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1.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 7(3): 323-330, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep bruxism is mostly assessed by reporting of tooth-grinding or clenching during sleep and by clinical signs (tooth wear, cracks, or fractures). Parafunctional tooth damage is usually prevented by employing occlusal appliances mainly of the full arch covering type (Michigan splint) and of the partial type covering only central incisors (NTI-tss). To date, the effects of occlusal appliances on sleep bruxism or jaw muscle activity during sleep are still controversial. The present study is a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of two different splint designs on jaw muscle activity in sleep bruxers otherwise healthy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients from a private dental practice were treated by a single operator. A Michigan splint and an NTI-tss device were manufactured individually and used at random order. Electromyographic jaw muscle activity was recorded for four consecutive nights in the first, fourth, and seventh week with and without splint. Participants reported on splint comfort and side effects. RESULTS: Muscle activity decreased only while wearing the NTI-tss device. Most patients preferred though the Michigan splint due to its greater wearing comfort. CONCLUSIONS: NTI-tss devices proved more effective for the reduction of jaw muscle activity during sleep. The main advantage of the prefabricated NTI-tss is its prompt availability in an acute phase of temporomandibular disorders associated with sleep bruxism. In long-term therapies, patients should be informed of the possible risk of irreversible occlusal changes. Subjective preferences, wearing comfort, and costs should also be considered.


Assuntos
Bruxismo do Sono , Humanos , Michigan , Músculos , Projetos Piloto , Bruxismo do Sono/terapia , Contenções
2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 557415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343482

RESUMO

Introduction: Orofacial pain features may negatively influence a person's well-being and vice versa. Some aspects of well-being can be measured with axis II instruments that assess patients' psychosocial and behavioral status. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pain features and psychosocial variables as indicators of well-being. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred ninety-nine anonymized datasets collected using the Web-based Interdisciplinary Symptom Evaluation (WISE) of patients reporting to the Interdisciplinary Orofacial Pain Unit, University of Zurich, between March 19, 2017 and May 19, 2019, were analyzed. Pain features including intensity, number of locations, impact, and duration were evaluated. Psychometric measures assessed pain-related catastrophizing and disability, illness perception, distress, anxiety, depression, injustice experience, dysmorphic concerns, and insomnia. Results: Most patients were between 30 and 59 years old (58.3%), female (69.8%), working (66.0%), and experienced pain for more than 6 months (68.5%). Pain intensities were higher in women than men and higher in disabled than working patients. Scores indicating elevated stress and depression were also observed in disabled patients. The sample prevalence rates of clinically relevant axis II instrument scores were as follows: Graded Chronic Pain Scale for the Head (GCPS-H), 27%; Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ4), 21%; PHQ9, 21%; Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), 20%; General Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD7), 15%; Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), 15%; Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ), 14%; GCPS for the Body (GCPS-B), 13%; PHQ for Stress (PHQstr), 6%; and Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ), 2%. Noteworthy results of correlation analysis of the clinically relevant axis II scores and pain measures were as follows: the PHQstr had moderate associations (0.34-0.43) with the sum of pain intensity at rest and during function, number of pain locations, and typical pain intensity. The IEQ scores were moderately associated with typical pain intensity at 0.39. The DCQ scores were moderately associated with pain extension at 0.41. Conclusions: Moderate correlations of certain pain and well-being measures were found in patients reporting clinically relevant stress, injustice experience, and dysmorphic concern, all of which reflect impaired well-being. PHQ4 is suitable for routine distress screening in the clinical setting.

3.
Swiss Dent J ; (7-8): 593-598, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674531

RESUMO

The interdisciplinary Orofacial Pain Unit at the Center of Dental Medicine of the University of Zurich celebrates its 15th anniversary. This article outlines the evidence-based integrative treatment concept with a focus on psychosocial aspects of pain. We exemplify how the evaluation and treatment by a pain psychologist complements the dental therapy. For example, self-management techniques can assist in reducing apprehension, worries and fears, which are often associated with an increased tone of the masticatory muscles. Manifestations include clenching and grinding of teeth, orofacial pain, and other less specific symptoms such as tinnitus. The clinical relevance is illustrated by selected case studies from routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Dor Facial , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Humanos , Músculos da Mastigação
4.
J Pain ; 21(3-4): 440-454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521794

