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1.
Nature ; 604(7906): 451-456, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444318

RESUMO

The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is key for building scalable quantum information systems1,2. In most state-of-the-art approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, non-local connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, between layers of single- and two-qubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitation into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation3-5. We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states, such as cluster states and a seven-qubit Steane code state6,7. Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code state with thirteen data and six ancillary qubits8 and a toric code state on a torus with sixteen data and eight ancillary qubits9. Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analogue-digital evolution2 and use it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations10-12, experimentally observing non-monotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum many-body scars13,14. Realizing a long-standing goal, these results provide a route towards scalable quantum processing and enable applications ranging from simulation to metrology.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(10): 100504, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533337

RESUMO

Efficient sampling from a classical Gibbs distribution is an important computational problem with applications ranging from statistical physics over Monte Carlo and optimization algorithms to machine learning. We introduce a family of quantum algorithms that provide unbiased samples by preparing a state encoding the entire Gibbs distribution. We show that this approach leads to a speedup over a classical Markov chain algorithm for several examples, including the Ising model and sampling from weighted independent sets of two different graphs. Our approach connects computational complexity with phase transitions, providing a physical interpretation of quantum speedup. Moreover, it opens the door to exploring potentially useful sampling algorithms on near-term quantum devices, as the algorithm for sampling from independent sets on certain graphs can be naturally implemented using Rydberg atom arrays.

3.
Science ; 373(6562): 1511-1514, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385353

RESUMO

The realization of an efficient quantum optical interface for multi-qubit systems is an outstanding challenge in science and engineering. Using two atoms in individually controlled optical tweezers coupled to a nanofabricated photonic crystal cavity, we demonstrate entanglement generation, fast nondestructive readout, and full quantum control of atomic qubits. The entangled state is verified in free space after being transported away from the cavity by encoding the qubits into long-lived states and using dynamical decoupling. Our approach bridges quantum operations at an optical link and in free space with a coherent one-way transport, potentially enabling an integrated optical interface for atomic quantum processors.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 050501, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397223

RESUMO

We demonstrate a new approach for fast preparation, manipulation, and collective readout of an atomic Rydberg-state qubit. By making use of Rydberg blockade inside a small atomic ensemble, we prepare a single qubit within 3 µs with a success probability of F_{p}=0.93±0.02, rotate it, and read out its state in 6 µs with a single-shot fidelity of F_{d}=0.92±0.04. The ensemble-assisted detection is 10^{3} times faster than imaging of a single atom with the same optical resolution, and enables fast repeated nondestructive measurement. We observe qubit coherence times of 15 µs, much longer than the π rotation time of 90 ns. Potential applications ranging from faster quantum information processing in atom arrays to efficient implementation of quantum error correction are discussed.

5.
Nature ; 595(7866): 227-232, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234334

RESUMO

Motivated by far-reaching applications ranging from quantum simulations of complex processes in physics and chemistry to quantum information processing1, a broad effort is currently underway to build large-scale programmable quantum systems. Such systems provide insights into strongly correlated quantum matter2-6, while at the same time enabling new methods for computation7-10 and metrology11. Here we demonstrate a programmable quantum simulator based on deterministically prepared two-dimensional arrays of neutral atoms, featuring strong interactions controlled by coherent atomic excitation into Rydberg states12. Using this approach, we realize a quantum spin model with tunable interactions for system sizes ranging from 64 to 256 qubits. We benchmark the system by characterizing high-fidelity antiferromagnetically ordered states and demonstrating quantum critical dynamics consistent with an Ising quantum phase transition in (2 + 1) dimensions13. We then create and study several new quantum phases that arise from the interplay between interactions and coherent laser excitation14, experimentally map the phase diagram and investigate the role of quantum fluctuations. Offering a new lens into the study of complex quantum matter, these observations pave the way for investigations of exotic quantum phases, non-equilibrium entanglement dynamics and hardware-efficient realization of quantum algorithms.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(25): 250505, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241526

RESUMO

Localized electronic and nuclear spin qubits in the solid state constitute a promising platform for storage and manipulation of quantum information, even at room temperature. However, the development of scalable systems requires the ability to entangle distant spins, which remains a challenge today. We propose and analyze an efficient, heralded scheme that employs a parity measurement in a decoherence free subspace to enable fast and robust entanglement generation between distant spin qubits mediated by a hot mechanical oscillator. We find that high-fidelity entanglement at cryogenic and even ambient temperatures is feasible with realistic parameters and show that the entangled pair can be subsequently leveraged for deterministic controlled-NOT operations between nuclear spins. Our results open the door for novel quantum processing architectures for a wide variety of solid-state spin qubits.

