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1.
Parasite Immunol ; : e12802, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098129

RESUMO

Polyreactive antibodies (pAb) bind to a broad range of unrelated structures, providing hosts with functional components able to rapidly recognize and protect against different pathogens. However, their roles against helminth parasites are still unexplored. Here, pAb profiles were analysed in cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonosis caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Levels of anti-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenyl-hapten) antibodies were measured as a surrogate parameter of pAb in different biological settings. Firstly, levels of serum and peritoneal pAb were measured during early experimental secondary CE, using both high (Balb/c) and low (C57Bl/6) susceptible mouse strains. Serum pAb mostly differed in normal mice, being pAb levels of IgG subclasses with poor anti-parasite activities predominant in Balb/c animals. Conversely, peritoneal pAb isotypes/subclasses with efficient anti-parasite activities predominated in normal and infected C57Bl/6 mice. Secondly, sera from potentially resistant patients, susceptible individuals and healthy donors were analysed, showing higher pAb levels of the IgA and IgG-particularly IgG1-isotypes in potentially resistant individuals compared to control groups. Finally, since remarkable differences were observed in pAb profiles according to the intrinsic host susceptibility to the infection, we proposed here that pAb might be considered as potential humoral biomarkers for host resistance to CE.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046489

RESUMO

Background: Invasive fungal diseases represent an unmet clinical need that could benefit from novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Host pattern-recognition receptors (e.g., Toll-like receptors, C-type lectins or Scavenger receptors) that sense conserved fungal cell wall constituents may provide suitable immunotherapeutic antifungal agents. Thus, we explored the therapeutic potential of the lymphocyte class I scavenger receptor CD5, a non-redundant component of the antifungal host immune response that binds to fungal ß-glucans.Methods: antifungal properties of the soluble ectodomain of human CD5 (shCD5) were assessed in vivo in experimental models of systemic fungal infection induced by pathogenic species (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). In vitro mechanistic studies were performed by means of fungal-spleen cell co-cultures.Results: shCD5-induced survival of lethally infected mice was dose and time-dependent and concomitant with reduced fungal load and increased leukocyte infiltration in primary target organ. Additive effects were observed in vivo after shCD5 was combined with sub-optimal doses of fluconazole. Ex vivo addition of shCD5 to fungal-spleen cell co-cultures increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in antifungal defence (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and reduced the number of viable C. albicans Conclusions: The results prompt further exploration of the adjunctive therapeutic potential of shCD5 in severe invasive fungal diseases.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 398-400, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712426

RESUMO

Concerning the letter by Moriguchi et al., we describe our experience with a case of encephalopathy with and atypical damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with severe infection due to the SARS-CoV2 virus. A 56-year-old woman, without previous pathologies, developed cough, fever, and respiratory failure for five days, after returning from a 6-day trip to Venice. Chest radiography shows a large bilateral interstitial infiltrate. In the first 24 hours, she was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for severe respiratory failure and positive protein chain reaction-PCR in nasal exudate. She needed intubation for ten days. In the first 48 hours outside the ICU, she developed an acute confusional syndrome (hyperactive delirium). Neurological examination showed temporal-spatial disorientation and incoherent fluent speech. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized hypovoltaic activity. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a bilateral and symmetrical increase in the supratentorial white matter's signal intensity, with a discrete thickening of both temporal lobes, with a slight increase in signal intensity and a sequence of normal diffusion. The lumbar puncture showed no changes (glucose 71 mg/dL, protein 30 mg/dL, 1 leukocyte). Within 72 hours of starting symptoms, she was neurologically asymptomatic. Our final diagnosis was an inflammatory encephalopathy related to a SARS-CoV2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(9): 589-594, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721174

