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1.
Cell Syst ; 12(2): 128-140.e4, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373583

RESUMO

Systematic perturbation of cells followed by comprehensive measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses provides informative data resources for constructing computational models of cell biology. Models that generalize well beyond training data can be used to identify combinatorial perturbations of potential therapeutic interest. Major challenges for machine learning on large biological datasets are to find global optima in a complex multidimensional space and mechanistically interpret the solutions. To address these challenges, we introduce a hybrid approach that combines explicit mathematical models of cell dynamics with a machine-learning framework, implemented in TensorFlow. We tested the modeling framework on a perturbation-response dataset of a melanoma cell line after drug treatments. The models can be efficiently trained to describe cellular behavior accurately. Even though completely data driven and independent of prior knowledge, the resulting de novo network models recapitulate some known interactions. The approach is readily applicable to various kinetic models of cell biology. A record of this paper's Transparent Peer Review process is included in the Supplemental Information.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196823

RESUMO

CellMiner Cross-Database (CellMinerCDB, discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminercdb) allows integration and analysis of molecular and pharmacological data within and across cancer cell line datasets from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Broad Institute, Sanger/MGH and MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). We present CellMinerCDB 1.2 with updates to datasets from NCI-60, Broad Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and Sanger/MGH, and the addition of new datasets, including NCI-ALMANAC drug combination, MDACC Cell Line Project proteomic, NCI-SCLC DNA copy number and methylation data, and Broad methylation, genetic dependency and metabolomic datasets. CellMinerCDB (v1.2) includes several improvements over the previously published version: (i) new and updated datasets; (ii) support for pattern comparisons and multivariate analyses across data sources; (iii) updated annotations with drug mechanism of action information and biologically relevant multigene signatures; (iv) analysis speedups via caching; (v) a new dataset download feature; (vi) improved visualization of subsets of multiple tissue types; (vii) breakdown of univariate associations by tissue type; and (viii) enhanced help information. The curation and common annotations (e.g. tissues of origin and identifiers) provided here across pharmacogenomic datasets increase the utility of the individual datasets to address multiple researcher question types, including data reproducibility, biomarker discovery and multivariate analysis of drug activity.

3.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123346

RESUMO

AlignmentViewer is a web-based tool to view and analyze multiple sequence alignments of protein families. The particular strengths of AlignmentViewer include flexible visualization at different scales as well as analysis of conservation patterns and of the distribution of proteins in sequence space. The tool is directly accessible in web browsers without the need for software installation. It can handle protein families with tens of thousands of sequences and is particularly suitable for evolutionary coupling analysis, e.g. via EVcouplings.org.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0234669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137091

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Large-scale sequencing projects, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), have generated high throughput sequencing and molecular profiling data sets, but it is still challenging to identify potentially causal changes in cellular processes in cancer as well as in other diseases in an automated fashion. We developed the netboxr package written in the R programming language, which makes use of the NetBox algorithm to identify candidate cancer-related functional modules. The algorithm makes use of a data-driven, network-based approach that combines prior knowledge with a network clustering algorithm, obviating the need for and the limitation of independently curated functionally labeled gene sets. The method can combine multiple data types, such as mutations and copy number alterations, leading to more reliable identification of functional modules. We make the tool available in the Bioconductor R ecosystem for applications in cancer research and cell biology. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The netboxr package is free and open-sourced under the GNU GPL-3 license R package available at https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/netboxr.html.

5.
Cell Rep ; 33(3): 108296, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086069

RESUMO

CellMiner-SCLC (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/SclcCellMinerCDB/) integrates drug sensitivity and genomic data, including high-resolution methylome and transcriptome from 118 patient-derived small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, providing a resource for research into this "recalcitrant cancer." We demonstrate the reproducibility and stability of data from multiple sources and validate the SCLC consensus nomenclature on the basis of expression of master transcription factors NEUROD1, ASCL1, POU2F3, and YAP1. Our analyses reveal transcription networks linking SCLC subtypes with MYC and its paralogs and the NOTCH and HIPPO pathways. SCLC subsets express specific surface markers, providing potential opportunities for antibody-based targeted therapies. YAP1-driven SCLCs are notable for differential expression of the NOTCH pathway, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and antigen-presenting machinery (APM) genes and sensitivity to mTOR and AKT inhibitors. These analyses provide insights into SCLC biology and a framework for future investigations into subtype-specific SCLC vulnerabilities.

