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2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1707-1717, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed-loop systems that automate insulin delivery may improve glycemic outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this 6-month randomized, multicenter trial, patients with type 1 diabetes were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive treatment with a closed-loop system (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was within the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 10.0 mmol per liter), as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients underwent randomization; 112 were assigned to the closed-loop group, and 56 were assigned to the control group. The age range of the patients was 14 to 71 years, and the glycated hemoglobin level ranged from 5.4 to 10.6%. All 168 patients completed the trial. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was within the target range increased in the closed-loop group from 61±17% at baseline to 71±12% during the 6 months and remained unchanged at 59±14% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 14; P<0.001). The results with regard to the main secondary outcomes (percentage of time that the glucose level was >180 mg per deciliter, mean glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level, and percentage of time that the glucose level was <70 mg per deciliter or <54 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]) all met the prespecified hierarchical criterion for significance, favoring the closed-loop system. The mean difference (closed loop minus control) in the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was lower than 70 mg per deciliter was -0.88 percentage points (95% CI, -1.19 to -0.57; P<0.001). The mean adjusted difference in glycated hemoglobin level after 6 months was -0.33 percentage points (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.13; P = 0.001). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in closed-loop mode was 90% over 6 months. No serious hypoglycemic events occurred in either group; one episode of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in the closed-loop group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 6-month trial involving patients with type 1 diabetes, the use of a closed-loop system was associated with a greater percentage of time spent in a target glycemic range than the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; iDCL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03563313.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Diabetes Care ; 41(10): 2155-2161, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated a new insulin delivery system designed to reduce insulin delivery when trends in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose concentrations predict future hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (n = 103, age 6-72 years, mean HbA1c 7.3% [56 mmol/mol]) participated in a 6-week randomized crossover trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a Tandem Diabetes Care t:slim X2 pump with Basal-IQ integrated with a Dexcom G5 sensor and a predictive low-glucose suspend algorithm (PLGS) compared with sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. The primary outcome was CGM-measured time <70 mg/dL. RESULTS: Both study periods were completed by 99% of participants; median CGM usage exceeded 90% in both arms. Median time <70 mg/dL was reduced from 3.6% at baseline to 2.6% during the 3-week period in the PLGS arm compared with 3.2% in the SAP arm (difference [PLGS - SAP] = -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1 to -0.5, P < 0.001). The corresponding mean values were 4.4%, 3.1%, and 4.5%, respectively, represent-ing a 31% reduction in the time <70 mg/dL with PLGS. There was no increase in mean glucose concentration (159 vs. 159 mg/dL, P = 0.40) or percentage of time spent >180 mg/dL (32% vs. 33%, P = 0.12). One severe hypoglycemic event occurred in the SAP arm and none in the PLGS arm. Mean pump suspension time was 104 min/day. CONCLUSIONS: The Tandem Diabetes Care Basal-IQ PLGS system significantly reduced hypoglycemia without rebound hyperglycemia, indicating that the system can benefit adults and youth with type 1 diabetes in improving glycemic control.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(3): 420-428, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization (PHHM) system vs predictive low glucose suspension (PLGS) alone in optimizing overnight glucose control in children 6 to 14 years old. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-eight participants 6 to 14 years old with T1D duration ≥1 year with daily insulin therapy ≥12 months and on insulin pump therapy for ≥6 months were randomized per night into PHHM mode or PLGS-only mode for 42 nights. The primary outcome was percentage of time in sensor-measured range 70 to 180 mg/dL in the overnight period. RESULTS: The addition of automated insulin delivery with PHHM increased time in target range (70-180 mg/dL) from 66 ± 11% during PLGS nights to 76 ± 9% during PHHM nights (P<.001), without increasing hypoglycemia as measured by time below various thresholds. Average morning blood glucose improved from 176 ± 28 mg/dL following PLGS nights to 154 ± 19 mg/dL following PHHM nights (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PHHM system was effective in optimizing overnight glycemic control, significantly increasing time in range, lowering mean glucose, and decreasing glycemic variability compared to PLGS alone in children 6 to 14 years old.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Adolescente , Glicemia , Criança , Alarmes Clínicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Diabetes Care ; 40(3): 359-366, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization (PHHM) system compared with predictive low-glucose insulin suspension (PLGS) alone in overnight glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 42-night trial was conducted in 30 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the age range 15-45 years. Participants were randomly assigned each night to either PHHM or PLGS and were blinded to the assignment. The system suspended the insulin pump on both the PHHM and PLGS nights for predicted hypoglycemia but delivered correction boluses for predicted hyperglycemia on PHHM nights only. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent in a sensor glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL during the overnight period. RESULTS: The addition of automated insulin delivery with PHHM increased the time spent in the target range (70-180 mg/dL) from 71 ± 10% during PLGS nights to 78 ± 10% during PHHM nights (P < 0.001). The average morning blood glucose concentration improved from 163 ± 23 mg/dL after PLGS nights to 142 ± 18 mg/dL after PHHM nights (P < 0.001). Various sensor-measured hypoglycemic outcomes were similar on PLGS and PHHM nights. All participants completed 42 nights with no episodes of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or other study- or device-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of a predictive hyperglycemia minimization component to our existing PLGS system was shown to be safe, feasible, and effective in overnight glucose control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 19(1): 18-24, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few years, the artificial pancreas-the commonly accepted term for closed-loop control (CLC) of blood glucose in diabetes-has become a hot topic in research and technology development. In the summer of 2014, we initiated a 6-month trial evaluating the safety of 24/7 CLC during free-living conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Following an initial 1-month Phase 1, 14 individuals (10 males/4 females) with type 1 diabetes at three clinical centers in the United States and one in Italy continued with a 5-month Phase 2, which included 24/7 CLC using the wireless portable Diabetes Assistant (DiAs) developed at the University of Virginia Center for Diabetes Technology. Median subject characteristics were age 45 years, duration of diabetes 27 years, total daily insulin 0.53 U/kg/day, and baseline HbA1c 7.2% (55 mmol/mol). RESULTS: Compared with the baseline observation period, the frequency of hypoglycemia below 3.9 mmol/L during the last 3 months of CLC was lower: 4.1% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001. This was accompanied by a downward trend in HbA1c from 7.2% (55 mmol/mol) to 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) at 6 months. HbA1c improvement was correlated with system use (Spearman r = 0.55). The user experience was favorable with identified benefit particularly at night and overall trust in the system. There were no serious adverse events, severe hypoglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSION: We conclude that CLC technology has matured and is safe for prolonged use in patients' natural environment. Based on these promising results, a large randomized trial is warranted to assess long-term CLC efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas Artificial
7.
Diabetes Care ; 39(7): 1175-9, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330126

RESUMO

Research on and commercial development of the artificial pancreas (AP) continue to progress rapidly, and the AP promises to become a part of clinical care. In this report, members of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project Consortium in collaboration with the wider AP community 1) advocate for the use of continuous glucose monitoring glucose metrics as outcome measures in AP trials, in addition to HbA1c, and 2) identify a short set of basic, easily interpreted outcome measures to be reported in AP studies whenever feasible. Consensus on a broader range of measures remains challenging; therefore, reporting of additional metrics is encouraged as appropriate for individual AP studies or study groups. Greater consistency in reporting of basic outcome measures may facilitate the interpretation of study results by investigators, regulatory bodies, health care providers, payers, and patients themselves, thereby accelerating the widespread adoption of AP technology to improve the lives of people with type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Pâncreas Artificial , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Consenso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos
8.
Diabetes Care ; 39(7): 1143-50, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a portable, wearable, wireless artificial pancreas system (the Diabetes Assistant [DiAs] running the Unified Safety System) on glucose control at home in overnight-only and 24/7 closed-loop control (CLC) modes in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At six clinical centers in four countries, 30 participants 18-66 years old with type 1 diabetes (43% female, 96% non-Hispanic white, median type 1 diabetes duration 19 years, median A1C 7.3%) completed the study. The protocol included a 2-week baseline sensor-augmented pump (SAP) period followed by 2 weeks of overnight-only CLC and 2 weeks of 24/7 CLC at home. Glucose control during CLC was compared with the baseline SAP. RESULTS: Glycemic control parameters for overnight-only CLC were improved during the nighttime period compared with baseline for hypoglycemia (time <70 mg/dL, primary end point median 1.1% vs. 3.0%; P < 0.001), time in target (70-180 mg/dL: 75% vs. 61%; P < 0.001), and glucose variability (coefficient of variation: 30% vs. 36%; P < 0.001). Similar improvements for day/night combined were observed with 24/7 CLC compared with baseline: 1.7% vs. 4.1%, P < 0.001; 73% vs. 65%, P < 0.001; and 34% vs. 38%, P < 0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CLC running on a smartphone (DiAs) in the home environment was safe and effective. Overnight-only CLC reduced hypoglycemia and increased time in range overnight and increased time in range during the day; 24/7 CLC reduced hypoglycemia and increased time in range both overnight and during the day. Compared with overnight-only CLC, 24/7 CLC provided additional hypoglycemia protection during the day.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Pâncreas Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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