RESUMO

Objective: Cesarean section rates are increasing in developed countries and could be performed as an emergency or elective procedure. Our research aim was to determine whether elective cesarean section influences the melatonin content, the main circadian hormone, in human milk. Methods: Twenty-one women after vaginal delivery and 18 women after elective cesarean section were included. Only healthy mothers with normal newborns exclusively breastfed were recruited. Two samples of human milk were collected for each woman at three stages of lactation: colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk; at each stage, one daytime sample and another nighttime sample were obtained. In total, 228 milk samples were studied. The melatonin content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Melatonin rhythmicity with higher melatonin content at night was maintained at each of the three stages of lactation, regardless of the type of delivery. A higher melatonin content was found in daytime colostrum after cesarean section with respect to colostrum obtained from mothers after vaginal delivery (30.3 pg/mL versus 14.7 pg/mL, p = 0.020). Melatonin content decreased progressively throughout the course of lactation in both groups. This decrease was significant when comparing transitional milk to colostrum in the cesarean group, both in the daytime (p = 0.016) and nighttime samples (p = 0.048). Conclusions: Cesarean section is associated with an increase in daytime colostrum melatonin. No difference was observed in mature milk with respect to vaginal delivery. Melatonin values in human milk decrease during the first month of lactation and circadian rhythmicity was observed irrespective of the mode of delivery.

5.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 76(2): 122-128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic factors can modulate the development of associated comorbidities in obesity. It has been shown that loss-of-function variants of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) gene negatively affect obesity comorbidities such as insulin resistance and fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: To test the relationships of metabolic factors in children with obesity with variants of the FFAR4 gene. METHODS: We performed an association study of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FFAR4 (rs10882273 T>C, rs12243124 T>C, and rs11187533 C>T) covering the last intron and last exon of FFAR4 in a cohort of 203 children with obesity. Cardiometabolic factors were determined, including parameters related to insulin resistance, liver injury, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as an inflammatory marker. RESULTS: Significant genotype - phenotype interactions occurred between the rs11187533 SNP and glucose levels (p = 0.011). Moreover, we identified 2 marginally significant associations between this SNP and the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.022) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (p = 0.015). The homozygous minor allele genotype (TT) was associated with a decrease in glucose levels. CONCLUSION: The homozygous minor allele genotype of the rs11187533 SNP might be protective against metabolic consequences accompanying obesity and could allow the identification of metabolically healthy obese individuals at early ages.

6.
Biomedica ; 39(1): 65-74, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Direct visual inspection for cervical cancer screening remains controversial, whereas colposcopy-biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of preneoplastic cervical lesions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more and of false positives for colposcopy and direct visual inspection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 25-59 underwent direct visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Lugol's iodine (VIA-VILI), and colposcopy. Punch biopsies were obtained for all positive tests. Using histology as the gold standard, detection and false positive rates were compared for VIA, VIA-VILI, and colposcopy (two thresholds). Sensitivity and false positive ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: We included 5,011 women in the analysis and we obtained 602 biopsies. Positivity rates for colposcopy high-grade and low-grade diagnosis were 1.6% and 10.8%. Positivity rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were 7.4% and 9.9%. VIA showed a significantly lower detection rate than colposcopy with low-grade diagnosis as the threshold (SR=0.72; 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and significantly lower false positive rate (FPR=0.70; 95% CI 0.65-0.76). No differences between VIA-VILI and colposcopy low-grade threshold were observed. VIA and VIA-VILI showed significantly higher detection and false positive rates than colposcopy high-grade threshold. Sensitivity rates for visual inspection decreased with age and false positive rates increased. For all age groups, false positive rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were significantly higher than colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: Detection rates for VIA-VILI similar to colposcopy low-grade threshold represent a chance to reduce cervical cancer mortality through see-and-treat approaches among women with limited access to health care. Lower detection rates suggest reviewing high-grade colposcopy findings as the threshold for biopsy in certain settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Ácido Acético , Adulto , Biópsia , Colômbia , Colposcopia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Iodetos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(1): 65-74, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001390

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Direct visual inspection for cervical cancer screening remains controversial, whereas colposcopy-biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of preneoplastic cervical lesions. Objectives: To determine the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more and of false positives for colposcopy and direct visual inspection. Materials and methods: Women aged 25-59 underwent direct visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Lugol's iodine (VIA-VILI), and colposcopy. Punch biopsies were obtained for all positive tests. Using histology as the gold standard, detection and false positive rates were compared for VIA, VIA-VILI, and colposcopy (two thresholds). Sensitivity and false positive ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results: We included 5,011 women in the analysis and we obtained 602 biopsies. Positivity rates for colposcopy high-grade and low-grade diagnosis were 1.6% and 10.8%. Positivity rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were 7.4% and 9.9%. VIA showed a significantly lower detection rate than colposcopy with low-grade diagnosis as the threshold(SR=0.72; 95% CI0.57-0.91), and significantly lower false positive rate (FPR=0.70; 95% CI 0.65-0.76). No differences between VIA-VILI and colposcopy low-grade threshold were observed. VIA and VIA-VILI showed significantly higher detection and false positive rates than colposcopy high-grade threshold. Sensitivity rates for visual inspection decreased with age and false positive rates increased. For all age groups, false positive rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were significantly higher than colposcopy. Conclusions: Detection rates for VIA-VILI similar to colposcopy low-grade threshold representa chance to reduce cervical cancer mortality through see-and-treat approaches among women with limited access to health care. Lower detection rates suggest reviewing high-grade colposcopy findings as the threshold for biopsy incertain settings.