RESUMO

Acupuncture is a complementary and nonpharmacological intervention that can be effective for the management of chronic pain in addition to or instead of medication. Various animal models for neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, cancer-related pain, and visceral pain already exist in acupuncture research. We used a newly validated human pain model and examined whether acupuncture can influence experimentally induced dental pain. For this study, we compared the impact of manual acupuncture (real acupuncture), manual stimulation of a needle inserted at nonacupuncture points (sham acupuncture) and no acupuncture on experimentally induced dental pain in 35 healthy men who were randomized to different sequences of all 3 interventions in a within-subject design. BORG CR10 pain ratings and autonomic responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate variability) were investigated. An initial mixed model with repeated measures included preintervention pain ratings and the trial sequence as covariates. The results showed that acupuncture was effective in reducing pain intensity when compared to no acupuncture (ß = -.708, P = .002), corresponding to a medium Cohen's d effect size of .56. The comparison to the sham acupuncture revealed no statistically significant difference. No differences in autonomic responses between real and sham acupuncture were found during the intervention procedures. PERSPECTIVE: This study established a dental pain model for acupuncture research and provided evidence that experimentally induced dental pain can be influenced by either real acupuncture or manual stimulation of needles at nonacupuncture points. The data do not support that acupoint specificity is a significant factor in reducing experimental pain.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Odontalgia/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medição da Dor , Placebos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ther Umsch ; 76(5): 261-266, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577185

RESUMO

Temporomandibular disorders - a biopsychosocial perspective Abstract. Clinicians encountering patients complaining of jaw joint symptoms need to see and understand the patients' somatic complaint in the context of possible biographic, psychological and social burdens and to select the appropriate therapeutic options accordingly.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Humanos , Articulação Temporomandibular
6.
J Psychosom Res ; 125: 109778, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442843

RESUMO

Anger is prevalent in chronic pain and has been associated with pain perception, disability, behavior and treatment outcome. Objectives were (1) to survey in the context of chronic pain the application (and omission) of validated anger self-report instruments, (2) to discuss the instruments found in the context of emotion theories and (3) to identify a possible instrument preference. A systematic search of textbooks and review articles was first performed on validated instruments designed to measure the cognitive, the motivational and the subjective feeling component of anger. Thereafter, a systematic review aimed at finding chronic pain studies from 2005 to 2019 reporting on these instruments. Textbooks and reviews listed 16 validated self-report anger measurement instruments. 28 papers applying four of these were identified and two new instruments were additionally detected. The State-Trait Anger Expression (STAXI) and its precursors were most commonly used. Studies on chronic low back pain patients prevailed. In conclusion, anger in chronic pain patients is reliably measurable at low cost with self-report tools. The STAXI-II qualifies best for this purpose based on its extensive validation history. The majority of instruments lack sufficient theoretical and psychometric adequacy. A more detailed exploration of the cognitive anger component in chronic pain patients in future research is recommended.


Assuntos
Ira , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Autorrelato/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Front Neurol ; 10: 542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191436

RESUMO

Introduction: Orofacial pain and dysfunction include a broad range of disturbances among which pain and insomnia are some of the most common complaints. Sleep strengthens physiological and psychological resilience and is an absolute requirement for health. Insomnia is a common symptom or sleep disorder, yet data on its prevalence is sparse. Here we extracted data from the insomnia severity index which was part of the web-based interdisciplinary symptom evaluation (WISE) tool given to a large sample of patients seeking care at an orofacial pain unit for analyzing insomnia prevalence in this clinical population. Material and methods: Anonymized data were available from 952 patients who consulted the Orofacial Pain Unit at the Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland between January 2017 and December 2018. Prevalence data for insomnia stratified by gender and 10 age groups (decades) were calculated. The distribution of four insomnia severity grades was determined, also stratified by age and gender. Results: 952 patients (290 men: 30.5%) with a mean age of 44.8 ± 17.4 years completed a WISE. Three hundred and fifty-two (37.0%) patients with a mean age of 45.8 ± 16.7 years positively responded to a screening question for insomnia and/or hypersomnia. Insomnia was severe in women from the 2nd to 8th decade, ranging from 4.3% (3rd decade) to 14.5% (6th decade), and moderately severe from the 2nd to 9th decade, ranging from 18.8% (6th decade) to 27.8% (2nd decade). In men, severe insomnia was present from the 3rd to 7th decade, ranging from 2.3% (7th decade) to 4.4% (4th decade) and moderately severe insomnia from the 3rd to 7th decade, ranging from 4.6% (7th decade) to 12.2% (5th decade). Conclusions: This is the first study reporting on insomnia in a large sample of patients seeking care at an orofacial pain unit. One in three patients reported some form of sleep disturbances, which for almost half of them was moderate to severe insomnia. The gender ratio was almost equal throughout adulthood, yet younger and older women were more frequently affected and experienced higher insomnia severity than men.