7.
Nature ; 595(7865): 48-52, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194017

RESUMO

One of the first theoretically predicted manifestations of strong interactions in many-electron systems was the Wigner crystal1-3, in which electrons crystallize into a regular lattice. The crystal can melt via either thermal or quantum fluctuations4. Quantum melting of the Wigner crystal is predicted to produce exotic intermediate phases5,6 and quantum magnetism7,8 because of the intricate interplay of Coulomb interactions and kinetic energy. However, studying two-dimensional Wigner crystals in the quantum regime has often required a strong magnetic field9-11 or a moiré superlattice potential12-15, thus limiting access to the full phase diagram of the interacting electron liquid. Here we report the observation of bilayer Wigner crystals without magnetic fields or moiré potentials in an atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure, which consists of two MoSe2 monolayers separated by hexagonal boron nitride. We observe optical signatures of robust correlated insulating states at symmetric (1:1) and asymmetric (3:1, 4:1 and 7:1) electron doping of the two MoSe2 layers at cryogenic temperatures. We attribute these features to bilayer Wigner crystals composed of two interlocked commensurate triangular electron lattices, stabilized by inter-layer interaction16. The Wigner crystal phases are remarkably stable, and undergo quantum and thermal melting transitions at electron densities of up to 6 × 1012 per square centimetre and at temperatures of up to about 40 kelvin. Our results demonstrate that an atomically thin heterostructure is a highly tunable platform for realizing many-body electronic states and probing their liquid-solid and magnetic quantum phase transitions4-8,17.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(22): 223602, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152159

RESUMO

We investigate the potential for two-dimensional atom arrays to modify the radiation and interaction of individual quantum emitters. Specifically, we demonstrate that control over the emission linewidths, resonant frequency shifts, and local driving field enhancement in impurity atoms is possible due to strong dipole-dipole interactions within ordered, subwavelength atom array configurations. We demonstrate that these effects can be used to dramatically enhance coherent dipole-dipole interactions between distant impurity atoms within an atom array. Possible experimental realizations and potential applications are discussed.

9.
Nat Mater ; 20(4): 480-487, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398121

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices in twisted van der Waals materials have recently emerged as a promising platform for engineering electronic and optical properties. A major obstacle to fully understanding these systems and harnessing their potential is the limited ability to correlate direct imaging of the moiré structure with optical and electronic properties. Here we develop a secondary electron microscope technique to directly image stacking domains in fully functional van der Waals heterostructure devices. After demonstrating the imaging of AB/BA and ABA/ABC domains in multilayer graphene, we employ this technique to investigate reconstructed moiré patterns in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayers and directly correlate the increasing moiré periodicity with the emergence of two distinct exciton species in photoluminescence measurements. These states can be tuned individually through electrostatic gating and feature different valley coherence properties. We attribute our observations to the formation of an array of two intralayer exciton species that reside in alternating locations in the superlattice, and open up new avenues to realize tunable exciton arrays in twisted van der Waals heterostructures, with applications in quantum optoelectronics and explorations of novel many-body systems.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468679

RESUMO

We analyze the zero-temperature phases of an array of neutral atoms on the kagome lattice, interacting via laser excitation to atomic Rydberg states. Density-matrix renormalization group calculations reveal the presence of a wide variety of complex solid phases with broken lattice symmetries. In addition, we identify a regime with dense Rydberg excitations that has a large entanglement entropy and no local order parameter associated with lattice symmetries. From a mapping to the triangular lattice quantum dimer model, and theories of quantum phase transitions out of the proximate solid phases, we argue that this regime could contain one or more phases with topological order. Our results provide the foundation for theoretical and experimental explorations of crystalline and liquid states using programmable quantum simulators based on Rydberg atom arrays.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(9): 750-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661373

