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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804709

RESUMO

While numerous genomes of Leishmania spp. have been sequenced and analyzed, an understanding of the evolutionary history of these organisms remains limited due to the unavailability of the sequence data for their closest known relatives, Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., infecting sloths and porcupines. We have sequenced and analyzed genomes of three members of this clade in order to fill this gap. Their comparative analyses revealed only minute differences from Leishmaniamajor genome in terms of metabolic capacities. We also documented that the number of genes under positive selection on the Endotrypanum/Porcisia branch is rather small, with the flagellum-related group of genes being over-represented. Most significantly, the analysis of gene family evolution revealed a substantially reduced repertoire of surface proteins, such as amastins and biopterin transporters BT1 in the Endotrypanum/Porcisia species when compared to amastigote-dwelling Leishmania. This reduction was especially pronounced for δ-amastins, a subfamily of cell surface proteins crucial in the propagation of Leishmania amastigotes inside vertebrate macrophages and, apparently, dispensable for Endotrypanum/Porcisia, which do not infect such cells.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837778

RESUMO

The main bacterial pathway for inserting proteins into the plasma membrane relies on the signal recognition particle (SRP), composed of the Ffh protein and an associated RNA component, and the SRP-docking protein FtsY. Eukaryotes use an equivalent system of archaeal origin to deliver proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas a bacteria-derived SRP and FtsY function in the plastid. Here we report on the presence of homologs of the bacterial Ffh and FtsY proteins in various unrelated plastid-lacking unicellular eukaryotes, namely Heterolobosea, Alveida, Goniomonas, and Hemimastigophora. The monophyly of novel eukaryotic Ffh and FtsY groups, predicted mitochondrial localization experimentally confirmed for Naegleria gruberi, and a strong alphaproteobacterial affinity of the Ffh group, collectively suggest they constitute parts of an ancestral mitochondrial signal peptide-based protein-targeting system inherited from the last eukaryotic common ancestor, but lost from the majority of extant eukaryotes. The ability of putative signal peptides, predicted in a subset of mitochondrial-encoded N. gruberi proteins, to target a reporter fluorescent protein into the endoplasmic reticulum of Trypanosoma brucei, likely through their interaction with the cytosolic SRP, provided further support for this notion. We also illustrate that known mitochondrial ribosome-interacting proteins implicated in membrane protein targeting in opisthokonts (Mba1, Mdm38, and Mrx15) are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and non-redundant with the mitochondrial SRP system. Finally, we identified a novel mitochondrial protein (MAP67) present in diverse eukaryotes and related to the signal peptide-binding domain of Ffh, which may well be a hitherto unrecognized component of the mitochondrial membrane protein-targeting machinery.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(6): 3354-3370, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660779

RESUMO

Uridine insertion/deletion (U-indel) editing of mitochondrial mRNA, unique to the protistan class Kinetoplastea, generates canonical as well as potentially non-productive editing events. While the molecular machinery and the role of the guide (g) RNAs that provide required information for U-indel editing are well understood, little is known about the forces underlying its apparently error-prone nature. Analysis of a gRNA:mRNA pair allows the dissection of editing events in a given position of a given mitochondrial transcript. A complete gRNA dataset, paired with a fully characterized mRNA population that includes non-canonically edited transcripts, would allow such an analysis to be performed globally across the mitochondrial transcriptome. To achieve this, we have assembled 67 minicircles of the insect parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris, with each minicircle typically encoding one gRNA located in one of two similar-sized units of different origin. From this relatively narrow set of annotated gRNAs, we have dissected all identified mitochondrial editing events in L. pyrrhocoris, the strains of which dramatically differ in the abundance of individual minicircle classes. Our results support a model in which a multitude of editing events are driven by a limited set of gRNAs, with individual gRNAs possessing an inherent ability to guide canonical and non-canonical editing.