Resumen Introducción. La inspección visual directa para la tamización del cáncer cervical sigue siendo controversial, mientras que la colposcopia y la biopsia siguen considerándose como métodos de referencia para diagnosticar lesiones cervicales precancerosas. Objetivo. Determinar las tasas de detección de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical de grado 2 y de los falsos positivos en la colposcopia y la inspección visual directa. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron mujeres de 25 a 59 años sometidas a citología convencional, inspección visual directa con ácido acético y disolución de Lugol y colposcopia. Se practicó biopsia en todas las pruebas positivas. Utilizando la histología como el medio de verificación de referencia, se compararon las tasas de detección y de falsos positivos de cada prueba. Se estimaron las razones de sensibilidad y de falsos positivos con los correspondientes intervalos de confianza. Resultados. Se incluyeron 5.011 mujeres. Las colposcopias positivas de alto y bajo grado correspondieron a 1,6 y 10,8 %, respectivamente. La inspección visual directa con ácido acético y solución yodada de Lugol fue positiva en 7,4 y 9,9 %, respectivamente. La inspección visual directa con ácido acético tuvo tasas de detección y falsos positivos significativamente menores que la coloscopia con umbral de bajo grado (razón de sensibilidad: 0,72; IC95% 0,57-0,91; razón de falsos positivos: 0,70; CI95% 0,65-0,76); no hubo diferencias entre la inspección visual directa con solución yodada de Lugol y la colposcopia con dicho umbral. Las tasas de detección y de falsos positivos de los dos tipos de inspección visual fueron significativamente más altas que las de la colposcopia con el umbral de alto grado. Las tasas de detección de la inspección visual disminuyeron con la edad y las de falsos positivos aumentaron. Conclusiones: Las tasas de detección similares para la inspección visual directa con ácido acético o con solución yodada de Lugol y la colposcopia con umbral de bajo grado representan una oportunidad para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino cuando el acceso a los servicios de salud es limitado. Las tasas de detección más bajas para la colposcopia con umbral de alto grado sugieren la necesidad de revisar dicho umbral en ciertos entornos.

8.
Transl Res ; 206: 107-118, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615844

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises a group of chronic, immune system-mediated inflammatory diseases that primarily affect the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions in IBD remains elusive, but the inflammation process could be the result of dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems induced by genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, research has demonstrated a connection between environmental stressors that can influence day-night variations, also called circadian rhythms, and digestive health. In this review, we focus on alterations in the complex interactions between intestinal mucosa, microbial factors, and the immune response in the intestinal milieu. We introduce the mechanisms that establish circadian rhythms and their regulation by the circadian rhythm genes. Evidence of circadian variation in the defense mechanisms of the intestine and its implication in the maintenance of a healthy microbiota are presented. Disruption of the circadian system can increase the activity of the gut immune system and the release of inflammatory factors. The link between chronodisruption or circadian rhythm impairment and IBD demonstrated by experimental and clinical studies illustrates the potential impact of circadian rhythms on treatment of these diseases. Future studies that investigate aspects of this subject are warranted.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia
9.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(7): 2789-2800, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251018