RESUMO

Van der Waals heterostructures obtained via stacking and twisting have been used to create moiré superlattices1, enabling new optical and electronic properties in solid-state systems. Moiré lattices in twisted bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) result in exciton trapping2-5, host Mott insulating and superconducting states6 and act as unique Hubbard systems7-9 whose correlated electronic states can be detected and manipulated optically. Structurally, these twisted heterostructures feature atomic reconstruction and domain formation10-14. However, due to the nanoscale size of moiré domains, the effects of atomic reconstruction on the electronic and excitonic properties have not been systematically investigated. Here we use near-0°-twist-angle MoSe2/MoSe2 bilayers with large rhombohedral AB/BA domains15 to directly probe the excitonic properties of individual domains with far-field optics. We show that this system features broken mirror/inversion symmetry, with the AB and BA domains supporting interlayer excitons with out-of-plane electric dipole moments in opposite directions. The dipole orientation of ground-state Γ-K interlayer excitons can be flipped with electric fields, while higher-energy K-K interlayer excitons undergo field-asymmetric hybridization with intralayer K-K excitons. Our study reveals the impact of crystal symmetry on TMD excitons and points to new avenues for realizing topologically non-trivial systems16,17, exotic metasurfaces18, collective excitonic phases19 and quantum emitter arrays20,21 via domain-pattern engineering.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(21): 217403, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530686

RESUMO

The twist degree of freedom provides a powerful new tool for engineering the electrical and optical properties of van der Waals heterostructures. Here, we show that the twist angle can be used to control the spin-valley properties of transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers by changing the momentum alignment of the valleys in the two layers. Specifically, we observe that the interlayer excitons in twisted WSe_{2}/WSe_{2} bilayers exhibit a high (>60%) degree of circular polarization (DOCP) and long valley lifetimes (>40 ns) at zero electric and magnetic fields. The valley lifetime can be tuned by more than 3 orders of magnitude via electrostatic doping, enabling switching of the DOCP from ∼80% in the n-doped regime to <5% in the p-doped regime. These results open up new avenues for tunable chiral light-matter interactions, enabling novel device schemes that exploit the valley degree of freedom.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14636-14641, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541064

RESUMO

Understanding the coordination of cell-division timing is one of the outstanding questions in the field of developmental biology. One active control parameter of the cell-cycle duration is temperature, as it can accelerate or decelerate the rate of biochemical reactions. However, controlled experiments at the cellular scale are challenging, due to the limited availability of biocompatible temperature sensors, as well as the lack of practical methods to systematically control local temperatures and cellular dynamics. Here, we demonstrate a method to probe and control the cell-division timing in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos using a combination of local laser heating and nanoscale thermometry. Local infrared laser illumination produces a temperature gradient across the embryo, which is precisely measured by in vivo nanoscale thermometry using quantum defects in nanodiamonds. These techniques enable selective, controlled acceleration of the cell divisions, even enabling an inversion of division order at the two-cell stage. Our data suggest that the cell-cycle timing asynchrony of the early embryonic development in C. elegans is determined independently by individual cells rather than via cell-to-cell communication. Our method can be used to control the development of multicellular organisms and to provide insights into the regulation of cell-division timings as a consequence of local perturbations.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Termometria , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Nanodiamantes/química , Termometria/instrumentação , Termometria/métodos
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 103601, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216437

RESUMO

We describe the zero-temperature phase diagram of a model of a two-dimensional square-lattice array of neutral atoms, excited into Rydberg states and interacting via strong van der Waals interactions. Using the density-matrix renormalization group algorithm, we map out the phase diagram and obtain a rich variety of phases featuring complex density wave orderings, upon varying lattice spacing and laser detuning. While some of these phases result from the classical optimization of the van der Waals energy, we also find intrinsically quantum-ordered phases stabilized by quantum fluctuations. These phases are surrounded by novel quantum phase transitions, which we analyze by finite-size scaling numerics and Landau theories. Our work highlights Rydberg quantum simulators in higher dimensions as promising platforms to realize exotic many-body phenomena.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(6): 063602, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109118