4.
Eur J Protistol ; 79: 125778, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706204

RESUMO

The expanding phylogenetic tree of trypanosomatid flagellates (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) contains a long-known and phylogenetically well-supported species-rich lineage that was provisionally named as the 'jaculum' clade. Its members were found in representatives of several unrelated families of heteropteran bugs captured in South and Central America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, this group resisted introduction into the culture, a needed prerequisite for its proper characterization. Here we describe four new cultivable species, which parasitize various parts of their hosts' intestine, including the thoracic and abdominal part of the midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules. Morphologically, the cultured flagellates vary from relatively short stumpy promastigotes to long slender leptomonad cells. Some species form straphangers (cyst-like amastigotes) both in vivo and in vitro, initially attached to the basal part of the flagellum of the mother cell, from which they subsequently detach. To formally classify this enigmatic monophyletic cosmopolitan clade, we erected Obscuromonas gen. nov., including five species: O. modryi sp. nov. (isolated from the true bug host species Riptortus linearis captured in the Philippines), O. volfi sp. nov. (from Catorhintha selector, Curaçao), O. eliasi sp. nov. (from Graptostethus servus, Papua New Guinea), O. oborniki sp. nov. (from Aspilocoryphus unimaculatus, Madagascar), and O. jaculum comb. nov. (from Nepa cinerea, France). Obscuromonas along with the genus Blastocrithidia belongs to the newly established Blastocrithidiinae subfam. nov.

5.
Open Biol ; 11(3): 200407, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715388

RESUMO

Euglenozoa is a species-rich group of protists, which have extremely diverse lifestyles and a range of features that distinguish them from other eukaryotes. They are composed of free-living and parasitic kinetoplastids, mostly free-living diplonemids, heterotrophic and photosynthetic euglenids, as well as deep-sea symbiontids. Although they form a well-supported monophyletic group, these morphologically rather distinct groups are almost never treated together in a comparative manner, as attempted here. We present an updated taxonomy, complemented by photos of representative species, with notes on diversity, distribution and biology of euglenozoans. For kinetoplastids, we propose a significantly modified taxonomy that reflects the latest findings. Finally, we summarize what is known about viruses infecting euglenozoans, as well as their relationships with ecto- and endosymbiotic bacteria.

6.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; : e12846, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624359

RESUMO

The mitochondrion is crucial for ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation, among other processes. Cristae are invaginations of the mitochondrial inner membrane that house nearly all the macromolecular complexes that perform oxidative phosphorylation. The unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei undergoes during its life cycle extensive remodeling of its single mitochondrion, which reflects major changes in its energy metabolism. While the bloodstream form (BSF) generates ATP exclusively by substrate-level phosphorylation and has a morphologically highly reduced mitochondrion, the insect-dwelling procyclic form (PCF) performs oxidative phosphorylation and has an expanded and reticulated organelle. Here, we have performed high-resolution 3D reconstruction of BSF and PCF mitochondria, with a particular focus on their cristae. By measuring the volumes and surface areas of these structures in complete or nearly complete cells, we have found that mitochondrial cristae are more prominent in BSF than previously thought and their biogenesis seems to be maintained during the cell cycle. Furthermore, PCF cristae exhibit a surprising range of volumes in situ, implying that each crista is acting as an independent bioenergetic unit. Cristae appear to be particularly enriched in the region of the organelle between the nucleus and kinetoplast, the mitochondrial genome, suggesting this part has distinctive properties.

7.
Parasitology ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612129

RESUMO

Telomeres are the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes facilitating the resolution of the 'end replication and protection' problems, associated with linearity. At the nucleotide level, telomeres typically represent stretches of tandemly arranged telomeric repeats, which vary in length and sequence among different groups of organisms. Recently, a composition of the telomere-associated protein complex has been scrutinized in Trypanosoma brucei. In this work, we subjected proteins from that list to a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and delineated a core set of 20 conserved proteins putatively associated with telomeres in trypanosomatids. Out of these, two proteins (Ku70 and Ku80) are conspicuously missing in representatives of the genus Blastocrithidia, yet telomeres in these species do not appear to be affected. In this work, based on the analysis of a large set of trypanosomatids widely different in their phylogenetic position and life strategies, we demonstrated that telomeres of trypanosomatids are diverse in length, even within groups of closely related species. Our analysis showed that the expression of two proteins predicted to be associated with telomeres (those encoding telomerase and telomere-associated hypothetical protein orthologous to Tb927.6.4330) may directly affect and account for the differences in telomere length within the species of the Leishmania mexicana complex.