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationships between gut microbiota and obesity-related co-morbidities have been increasingly recognized. Low-grade inflammation may be the main factor in the pathogenesis of such disorders. We investigated the effect of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 on cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory cytokines and gut microbiota composition in obese children with insulin resistance. METHODS: The study included 48 obese children (10-15 years old) with insulin resistance. They received dietary advice and were assigned to take the capsules with or without probiotic (109-10 CFU) daily for 13 weeks. Clinical, biochemical and gut microbiome measurements were made at baseline and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in body mass index in all children after the intervention, suggesting that weight changes are related to the dietary advice. A significant decrease in circulating high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P = 0.026) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.032) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.035) and omentin-1 (P = 0.023) in children receiving probiotic supplementation were observed compared to the control group. Regarding gut microbiota, probiotic administration significantly increased the proportion of the Rikenellaceae family members, particularly of the Alistipes genus. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of the intervention on inflammatory markers and lipid profile suggest that B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 intake together with dietary recommendations can improve inflammatory status in children with obesity and insulin resistance. These effects are parallel to increases in bacterial groups associated with a lean phenotype. The modulation of gut microbiota with probiotic supplementation can be considered an effective tool to ameliorate some obesity-related disorders in children.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 132(2): 261-270, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of vulvar and vaginal low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs and HSILs) in females 15-26 years of age attributable to 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59). METHODS: A post hoc analysis of prospectively diagnosed vulvar and vaginal LSILs and HSILs among females 15-26 years of age enrolled in the placebo arms of two phase 3, randomized HPV vaccine trials assessed 14 prespecified HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancers or anogenital warts using a type-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The frequency of lesions associated with specific HPV genotypes was estimated by proportional and other attribution methods. RESULTS: During approximately 4 years of follow-up in 8,798 females, 40 vulvar LSILs and 46 vulvar HSILs were diagnosed in 68 females, and 118 vaginal LSILs and 33 vaginal HSILs were diagnosed in 107 females. Females developing vulvar (41.2%) or vaginal (49.5%) lesions also had cervical lesions, whereas 6.5% of females with cervical lesions had vaginal or vulvar lesions. At least 1 of the 14 HPV genotypes was detected in females with vulvar LSIL (72.5%), vulvar HSIL (91.3%), vaginal LSIL (61.9%), and vaginal HSIL (72.7%). Considering only HPV-positive lesions, the nine most common genotypes causing cervical cancer and anogenital warts (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) were found in 89.4% of vulvar LSILs, 100% of vulvar HSILs, 56.0% of vaginal LSILs, and 78.3% of vaginal HSILs. CONCLUSION: Most vulvar and vaginal lesions were attributable to at least 1 of the 14 HPV genotypes analyzed. Effective immunization programs could potentially prevent substantial numbers of HPV-related vulvar and vaginal LSILs and HSILs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICALTRIALS.GOV,: NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/virologia , Genótipo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/virologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Placebos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Papillomavirus Res ; 5: 63-74, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58; 9vHPV) vaccine was developed to expand coverage of the previously developed quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18; qHPV) vaccine. METHODS: Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety outcomes were assessed in Latin American participants enrolled in 2 international studies of the 9vHPV vaccine, including a randomized, double-blinded, controlled with qHPV vaccine, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study in young women aged 16-26 years, and an immunogenicity and safety study in girls and boys aged 9-15 years. Participants (N=5312) received vaccination at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. Gynecological swabs were collected regularly in young women for cytological and HPV DNA testing. Serum was analyzed for HPV antibodies in all participants. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored in all participants. RESULTS: The 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV 31-, 33-, 45-, 52-, and 58-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal dysplasia with 92.3% efficacy (95% confidence interval 54.4, 99.6). Anti-HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 geometric mean titers at Month 7 were similar in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccination groups. Anti-HPV antibody responses following vaccination were higher among girls and boys than in young women. Most (>99%) 9vHPV vaccine recipients seroconverted for all 9 HPV types at Month 7. Antibody responses to the 9 HPV types persisted over 5 years. The most common AEs were injection-site related, mostly of mild to moderate intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Latin American young women, girls, and boys. These data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Latin America, a region with substantial cervical cancer burden.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Papillomaviridae , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Soroconversão , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Papillomavirus Res ; 2: 61-69, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region METHODS: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were enrolled in qHPV vaccine clinical trials. Among 10,706 women (placebo arms), 1539 CIN1, 945 CIN2/3, and 24 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) cases were diagnosed by pathology panel consensus. RESULTS: Predominant HPV types were 16/51/52/56 (anogenital infection), 16/39/51/52/56 (CIN1), and 16/31/52/58 (CIN2/3). In regions with largest sample sizes, minimal regional variation was observed in 9vHPV type prevalence in CIN1 (~50%) and CIN2/3 (81-85%). Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 25-30% of CIN1 in Latin America and Europe, but 14-18% in North America and Asia. Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 33-38% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (younger women), Europe, and Asia, but 17-18% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (older women) and North America. Non-vaccine HPV types 35/39/51/56/59 had similar or higher prevalence than qHPV types in CIN1 and were attributed to 2-11% of CIN2/3. CONCLUSIONS: The 9vHPV vaccine could potentially prevent the majority of CIN1-3, irrespective of geographic region. Notwithstanding, non-vaccine types 35/39/51/56/59 may still be responsible for some CIN1, and to a lesser extent CIN2/3.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/virologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Genótipo , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Papillomaviridae/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 17(8): 576-583, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26611784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene variants could be associated with a risk of obesity and its co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the potential association of RBP4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with childhood obesity and its metabolic complications. METHODS: Four RBP4 SNPs, rs3758538 (3944A>C), rs3758539 (4406G>A), rs12265684 (12177G>C) and rs34571439 (14684T>G), were genotyped in a population of 180 Spanish Caucasian children (97 obese and 83 normal-weight children). Association of RBP4 SNPs with obesity, metabolic risk factors (blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance) and markers of vascular inflammation, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), was tested. RESULTS: We found SNP rs3758538 to be associated with obesity (p = 0.007). Specifically, each copy of the minor allele C was associated with an increased risk of obesity, by more than twofold, in respect of being homozygous for the major allele A (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.8). The rs3758538 and rs34571439 RBP4 SNPs correlated with plasma RBP4 levels. The SNPs rs12265684 and rs34571439 correlated with plasma triglyceride levels. The rs34571439 was also associated to hs-CRP levels. Marginal association of RBP4 SNPs with plasma high-density lipoprotein levels (rs34571439), blood pressure (rs12265684) and insulin resistance (rs3758539) was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that childhood obesity may be associated with variations in RBP4 gene. The presence of selective SNPs in the RBP4 gene may account for metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 61(5): 571-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25988561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sleep duration on cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 90 obese children ages 7 to 16 years. Anthropometric and clinical evaluation with specification of dietary and lifestyle habits was carried out during an office visit. Sleep duration was evaluated by the BEARS (B = bedtime issues, E = excessive daytime sleepiness, A = night awakening, R = regularity and duration of sleep, S = snoring) questionnaire on children's sleep characteristics. Sleep time adequacy by age was assessed according to the criteria of the National Sleep Foundation. Biochemical blood variables indicative of metabolic risk (glucose, lipid profile, and insulin) were obtained. Emergent new factors of metabolic risk, including high-sensitive C-reactive protein, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, homocysteine, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), inflammatory markers, and the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin were also evaluated. The relations between the duration of sleep and these variables were analyzed by general lineal model analysis. Significant variables were introduced in logistic regression analysis to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cardiometabolic factors with respect to sleep. RESULTS: Children who slept for short duration were significantly more at risk of severe central obesity. In the regression model, the mean arterial pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.17, P = 0.008), homocysteine (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.84, P = 0.013), RBP4 (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.15-2.78, P = 0.010), and TSH (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.21-3.34, P = 0.007) remain as significant independent predictors related to short sleep duration. We did not find any association between sleep duration and inflammatory markers or adipokines. CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration increases the severity of obesity and is related to cardiovascular risk factors in children.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono , Adipocinas/sangue , Adolescente , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tireotropina/sangue
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(10): 1997-2008, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25274978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined algorithms that adjusted for multiple-type infected lesions. METHODS: A total of 10,656 women ages 15 to 26 years and 1,858 women ages 24 to 45 years were enrolled in the placebo arms of one of three clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine. We estimated the cumulative incidence of persistent infection and the proportion of CIN/AIS attributable to individual carcinogenic HPV genotypes, as well as the proportion of CIN/AIS lesions potentially preventable by a prophylactic 9-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of persistent infection with ≥1 of the seven high-risk types included in the 9-valent vaccine was 29%, 12%, and 6% for women ages 15 to 26, 24 to 34, and 35 to 45 years, respectively. A total of 2,507 lesions were diagnosed as CIN or AIS by an expert pathology panel. After adjusting for multiple-type infected lesions, among women ages 15 to 45 years, these seven high-risk types were attributed to 43% to 55% of CIN1, 70% to 78% of CIN2, 85% to 91% of CIN3, and 95% to 100% of AIS lesions, respectively. The other tested types (HPV35/39/51/56/59) were attributed to 23% to 30% of CIN1, 7% to 14% of CIN2, 3% to 4% of CIN3, and 0% of AIS lesions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% or more of CIN3/AIS, >70% CIN2, and approximately 50% of CIN1 lesions worldwide are attributed to HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. IMPACT: If 9-valent HPV vaccination programs are effectively implemented, the majority of CIN2 and CIN3 lesions worldwide could be prevented, in addition to approximately one-half of CIN1.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 17(3): 103-110, jul.-sep. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-727561

