous to RNF168, accumulated in DSB repair foci through recognition of RNF168-catalyzed ubiquitylation products by its motif interacting with ubiquitin domain. Unexpectedly, RNF169 was dispensable for chromatin ubiquitylation and ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of repair factors at DSB sites. Instead, RNF169 functionally competed with 53BP1 and RAP80-BRCA1 for association with RNF168-modified chromatin independent of its catalytic activity, limiting the magnitude of their recruitment to DSB sites. By delaying accumulation of 53BP1 and RAP80 at damaged chromatin, RNF169 stimulated homologous recombination and restrained nonhomologous end joining, affecting cell survival after DSB infliction. Our results show that RNF169 functions in a noncanonical fashion to harness RNF168-mediated protein recruitment to DSB-containing chromatin, thereby contributing to regulation of DSB repair pathway utilization.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Chaperonas de Histonas , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética
18.
Cell Cycle ; 11(8): 1573-82, 2012 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22456334

RESUMO

The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) machinery that maintains genomic integrity and prevents severe pathologies, including cancer, is orchestrated by signaling through protein modifications. Protein ubiquitylation regulates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), toxic lesions caused by various metabolic as well as environmental insults such as ionizing radiation (IR). Whereas several components of the DSB-evoked ubiquitylation cascade have been identified, including RNF168 and BRCA1 ubiquitin ligases, whose genetic defects predispose to a syndrome mimicking ataxia-telangiectasia and cancer, respectively, the identity of the apical E1 enzyme involved in DDR has not been established. Here, we identify ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 as the E1 enzyme required for responses to IR and replication stress in human cells. We show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of UBA1, but not of another UBA family member UBA6, impaired formation of both ubiquitin conjugates at the sites of DNA damage and IR-induced foci (IRIF) by the downstream components of the DSB response pathway, 53BP1 and BRCA1. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of UBA1 prevented IRIF formation and severely impaired DSB repair and formation of 53BP1 bodies in G 1, a marker of response to replication stress. In contrast, the upstream steps of DSB response, such as phosphorylation of histone H2AX and recruitment of MDC1, remained unaffected by UBA1 depletion. Overall, our data establish UBA1 as the apical enzyme critical for ubiquitylation-dependent signaling of both DSBs and replication stress in human cells, with implications for maintenance of genomic integrity, disease pathogenesis and cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Fase G1 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitinação
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 40(9): 3913-28, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22234878

RESUMO

Mdc1 is a large modular phosphoprotein scaffold that maintains signaling and repair complexes at double-stranded DNA break sites. Mdc1 is anchored to damaged chromatin through interaction of its C-terminal BRCT-repeat domain with the tail of γH2AX following DNA damage, but the role of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA) domain remains unclear. We show that a major binding target of the Mdc1 FHA domain is a previously unidentified DNA damage and ATM-dependent phosphorylation site near the N-terminus of Mdc1 itself. Binding to this motif stabilizes a weak self-association of the FHA domain to form a tight dimer. X-ray structures of free and complexed Mdc1 FHA domain reveal a 'head-to-tail' dimerization mechanism that is closely related to that seen in pre-activated forms of the Chk2 DNA damage kinase, and which both positively and negatively influences Mdc1 FHA domain-mediated interactions in human cells prior to and following DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transativadores/química , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/análise , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Dimerização , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosfotreonina/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Treonina/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 13(10): 1161-9, 2011 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21968989

RESUMO

Following the discovery in 1998 of γ-H2AX, the first histone modification induced by DNA damage, interest in the changes to chromatin induced by DNA damage has exploded, and a vast amount of information has been generated. However, there has been a discrepancy between our rapidly advancing knowledge of how chromatin responds to DNA damage and the understanding of why cells mobilize large segments of chromatin to protect the genome against destabilizing effects posed by tiny DNA lesions. Recent research has provided insights into these issues and suggests that chromatin responses induced by DNA damage are not simply the accumulation of 'nuclear foci' but are mechanisms required to guard genome integrity.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Dano ao DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Animais , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
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