8.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 187, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family Trypanosomatidae encompasses parasitic flagellates, some of which cause serious vector-transmitted diseases of humans and domestic animals. However, insect-restricted parasites represent the ancestral and most diverse group within the family. They display a range of unusual features and their study can provide insights into the biology of human pathogens. Here we describe Vickermania, a new genus of fly midgut-dwelling parasites that bear two flagella in contrast to other trypanosomatids, which are unambiguously uniflagellate. RESULTS: Vickermania has an odd cell cycle, in which shortly after the division the uniflagellate cell starts growing a new flagellum attached to the old one and preserves their contact until the late cytokinesis. The flagella connect to each other throughout their whole length and carry a peculiar seizing structure with a paddle-like apex and two lateral extensions at their tip. In contrast to typical trypanosomatids, which attach to the insect host's intestinal wall, Vickermania is separated from it by a continuous peritrophic membrane and resides freely in the fly midgut lumen. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Vickermania developed a survival strategy that relies on constant movement preventing discharge from the host gut due to intestinal peristalsis. Since these parasites cannot attach to the midgut wall, they were forced to shorten the period of impaired motility when two separate flagella in dividing cells interfere with each other. The connection between the flagella ensures their coordinate movement until the separation of the daughter cells. We propose that Trypanosoma brucei, a severe human pathogen, during its development in the tsetse fly midgut faces the same conditions and follows the same strategy as Vickermania by employing an analogous adaptation, the flagellar connector.

9.
Database (Oxford) ; 20202020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216898

RESUMO

The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene is a widely used molecular marker to study the diversity of life. Sequencing of SSU rRNA gene amplicons has become a standard approach for the investigation of the ecology and diversity of microbes. However, a well-curated database is necessary for correct classification of these data. While available for many groups of Bacteria and Archaea, such reference databases are absent for most eukaryotes. The primary goal of the EukRef project (eukref.org) is to close this gap and generate well-curated reference databases for major groups of eukaryotes, especially protists. Here we present a set of EukRef-curated databases for the excavate protists-a large assemblage that includes numerous taxa with divergent SSU rRNA gene sequences, which are prone to misclassification. We identified 6121 sequences, 625 of which were obtained from cultures, 3053 from cell isolations or enrichments and 2419 from environmental samples. We have corrected the classification for the majority of these curated sequences. The resulting publicly available databases will provide phylogenetically based standards for the improved identification of excavates in ecological and microbiome studies, as well as resources to classify new discoveries in excavate diversity.

10.
Trends Genet ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203574

RESUMO

Though widespread, RNA editing is rare, except in endosymbiotic organelles. A combination of higher mutation rates, relaxation of energetic constraints, and high genetic drift is found within plastids and mitochondria and is conducive for evolution and expansion of editing processes, possibly starting as repair mechanisms. To illustrate this, we present an exhaustive phylogenetic overview of editing types.

12.
Trends Parasitol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127331

RESUMO

The unicellular trypanosomatids belong to the phylum Euglenozoa and all known species are obligate parasites. Distinct lineages infect plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, including humans. Genome data for marine diplonemids, together with freshwater euglenids and free-living kinetoplastids, the closest known nonparasitic relatives to trypanosomatids, recently became available. Robust phylogenetic reconstructions across Euglenozoa are now possible and place the results of parasite-focused studies into an evolutionary context. Here we discuss recent advances in identifying the factors shaping the evolution of Euglenozoa, focusing on ancestral features generally considered parasite-specific. Remarkably, most of these predate the transition(s) to parasitism, suggesting that the presence of certain preconditions makes a significant lifestyle change more likely.