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze whether the immune response to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45 and -58 capsids in women vaccinated with the quadrivalent vaccine induces cross-reactivity against other HPV virus-like particles (VLPs). Methods: A total of 88 women aged between 18 and 27 years attending the HPV clinic at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología were enrolled and vaccinated against HPV. Follow-up visits were scheduled at months 7, 12, and 24. Samples were collected for cytology, HPV-DNA typing, and detection of HPV antibodies. IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA using HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 VLPs. HPV-DNA detection was done by GP5+/GP6+PCR-ELISA and HPV typing was performed by Reverse Line-Blot assay. Results: Pre-vaccination, the seroprevalence of HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 was 39%, 31.7%, 15.9%, 31.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. One month post-vaccination, the seroprevalence increased close to 100% for all types. At month 24, this response was maintained only for HPV-16 and -18. For HPV-31, -45 and -58, the seroprevalence decreased to below 50%. The prevalence of HPV DNA types 16, 18 and 58 before vaccination was little changed 1 month after vaccination. No new infections were observed at 24 months. For HPV-16 and -18 related types, no differences were observed before vaccination and at month 24. For other high-risk HPV types, the prevalence increased 18 months post-vaccination (15.5%) compared with pre-vaccination (9.8%). Conclusion: Immune response to all HPV types increased after vaccination, but this increase was maintained only for HPV-16 and -18. These results suggest a possible cross-reactivity against HPV types 31, 45 and 58, but this cross-reactivity wanes with time. © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.