8.
J Headache Pain ; 17(1): 77, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical symptoms independent of body location burden individuals to varying degrees and may require care by more than one expert. Various paper and computer-based tools exist that aim to comprehensively capture data for optimal clinical management and research. METHODS: A web-based interdisciplinary symptom evaluation (WISE) was newly designed, constructed, and technically implemented. For worldwide applicability and to avoid copyright infringements, open source software tools and free validated questionnaires available in multiple languages were used. Highly secure data storage limits access strictly to those who use the tool for collecting, storing, and evaluating their data. Concept and implementation is illustrated by a WISE sample tailored for the requirements of a single center in Switzerland providing interdisciplinary care to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorder patients. RESULTS: By combining a symptom- burden checklist with in-depth questionnaires serving as case-finding instruments, an algorithm was developed that assists in clarifying case complexity and need for targeted expert evaluation. This novel modular approach provides a personalized, response-tailored instrument for the time- and cost-effective collection of symptom-burden focused quantitative data. The tool includes body drawing options and instructional videos. It is applicable for biopsychosocial evaluation in a variety of clinical settings and offers direct feedback by a case report summary. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice, the new instrument assists in clarifying case complexity and referral need, based on symptom burden and response -tailored case finding. It provides single-case summary reports from a biopsychosocial perspective and includes graphical symptom maps. Secure, centrally stored data collection of anonymous data is possible. The tool enables personalized medicine, facilitates interprofessional education and collaboration, and allows for multicenter patient-reported outcomes research.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas/instrumentação , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dor Facial/etiologia , Dor Facial/psicologia , Heurística , Humanos , Internet , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Design de Software , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador
9.
J Neurophysiol ; 115(3): 1730-4, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26792885

RESUMO

Drug effects of loco-regional anesthetics are commonly measured by unidimensional pain rating scales. These scales require subjects to transform their perceptual correlates of stimulus intensities onto a visual, verbal, or numerical construct that uses a unitless cognitive reference frame. The conceptual understanding and execution of this magnitude estimation task may vary among individuals and populations. To circumvent inherent shortcomings of conventional experimental pain scales, this study used a novel perceptual reference approach to track subjective sensory perceptions during onset of an analgesic nerve block. In 34 male subjects, nociceptive electric stimuli of 1-ms duration were repetitively applied to left (target) and right (reference) mandibular canines every 5 s for 600 s, with a side latency of 1 ms. Stimulus strength to the target canine was programmed to evoke a tolerable pain intensity perception and remained constant at this level throughout the experiment. A dose of 0.6 ml of articaine 4% was submucosally injected at the left mental foramen. Subjects then reported drug effects by adjusting the stimulus strength (in milliamperes) to the reference tooth, so that the perceived intensity in the reference tooth was equi-intense to the target tooth. Pain and stimulus perception offsets were indicated by subjects. Thus, the current approach for matching the sensory experience in one anatomic location after regional anesthesia allows detailed tracking of evolving perceptual changes in another location. This novel perceptual reference approach facilitates direct and accurate quantification of analgesic effects with high temporal resolution. We propose using this method for future experimental investigations of analgesic/anesthetic drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Carticaína/farmacologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Percepção da Dor , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Carticaína/administração & dosagem , Carticaína/uso terapêutico , Dente Canino/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Canino/inervação , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Nociceptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor/normas , Limiar da Dor , Valores de Referência
10.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 8: 526, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25100974

RESUMO

Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c) vs. the right tibia (UCS-t). For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+). Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were (1) skin conductance changes and (2) time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point toward a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

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