RESUMO

We demonstrate photon-mediated interactions between two individually trapped atoms coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Specifically, we observe collective enhancement when the atoms are resonant with the cavity and level repulsion when the cavity is coupled to the atoms in the dispersive regime. Our approach makes use of individual control over the internal states of the atoms and their position with respect to the cavity mode, as well as the light shifts to tune atomic transitions individually, allowing us to directly observe the anticrossing of the bright and dark two-atom states. These observations open the door for realizing quantum networks and studying quantum many-body physics based on atom arrays coupled to nanophotonic devices.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 027401, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004011

RESUMO

We demonstrate a new approach for dynamically manipulating the optical response of an atomically thin semiconductor, a monolayer of MoSe_{2}, by suspending it over a metallic mirror. First, we show that suspended van der Waals heterostructures incorporating a MoSe_{2} monolayer host spatially homogeneous, lifetime-broadened excitons. Then, we interface this nearly ideal excitonic system with a metallic mirror and demonstrate control over the exciton-photon coupling. Specifically, by electromechanically changing the distance between the heterostructure and the mirror, thereby changing the local photonic density of states in a controllable and reversible fashion, we show that both the absorption and emission properties of the excitons can be dynamically modulated. This electromechanical control over exciton dynamics in a mechanically flexible, atomically thin semiconductor opens up new avenues in cavity quantum optomechanics, nonlinear quantum optics, and topological photonics.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(23): 230504, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868463

RESUMO

We demonstrate quantum many-body state reconstruction from experimental data generated by a programmable quantum simulator by means of a neural-network model incorporating known experimental errors. Specifically, we extract restricted Boltzmann machine wave functions from data produced by a Rydberg quantum simulator with eight and nine atoms in a single measurement basis and apply a novel regularization technique to mitigate the effects of measurement errors in the training data. Reconstructions of modest complexity are able to capture one- and two-body observables not accessible to experimentalists, as well as more sophisticated observables such as the Rényi mutual information. Our results open the door to integration of machine learning architectures with intermediate-scale quantum hardware.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 170503, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702233

RESUMO

We report the implementation of universal two- and three-qubit entangling gates on neutral-atom qubits encoded in long-lived hyperfine ground states. The gates are mediated by excitation to strongly interacting Rydberg states and are implemented in parallel on several clusters of atoms in a one-dimensional array of optical tweezers. Specifically, we realize the controlled-phase gate, enacted by a novel, fast protocol involving only global coupling of two qubits to Rydberg states. We benchmark this operation by preparing Bell states with fidelity F≥95.0(2)%, and extract gate fidelity ≥97.4(3)%, averaged across five atom pairs. In addition, we report a proof-of-principle implementation of the three-qubit Toffoli gate, in which two control atoms simultaneously constrain the behavior of one target atom. These experiments demonstrate key ingredients for high-fidelity quantum information processing in a scalable neutral-atom platform.

19.
Science ; 366(6467): 870-875, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727834

RESUMO

A van der Waals heterostructure built from atomically thin semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) enables the formation of excitons from electrons and holes in distinct layers, producing interlayer excitons with large binding energy and a long lifetime. By employing heterostructures of monolayer TMDs, we realize optical and electrical generation of long-lived neutral and charged interlayer excitons. We demonstrate that neutral interlayer excitons can propagate across the entire sample and that their propagation can be controlled by excitation power and gate electrodes. We also use devices with ohmic contacts to facilitate the drift motion of charged interlayer excitons. The electrical generation and control of excitons provide a route for achieving quantum manipulation of bosonic composite particles with complete electrical tunability.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(22): 220603, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283292

RESUMO

Motivated by recent experimental observations of coherent many-body revivals in a constrained Rydberg atom chain, we construct a weak quasilocal deformation of the Rydberg-blockaded Hamiltonian, which makes the revivals virtually perfect. Our analysis suggests the existence of an underlying nonintegrable Hamiltonian which supports an emergent SU(2)-spin dynamics within a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. We show that such perfect dynamics necessitates the existence of atypical, nonergodic energy eigenstates-quantum many-body scars. Furthermore, using these insights, we construct a toy model that hosts exact quantum many-body scars, providing an intuitive explanation of their origin. Our results offer specific routes to enhancing coherent many-body revivals and provide a step toward establishing the stability of quantum many-body scars in the thermodynamic limit.

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