13.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(12): 2403-2416, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104188

RESUMO

Receptor adenylate cyclases (RACs) on the surface of trypanosomatids are important players in the host-parasite interface. They detect still unidentified environmental signals that affect the parasites' responses to host immune challenge, coordination of social motility, and regulation of cell division. A lesser known class of oxygen-sensing adenylate cyclases (OACs) related to RACs has been lost in trypanosomes and expanded mostly in Leishmania species and related insect-dwelling trypanosomatids. In this work, we have undertaken a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of both classes of adenylate cyclases (ACs) in trypanosomatids and the free-living Bodo saltans. We observe that the expanded RAC repertoire in trypanosomatids with a two-host life cycle is not only associated with an extracellular lifestyle within the vertebrate host, but also with a complex path through the insect vector involving several life cycle stages. In Trypanosoma brucei, RACs are split into two major clades, which significantly differ in their expression profiles in the mammalian host and the insect vector. RACs of the closely related Trypanosoma congolense are intermingled within these two clades, supporting early RAC diversification. Subspecies of T. brucei that have lost the capacity to infect insects exhibit high numbers of pseudogenized RACs, suggesting many of these proteins have become redundant upon the acquisition of a single-host life cycle. OACs appear to be an innovation occurring after the expansion of RACs in trypanosomatids. Endosymbiont-harboring trypanosomatids exhibit a diversification of OACs, whereas these proteins are pseudogenized in Leishmania subgenus Viannia. This analysis sheds light on how ACs have evolved to allow diverse trypanosomatids to occupy multifarious niches and assume various lifestyles.

14.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(9): 4014-4031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779301

RESUMO

We analysed a widely used barcode, the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene, to study the effect of environmental conditions on the distribution of two related heterotrophic protistan lineages in marine plankton, kinetoplastids and diplonemids. We relied on a major published dataset (Tara Oceans) where samples from the mesopelagic zone were available from just 32 of 123 locations, and both groups are most abundant in this zone. To close sampling gaps and obtain more information from the deeper ocean, we collected 57 new samples targeting especially the mesopelagic zone. We sampled in three geographic regions: the Arctic, two depth transects in the Adriatic Sea, and the anoxic Cariaco Basin. In agreement with previous studies, both protist groups are most abundant and diverse in the mesopelagic zone. In addition to that, we found that their abundance, richness, and community structure also depend on geography, oxygen concentration, salinity, temperature, and other environmental variables reflecting the abundance of algae and nutrients. Both groups studied here demonstrated similar patterns, although some differences were also observed. Kinetoplastids and diplonemids prefer tropical regions and nutrient-rich conditions and avoid high oxygen concentration, high salinity, and high density of algae.

15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(17): 9747-9761, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853372

RESUMO

Kinetoplastid flagellates are known for several unusual features, one of which is their complex mitochondrial genome, known as kinetoplast (k) DNA, composed of mutually catenated maxi- and minicircles. Trypanosoma lewisi is a member of the Stercorarian group of trypanosomes which is, based on human infections and experimental data, now considered a zoonotic pathogen. By assembling a total of 58 minicircle classes, which fall into two distinct categories, we describe a novel type of kDNA organization in T. lewisi. RNA-seq approaches allowed us to map the details of uridine insertion and deletion editing events upon the kDNA transcriptome. Moreover, sequencing of small RNA molecules enabled the identification of 169 unique guide (g) RNA genes, with two differently organized minicircle categories both encoding essential gRNAs. The unprecedented organization of minicircles and gRNAs in T. lewisi broadens our knowledge of the structure and expression of the mitochondrial genomes of these human and animal pathogens. Finally, a scenario describing the evolution of minicircles is presented.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , RNA Guia/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Trypanosoma lewisi/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Edição de RNA
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579605

RESUMO

ZapE/Afg1 is a component of the inner cell membrane of some eubacteria and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. This protein is involved in FtsZ-dependent division of eubacteria. In the yeast and human mitochondrion, ZapE/Afg1 likely interacts with Oxa1 and facilitates the degradation of mitochondrion-encoded subunits of respiratory complexes. Furthermore, the depletion of ZapE increases resistance to apoptosis, decreases oxidative stress tolerance, and impacts mitochondrial protein homeostasis. It remains unclear whether ZapE is a multifunctional protein, or whether some of the described effects are just secondary phenotypes. Here, we have analyzed the functions of ZapE in Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist, and an important model organism. Using a newly developed proximity-dependent biotinylation approach (BioID2), we have identified the inner mitochondrial membrane insertase Oxa1 among three putative interacting partners of ZapE, which is present in two paralogs. RNAi-mediated depletion of both ZapE paralogs likely affected the function of respiratory complexes I and IV. Consistently, we show that the distribution of mitochondrial ZapE is restricted only to organisms with Oxa1, respiratory complexes, and a mitochondrial genome. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved interaction of ZapE with Oxa1, which is required for proper insertion of many inner mitochondrial membrane proteins, is behind the multifaceted phenotype caused by the ablation of ZapE.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Biotinilação , Regulação para Baixo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica
17.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(9): 3660-3670, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548939