Objetivo: Analizar si la respuesta inmune hacia las cápsides del VPH tipos 16, 18, 31, 45 y 58 en mujeres que recibieron la vacuna tetravalente induce reactividad cruzada hacia otros tipos virales. Métodos: Ochenta y ocho mujeres entre 18 y 27 años, asistentes al Grupo VPH del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, recibieron la vacuna de VPH. Visitas de seguimiento en los meses 7, 12 y 24. Se tomaron muestras para prueba de Papanicolaou, tipificación de VPH y detección de anticuerpos. Los anticuerpos se detectaron por ELISA, usando VLP-VPH. La detección del ADN-VPH se realizó por Reverse Line Blot. Resultados: Prevacunación, la seroprevalencia de VPH tipos 16, 18, 31, 45 y 58 fue de 39, 31,7, 15,9, 31,7 y 23,2%, respectivamente. Al mes 7 aumentó cerca del 100% para todos los tipos. Al mes 24 esta respuesta se mantuvo para VPH tipos 16 y 18. Para VPH tipos 31, 45 y 58 disminuyó por debajo del 50%. La prevalencia de ADN-VPH tipos 16, 18 y 58 tuvo poca variación antes y un mes después de la vacunación. Al mes 24, no se observaron nuevas infecciones. Para VPH tipos 16 y 18, no se observaron diferencias antes ni al mes 24. En otros tipos de HR-VPH aumentó la prevalencia al mes 24 (15,5%), comparada con la prevacunación (9,8%). Conclusión: Se observó un aumento de la respuesta inmune a todos los tipos de VPH después de la vacunación, pero esta se mantuvo solamente para los VPH tipos 16 y 18. Los resultados sugieren una posible reactividad cruzada contra VPH tipos 31, 45 y 58. Sin embargo, esta reactividad cruzada disminuye con el tiempo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Papiloma , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Vacinação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 31
17.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e83431, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24391768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous analyses from a randomized trial in women aged 24-45 have shown the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and external genital lesions (EGL) related to HPV 6/11/16/18 through 4 years. In this report we present long term follow-up data on the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in adult women. METHODS: Follow-up data are from a study being conducted in 5 sites in Colombia designed to evaluate the long-term immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of the qHPV vaccine in women who were vaccinated at 24 to 45 years of age (in the original vaccine group during the base study [n = 684]) or 29 to 50 years of age (in the original placebo group during the base study [n = 651]). This analysis summarizes data collected as of the year 6 post-vaccination visit relative to day 1 of the base study (median follow-up of 6.26 years) from both the original base study and the Colombian follow-up. RESULTS: There were no cases of HPV 6/11/16/18-related CIN or EGL during the extended follow-up phase in the per-protocol population. Immunogenicity persists against vaccine-related HPV types, and no evidence of HPV type replacement has been observed. No new serious adverse experiences have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with qHPV vaccine provides generally safe and effective protection from HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related genital warts and cervical dysplasia through 6 years following administration to 24-45 year-old women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.govNCT00090220.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Colômbia , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18 , Papillomavirus Humano 11/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 6/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Gravidez , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 16(1): 40-48, mar. 2012. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-662981