6.
J Integr Bioinform ; 17(2-3)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568733

RESUMO

This document defines Version 0.3 Markup Language (ML) support for the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), a set of three complementary visual languages developed for biochemists, modelers, and computer scientists. SBGN aims at representing networks of biochemical interactions in a standard, unambiguous way to foster efficient and accurate representation, visualization, storage, exchange, and reuse of information on all kinds of biological knowledge, from gene regulation, to metabolism, to cellular signaling. SBGN is defined neutrally to programming languages and software encoding; however, it is oriented primarily towards allowing models to be encoded using XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. The notable changes from the previous version include the addition of attributes for better specify metadata about maps, as well as support for multiple maps, sub-maps, colors, and annotations. These changes enable a more efficient exchange of data to other commonly used systems biology formats (e. g., BioPAX and SBML) and between tools supporting SBGN (e. g., CellDesigner, Newt, Krayon, SBGN-ED, STON, cd2sbgnml, and MINERVA). More details on SBGN and related software are available at http://sbgn.org. With this effort, we hope to increase the adoption of SBGN in bioinformatics tools, ultimately enabling more researchers to visualize biological knowledge in a precise and unambiguous manner.

7.
J Integr Bioinform ; 17(2-3)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543457

RESUMO

People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. This document details version 2.2 of SBOL Visual, which builds on the prior SBOL Visual 2.1 in several ways. First, the grounding of molecular species glyphs is changed from BioPAX to SBO, aligning with the use of SBO terms for interaction glyphs. Second, new glyphs are added for proteins, introns, and polypeptide regions (e. g., protein domains), the prior recommended macromolecule glyph is deprecated in favor of its alternative, and small polygons are introduced as alternative glyphs for simple chemicals.

8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D489-D497, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647099

RESUMO

Pathway Commons (https://www.pathwaycommons.org) is an integrated resource of publicly available information about biological pathways including biochemical reactions, assembly of biomolecular complexes, transport and catalysis events and physical interactions involving proteins, DNA, RNA, and small molecules (e.g. metabolites and drug compounds). Data is collected from multiple providers in standard formats, including the Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) language and the Proteomics Standards Initiative Molecular Interactions format, and then integrated. Pathway Commons provides biologists with (i) tools to search this comprehensive resource, (ii) a download site offering integrated bulk sets of pathway data (e.g. tables of interactions and gene sets), (iii) reusable software libraries for working with pathway information in several programming languages (Java, R, Python and Javascript) and (iv) a web service for programmatically querying the entire dataset. Visualization of pathways is supported using the Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN). Pathway Commons currently contains data from 22 databases with 4794 detailed human biochemical processes (i.e. pathways) and ∼2.3 million interactions. To enhance the usability of this large resource for end-users, we develop and maintain interactive web applications and training materials that enable pathway exploration and advanced analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Software , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos
9.
iScience ; 21: 664-680, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733513

RESUMO

Here we describe a proteomic data resource for the NCI-60 cell lines generated by pressure cycling technology and SWATH mass spectrometry. We developed the DIA-expert software to curate and visualize the SWATH data, leading to reproducible detection of over 3,100 SwissProt proteotypic proteins and systematic quantification of pathway activities. Stoichiometric relationships of interacting proteins for DNA replication, repair, the chromatin remodeling NuRD complex, ß-catenin, RNA metabolism, and prefoldins are more evident than that at the mRNA level. The data are available in CellMiner (discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminercdb and discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminer), allowing casual users to test hypotheses and perform integrative, cross-database analyses of multi-omic drug response correlations for over 20,000 drugs. We demonstrate the value of proteome data in predicting drug response for over 240 clinically relevant chemotherapeutic and targeted therapies. In summary, we present a novel proteome resource for the NCI-60, together with relevant software tools, and demonstrate the benefit of proteome analyses.

10.
ACS Synth Biol ; 8(8): 1818-1825, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348656

RESUMO

Biological engineers often find it useful to communicate using diagrams. These diagrams can include information both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences they are engineering and about the functional relationships between features of these sequences and/or other molecular species. A number of conventions and practices have begun to emerge within synthetic biology for creating such diagrams, and the Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard to organize, systematize, and extend such conventions in order to produce a coherent visual language. Here, we describe SBOL Visual version 2, which expands previous diagram standards to include new functional interactions, categories of molecular species, support for families of glyph variants, and the ability to indicate modular structure and mappings between elements of a system. SBOL Visual 2 also clarifies a number of requirements and best practices, significantly expands the collection of glyphs available to describe genetic features, and can be readily applied using a wide variety of software tools, both general and bespoke.