RESUMO

Diplonemids are a group of highly diverse and abundant marine microeukaryotes that belong to the phylum Euglenozoa and form a sister clade to the well-studied, mostly parasitic kinetoplastids. Very little is known about the biology of diplonemids, as few species have been formally described and just one, Diplonema papillatum, has been studied to a decent extent at the molecular level. Following up on our previous results showing stable but random integration of delivered extraneous DNA, we demonstrate here homologous recombination in D. papillatum. Targeting various constructs to the intended position in the nuclear genome was successful when 5' and 3' homologous regions longer than 1 kbp were used, achieving N-terminal tagging with mCherry and gene replacement of α- and ß-tubulins. For more convenient genetic manipulation, we designed a modular plasmid, pDP002, which bears a protein-A tag and used it to generate and express a C-terminally tagged mitoribosomal protein. Lastly, we developed an improved transformation protocol for broader applicability across laboratories. Our robust methodology allows the replacement, integration as well as endogenous tagging of D. papillatum genes, thus opening the door to functional studies in this species and establishing a basic toolkit for reverse genetics of diplonemids in general.

19.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430475

RESUMO

When trying to reconstruct the evolutionary trajectories during early eukaryogenesis, one is struck by clear differences in the developments of two organelles of endosymbiotic origin: the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. From a symbiogenic perspective, eukaryotic development can be interpreted as a process in which many of the defining eukaryotic characteristics arose as a result of mutual adaptions of both prokaryotes (an archaeon and a bacterium) involved. This implies that many steps during the bacterium-to-mitochondrion transition trajectory occurred in an intense period of dramatic and rapid changes. In contrast, the subsequent cyanobacterium-to-chloroplast development in a specific eukaryotic subgroup, leading to the photosynthetic lineages, occurred in a full-fledged eukaryote. The commonalities and differences in the two trajectories shed an interesting light on early, and ongoing, eukaryotic evolutionary driving forces, especially endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Differences between organellar ribosomes, changes to the electron transport chain (ETC) components, and mitochondrial codon reassignments in nonplant mitochondria can be understood when mitochondrial ROS formation, e.g., during high energy consumption in heterotrophs, is taken into account.IMPORTANCE The early eukaryotic evolution was deeply influenced by the acquisition of two endosymbiotic organelles - the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. Here we discuss the possibly important role of reactive oxygen species in these processes.

20.
Curr Biol ; 30(10): R575-R588, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428499

RESUMO

Cristae are infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane jutting into the organelle's innermost compartment from narrow stems at their base called crista junctions. They are emblematic of aerobic mitochondria, being the fabric for the molecular machinery driving cellular respiration. Electron microscopy revealed that diverse eukaryotes possess cristae of different shapes. Yet, crista diversity has not been systematically examined in light of our current knowledge about eukaryotic evolution. Since crista form and function are intricately linked, we take a holistic view of factors that may underlie both crista diversity and the adherence of cristae to a recognizable form. Based on electron micrographs of 226 species from all major lineages, we propose a rational crista classification system that postulates cristae as variations of two general morphotypes: flat and tubulo-vesicular. The latter is most prevalent and likely ancestral, but both morphotypes are found interspersed throughout the eukaryotic tree. In contrast, crista junctions are remarkably conserved, supporting their proposed role as diffusion barriers that sequester cristae contents. Since cardiolipin, ATP synthase dimers, the MICOS complex, and dynamin-like Opa1/Mgm1 are known to be involved in shaping cristae, we examined their variation in the context of crista diversity. Moreover, we have identified both commonalities and differences that may collectively be manifested as diverse variations of crista form and function.

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