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la presencia y persistencia de variantes en E6/E7/VPH 58 en muestras de mujeres con infecciones prevalentes por VPH 58, con citología normal, que pertenecen a la cohorte de Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Se utilizaron cepillados cervicales de 34 mujeres VPH 58, con citología normal, pertenecientes a la línea de base de la cohorte, con su respectivo seguimiento. Se amplificó la región E6/E7 del VPH 58 usando los iniciadores E6F1-E7R1 y los iniciadores E7P1-E7P2. Para el análisis de las variantes se utilizó la técnica de secuencia automática directa. La secuencia referencia del VPH 58 se utilizó para comparar las secuencias obtenidas. Resultados: En 27/34 muestras se lograron detectar variantes de E6/E7 de VPH 58. En total, se detectaron cinco variantes diferentes, dos de ellas nunca antes reportadas (A169/T307/A694/G744/A761 y T307/A694/G744/A761/G763). Los análisis de eliminación mostraron que el 75% de las variantes se habían eliminado antes de los dos años de seguimiento, y todas las variantes ya se habían eliminado a los seis años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: Dos nuevas variantes se reportaron a escala mundial de gran relevancia en los ámbitos filogenético y epidemiológico.


Objective: To analyze the presence and persistence of E6/E7 HPV58 variations in women with prevalent HPV 58 infection, with normal cytology, who belong to the Bogotá, Colombia cohort. Methods: Cervical cytobrush was used on 34 HPV58 women, with normal cytology, who are part of the cohort base line; respective follow was performed. The HPV58 E67/E7 region was broadened by using E6F1-E7R1 and E7P1-E7P2 indicators. Variation analysis was carried out with automatic direct sequencing. HPV58 sequence reference was used to compare the sequences that had been obtained. Results: In 27/34 samples, E6/E7 variations of HPV58 were successfully detected. A total of five different variations were detected, two of which had never been reported before (A169/T307/A694/G744/A761 and T307/A694/G744/A761/G763). Elimination analysis revealed that 75% of variations had been eliminated within two years of follow up, and that all variation had been eliminated at the end of six years of follow up. Conclusions: Two new variations of universal phylogenetic and epidemiologic noteworthiness were reported.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colo do Útero/citologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais/classificação , Estudos Transversais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/classificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia
19.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 16(1): 27-39, mar. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-662987

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir la AT y la infección por VPH en el seguimiento de mujeres que pertenecen a la cohorte de Bogotá. Métodos: Se analizaron 79 muestras del seguimiento de 25 mujeres que desarrollaron LEI-AG y 149 muestras del seguimiento de 34 mujeres con citología normal. La detección del VPH se realizó usando PCR-EIA GP5+/GP6+ y RLB. La AT se midió mediante TRAP-ELISA. Resultados: El análisis mostró que de los 25 casos, 8 fueron casos prevalentes (ingresaron al estudio con la LEI-AG) y los 17 casos restantes fueron incidentes (la lesión se detectó durante el seguimiento). De estas 17 mujeres, 12 (70,5%) presentaron AT y VPH al momento del diagnóstico o en una visita previa, con VPH de alto riesgo (VPH-AR), principalmente de la especie α-9. Tres mujeres (17,7%) mostraron infecciones transitorias por VPH y 2 (11,8%) no tuvieron VPH o AT al diagnóstico. El seguimiento de la mujeres con citología normal mostró que solo ocho mujeres tuvieron VPH y AT al mismo tiempo (23,5%), 21/34 mujeres (61,8%) tuvieron eventos transitorios de VPH durante el seguimiento y 5 (14,7%) no tuvieron VPH durante todo el seguimiento. Conclusiones: Detectar AT e infección por VPH-AR al mismo tiempo parecen predecir el riesgo de LEI-AG.


