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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 335, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659195

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) exhibit distinct promoter hypermethylation patterns, but the epigenetic regulation and function of transcriptional enhancers remain unclear. Here, our affinity- and bisulfite-based whole-genome sequencing analyses reveal global enhancer hypomethylation in human HCCs. Integrative epigenomic characterization further pinpoints a recurrent hypomethylated enhancer of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBPß) which correlates with C/EBPß over-expression and poorer prognosis of patients. Demethylation of C/EBPß enhancer reactivates a self-reinforcing enhancer-target loop via direct transcriptional up-regulation of enhancer RNA. Conversely, deletion of this enhancer via CRISPR/Cas9 reduces C/EBPß expression and its genome-wide co-occupancy with BRD4 at H3K27ac-marked enhancers and super-enhancers, leading to drastic suppression of driver oncogenes and HCC tumorigenicity. Hepatitis B X protein transgenic mouse model of HCC recapitulates this paradigm, as C/ebpß enhancer hypomethylation associates with oncogenic activation in early tumorigenesis. These results support a causal link between aberrant enhancer hypomethylation and C/EBPß over-expression, thereby contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis through global transcriptional reprogramming.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Desmetilação , Epigênese Genética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transativadores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(11): 26263-79, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26540050

RESUMO

Microbes have co-evolved with human beings for millions of years. They play a very important role in maintaining the health of the host. With the advancement in next generation sequencing technology, the microbiome profiling in the host can be obtained under different circumstances. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the alteration of complex microbial communities upon the infection of different pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, at different body sites. It is believed that the increased understanding of the correlation between infectious disease and the alteration of the microbiome can contribute to better management of disease progression in the future. However, future studies may need to be more integrative so as to establish the exact causality of diseases by analyzing the correlation between microorganisms within the human host and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Metagenômica , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/microbiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Animais , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/microbiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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