Assuntos
Linguagens de Programação , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Software
11.
J Integr Bioinform ; 16(2)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199768

RESUMO

People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species . Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. This document details version 2.1 of SBOL Visual, which builds on the prior SBOL Visual 2.0 standard by expanding diagram syntax to include methods for showing modular structure and mappings between elements of a system, interactions arrows that can split or join (with the glyph at the split or join indicating either superposition or a chemical process), and adding new glyphs for indicating genomic context (e.g., integration into a plasmid or genome) and for stop codons.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Linguagens de Programação , Biologia Sintética
12.
J Integr Bioinform ; 16(2)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199769

RESUMO

The Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort that aims to standardise the visualisation of pathways and networks for readers with diverse scientific backgrounds as well as to support an efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between disparate research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. SBGN comprises the three languages Entity Relationship, Activity Flow, and Process Description (PD) to cover biological and biochemical systems at distinct levels of detail. PD is closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways found in biological literature and textbooks. Its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PD represents mechanistic and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations as a graph. Its different types of nodes include entity pools (e.g. metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes) and processes (e.g. reactions, associations and influences). The edges describe relationships between the nodes (e.g. consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition). This document details Level 1 Version 2.0 of the PD specification, including several improvements, in particular: 1) the addition of the equivalence operator, subunit, and annotation glyphs, 2) modification to the usage of submaps, and 3) updates to clarify the use of various glyphs (i.e. multimer, empty set, and state variable).


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Linguagens de Programação , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia de Sistemas
13.
Nature ; 569(7755): 275-279, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996345

RESUMO

Drosophila Lgl and its mammalian homologues, LLGL1 and LLGL2, are scaffolding proteins that regulate the establishment of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells1,2. Whereas Lgl functions as a tumour suppressor in Drosophila1, the roles of mammalian LLGL1 and LLGL2 in cancer are unclear. The majority (about 75%) of breast cancers express oestrogen receptors (ERs)3, and patients with these tumours receive endocrine treatment4. However, the development of resistance to endocrine therapy and metastatic progression are leading causes of death for patients with ER+ disease4. Here we report that, unlike LLGL1, LLGL2 is overexpressed in ER+ breast cancer and promotes cell proliferation under nutrient stress. LLGL2 regulates cell surface levels of a leucine transporter, SLC7A5, by forming a trimeric complex with SLC7A5 and a regulator of membrane fusion, YKT6, to promote leucine uptake and cell proliferation. The oestrogen receptor targets LLGL2 expression. Resistance to endocrine treatment in breast cancer cells was associated with SLC7A5- and LLGL2-dependent adaption to nutrient stress. SLC7A5 was necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to tamoxifen treatment, identifying SLC7A5 as a potential therapeutic target for overcoming resistance to endocrine treatments in breast cancer. Thus, LLGL2 functions as a promoter of tumour growth and not as a tumour suppressor in ER+ breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, adaptation to nutrient stress is critically important5, and our findings identify an unexpected role for LLGL2 in this process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo
14.
iScience ; 10: 247-264, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553813

RESUMO

CellMinerCDB provides a web-based resource (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminercdb/) for integrating multiple forms of pharmacological and genomic analyses, and unifying the richest cancer cell line datasets (the NCI-60, NCI-SCLC, Sanger/MGH GDSC, and Broad CCLE/CTRP). CellMinerCDB enables data queries for genomics and gene regulatory network analyses, and exploration of pharmacogenomic determinants and drug signatures. It leverages overlaps of cell lines and drugs across databases to examine reproducibility and expand pathway analyses. We illustrate the value of CellMinerCDB for elucidating gene expression determinants, such as DNA methylation and copy number variations, and highlight complexities in assessing mutational burden. We demonstrate the value of CellMinerCDB in selecting drugs with reproducible activity, expand on the dominant role of SLFN11 for drug response, and present novel response determinants and genomic signatures for topoisomerase inhibitors and schweinfurthins. We also introduce LIX1L as a gene associated with mesenchymal signature and regulation of cellular migration and invasiveness.