Objective: To describe telomerase activity (TA) and HPV infection in follow up of women in the Bogotá cohort. Methods: Analysis was carried out on 79 follow up samples from 25 women who developed LEI-AG, and 149 follow up samples from 34 women with normal cytology. HPV detection was made with PCR-EIA GP5+/GP6+ and RLB. TA was measured with TRAP-ELISA. Results: Analysis revealed that out of the 25 cases, 8 were prevalent (enrolled in the study with LEI-AG), and the remaining 17 incidental (lesion was detected during follow up). Among these 17 women, 12 (70.5%) had, at diagnosis or during a previous checkup, TA and high-risk HPV (HPV-AR), primarily type α-9. Three women (17.7%) had transitory HPV infections, and 2 (11.8%) had neither HPV nor TA at diagnosis. Follow up on women with normal cytology revealed that only eight women (23.5%) had HPV and TA at the same time, 21/34 women (61.8%) had transitory HPV event during follow up, and 5 (14.7%) had no HPV during entirety of follow up. Conclusions: Detection of TA and simultaneous HPV-AR infection apparently predicts LEI-AR risk.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Telomerase , Biologia Celular/instrumentação , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos
20.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 14(4): 199-209, dic. 2010. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-664803

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and other risk factors in the regression of cervical lesions in women from the Bogotá Cohort. Methods: 200 HPV positive women with abnormal cytology were included for regression analysis. The time of lesion regression was modeled using methods for interval censored survival time data. Median duration of total follow-up was 9 years. Results: 80 (40%) women were diagnosed with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) or Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance (AGUS) while 120 (60%) were diagnosed with Low Grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesions (LSIL). Globally, 40% of the lesions were still present at first year of follow up, while 1.5% was still present at 5 year check-up. The multivariate model showed similar regression rates for lesions in women with ASCUS/AGUS and women with LSIL (HR= 0.82, 95% CI 0.59-1.12). Women infected with HR HPV types and those with mixed infections had lower regression rates for lesions than did women infected with LR types (HR=0.526, 95% CI 0.33-0.84, for HR types and HR=0.378, 95% CI 0.20-0.69, for mixed infections). Furthermore, women over 30 years had a higher lesion regression rate than did women under 30 years (HR= 1.53, 95% CI 1.03-2.27). The study showed that the median time for lesion regression was 9 months while the median time for HPV clearance was 12 months. Conclusions: In the studied population, the type of infection and the age of the women are critical factors for the regression of cervical lesions.


Objetivo: Analizar el papel del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) y otros factores en la regresión de lesiones del cuello del útero en mujeres de la cohorte de Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: El tiempo medio de seguimiento fue nueve años. Se incluyeron 200 mujeres VPH positivas con citología anormal. El tiempo de regresión de lesión fue modelado mediante análisis de supervivencia censurando por intervalos. Resultados: 80 mujeres (40%) tuvieron células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) o células glandulares atípicas de significado indeterminado (AGUS) y 120 (60%) tuvieron lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de bajo grado (LEI-BG). El 40% de las lesiones estaban presentes en el primer año de seguimiento, mientras que el 1,5% aún estaba a los cinco años. Se observaron tasas similares de regresión para ASCUS/AGUS y LEI-BG (HR=0,82, IC 95% 0,59-1,12). Mujeres infectadas con VPH de alto riesgo y aquéllas con infecciones mixtas tuvieron tasas inferiores de regresión de las lesiones que las mujeres con VPH de bajo riesgo (HR=0,526, IC 95% 0,33-0,84, para los VPH de alto riesgo, y HR=0,378, IC 95% 0,20-0,69, para las infecciones mixtas). Las mujeres mayores de 30 años tuvieron una mayor tasa de regresión de lesiones que las menores de 30 (HR= 1,53, IC 95% 1,03-2,27). El tiempo medio de regresión de las lesiones fue 9 meses, y el tiempo medio para la eliminación del VPH fue 12 meses. Conclusiones: En la población estudiada, el tipo de infección y la edad de las mujeres son factores críticos para la regresión de lesiones cervicales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Análise de Sobrevida , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Colômbia
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