15.
Cell Rep ; 23(1): 172-180.e3, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617658

RESUMO

Precision oncology uses genomic evidence to match patients with treatment but often fails to identify all patients who may respond. The transcriptome of these "hidden responders" may reveal responsive molecular states. We describe and evaluate a machine-learning approach to classify aberrant pathway activity in tumors, which may aid in hidden responder identification. The algorithm integrates RNA-seq, copy number, and mutations from 33 different cancer types across The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PanCanAtlas project to predict aberrant molecular states in tumors. Applied to the Ras pathway, the method detects Ras activation across cancer types and identifies phenocopying variants. The model, trained on human tumors, can predict response to MEK inhibitors in wild-type Ras cell lines. We also present data that suggest that multiple hits in the Ras pathway confer increased Ras activity. The transcriptome is underused in precision oncology and, combined with machine learning, can aid in the identification of hidden responders.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
16.
Cell ; 173(2): 321-337.e10, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625050

RESUMO

Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in ten canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, Nrf2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFß signaling, p53 and ß-catenin/Wnt. We charted the detailed landscape of pathway alterations in 33 cancer types, stratified into 64 subtypes, and identified patterns of co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity. Eighty-nine percent of tumors had at least one driver alteration in these pathways, and 57% percent of tumors had at least one alteration potentially targetable by currently available drugs. Thirty percent of tumors had multiple targetable alterations, indicating opportunities for combination therapy.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Genes Neoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
17.
J Integr Bioinform ; 15(1)2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549707

RESUMO

People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. This document details version 2.0 of SBOL Visual, which builds on the prior SBOL Visual 1.0 standard by expanding diagram syntax to include functional interactions and molecular species, making the relationship between diagrams and the SBOL data model explicit, supporting families of symbol variants, clarifying a number of requirements and best practices, and significantly expanding the collection of diagram glyphs.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Linguagens de Programação , Software , Biologia Sintética/normas , Animais , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Cell Syst ; 6(3): 301-313.e3, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396322

RESUMO

Tumor metabolism is reorganized to support proliferation in the face of growth-related stress. Unlike the widespread profiling of changes to metabolic enzyme levels in cancer, comparatively less attention has been paid to the substrates/products of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, small-molecule metabolites. We developed an informatic pipeline to concurrently analyze metabolomics data from over 900 tissue samples spanning seven cancer types, revealing extensive heterogeneity in metabolic changes relative to normal tissue across cancers of different tissues of origin. Despite this heterogeneity, a number of metabolites were recurrently differentially abundant across many cancers, such as lactate and acyl-carnitine species. Through joint analysis of metabolomic data alongside clinical features of patient samples, we also identified a small number of metabolites, including several polyamines and kynurenine, which were associated with aggressive tumors across several tumor types. Our findings offer a glimpse onto common patterns of metabolic reprogramming across cancers, and the work serves as a large-scale resource accessible via a web application (http://www.sanderlab.org/pancanmet).


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Humanos , Software
20.
Cancer Res ; 77(3): 601-612, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923837

RESUMO

A unique resource for systems pharmacology and genomic studies is the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel, which provides data for the largest publicly available library of compounds with cytotoxic activity (∼21,000 compounds), including 108 FDA-approved and 70 clinical trial drugs as well as genomic data, including whole-exome sequencing, gene and miRNA transcripts, DNA copy number, and protein levels. Here, we provide the first readily usable genome-wide DNA methylation database for the NCI-60, including 485,577 probes from the Infinium HumanMethylation450k BeadChip array, which yielded DNA methylation signatures for 17,559 genes integrated into our open access CellMiner version 2.0 (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminer). Among new insights, transcript versus DNA methylation correlations revealed the epithelial/mesenchymal gene functional category as being influenced most heavily by methylation. DNA methylation and copy number integration with transcript levels yielded an assessment of their relative influence for 15,798 genes, including tumor suppressor, mitochondrial, and mismatch repair genes. Four forms of molecular data were combined, providing rationale for microsatellite instability for 8 of the 9 cell lines in which it occurred. Individual cell line analyses showed global methylome patterns with overall methylation levels ranging from 17% to 84%. A six-gene model, including PARP1, EP300, KDM5C, SMARCB1, and UHRF1 matched this pattern. In addition, promoter methylation of two translationally relevant genes, Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) and methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), served as indicators of therapeutic resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Overall, our database provides a resource of pharmacologic data that can reinforce known therapeutic strategies and identify novel drugs and drug targets across multiple cancer types. Cancer Res; 77(3); 601-12. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilação de DNA , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Internet
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