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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role and selection of antithrombotic therapy to improve limb outcomes in chronic lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is still debated. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of anti-thrombotic and more intense antithrombotic therapy on limb outcomes and limb salvage in patients with chronic LEAD. METHODS: Study inclusion criteria were: enrollment of patients with LEAD, randomized allocation to more vs. less intense antithrombotic therapy [more vs. less intense single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT); dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) vs. SAPT; dual antithrombotic therapy vs. SAPT or oral anticoagulant]; enrolment of ≥ 200 patients; reporting of at least one of following outcomes: limb amputation or revascularization. Seven randomized studies enrolling 30'447 patients were included. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 24 months, more vs. less intense antithrombotic therapy or placebo significantly reduced the risk of limb revascularization (relative risk [RR]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83 - 0.94) and limb amputation (RR: 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.86), as well as stroke (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97). There was no statistically significant effect on the risk of myocardial infarction (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.87-1.11), all-cause (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.01) and cardiovascular death (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.86-1.08). Risk of major bleeding increased (RR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44). CONCLUSION: In patients with LEAD, more intense antithrombotic therapy reduces risk of limb amputation and revascularization as well as stroke, with an increase in the risk of bleeding events.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(9): 1129-1141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410955

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare characteristics of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients receiving a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) with a defibrillator component (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation, CIED-D) vs. those without one, and to assess whether carrying such a device contiguously with an LVAD is associated with outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 448 patients were analysed (mean age 52 ± 13 years, 82% male) in the multicentre European PCHF-VAD registry. To account for all active CIED-Ds during ongoing LVAD treatment, outcome analyses were performed by a time-varying analysis with active CIED-D status post-LVAD as the time-varying covariate. At the time of LVAD implantation, 235 patients (52%) had an active CIED-D. Median time on LVAD support was 1.1 years (interquartile range 0.5-2.0 years). A reduction of 36% in the risk of all-cause mortality was observed in patients with an active CIED-D [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.91; P = 0.012), increasing to 41% after adjustment for baseline covariates (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P = 0.008) and 39% after propensity score adjustment (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.94; P = 0.027). Other than CIED-D, age, LVAD implant as redo surgery, number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and use of vasopressors pre-LVAD were remaining significant risk factors of all-cause mortality. Incident ventricular arrhythmias post-LVAD portended a 2.4-fold and 2.6-fold increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively; carrying an active CIED-D remained associated with a 47% and 43% reduction in these events, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis accounting for all active CIED-Ds, including those implanted during LVAD support, carrying such a device was associated with significantly better survival during LVAD support.

3.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408153

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate population-based electronic health record (EHR) definitions of atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) subtypes, time trends in prevalence and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 76 019 individuals with AF were identified in England in 1998-2010 in the CALIBER resource, linking primary and secondary care EHR. An algorithm was created, implemented, and refined to identify 18 VHD subtypes using 406 diagnosis, procedure, and prescription codes. Cox models were used to investigate associations with a composite endpoint of incident stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, and unspecified), systemic embolism (SSE), and all-cause mortality. Among individuals with AF, the prevalence of AF with concomitant VHD increased from 11.4% (527/4613) in 1998 to 17.6% (7014/39 868) in 2010 and also in individuals aged over 65 years. Those with mechanical valves, mitral stenosis (MS), or aortic stenosis had highest risk of clinical events compared to AF patients with no VHD, in relative [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.13 (1.02-1.24), 1.20 (1.05-1.36), and 1.27 (1.19-1.37), respectively] and absolute (excess risk: 2.04, 4.20, and 6.37 per 100 person-years, respectively) terms. Of the 95.2% of individuals with indication for warfarin (men and women with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1 and ≥2, respectively), only 21.8% had a prescription 90 days prior to the study. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of VHD among individuals with AF increased from 1998 to 2010. Atrial fibrillation associated with aortic stenosis, MS, or mechanical valves (compared to AF without VHD) was associated with an excess absolute risk of stroke, SSE, and mortality, but anticoagulation was underused in the pre-direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) era, highlighting need for urgent clarity regarding DOACs in AF and concomitant VHD.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 830-839, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207140

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to assess prognostic impact of Framingham criteria for heart failure (FC-HF) in patients with stable heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the prospective Karolinska-Rennes (KaRen) study, we assessed stable HFpEF patients after an acute HF episode. We evaluated associations between the four descriptive models of HFpEF and the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. The descriptive models were FC-HF alone, FC-HF + natriuretic peptides (NPs) according to the PARAGON trial, FC-HF + NPs + echocardiographic HFpEF criteria according to European Society of Cardiology HF guidelines, and FC-HF + NPs + echocardiographic criteria according to the PARAGON trial. Out of the 539 patients enrolled in KaRen, 438 returned for the stable state revisit after 4-8 weeks, 13 (2.4%) patients died before the planned follow-up, and 88 patients (16%) declined or were unable to return. Three hundred ninety-nine patients have FC registered at follow-up, and among these, the four descriptive models were met in 107 (27%), 82 (22%), 61 (21%), and 69 (22%) patients, and not met in 292 (73%). The 107 patients that had FC-HF at stable state (descriptive model 1) could also be part of the other models because all patients in models 1-4 had to fulfil the FC-HF. The patients in model 0 did not fulfil the criteria for FC-HF but could have single FC. Of single FC, only pleural effusion predicted the endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 3.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-7.76, P = 0.004]. Patients without FC-HF had better prognosis than patients meeting FC-HF. The unadjusted associations between the four HFpEF descriptive models and the endpoint were HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.09, P = 0.005; HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.24-2.36, P = 0.002; HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.36-2.81, P = 0.001; and HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.45-2.91, P < 0.001, for descriptive models 1-4, respectively. No descriptive model independently predicted the endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: In ambulatory HFpEF patients, a quarter met FC-HF, while most met NP and echocardiography criteria for HF. Residual FC-HF tended to be associated with increased risk for mortality and HF hospitalization, further strengthened by NPs and echocardiographic criteria, highlighting its role in clinical risk assessment.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 205-210, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is central to accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy. We aimed to investigate the ability of the novel echocardiographic pulmonary to left atrial global strain ratio (ePLAGS) to distinguish pre-capillary from post-capillary PH and compare its discriminatory strength with the echocardiographic pulmonary to left atrial ratio (ePLAR). METHODS: Consecutive subjects with unexplained dyspnea or heart failure underwent echocardiography immediately followed by right heart catheterization. Subjects who did not satisfy the ESC/ERS criteria for PH, in atrial fibrillation or under pacemaker therapy, or with significant concomitant valvular disease were excluded. ePLAGS was calculated as peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity divided by left atrial global reservoir strain. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty PH subjects, as defined by right heart catheterization, were included in the analysis (pre-capillary: n = 64, post-capillary: n = 66). ePLAGS was lower in pre-capillary compared with post-capillary PH (0.19 ±â€¯0.14 vs. 0.45 ±â€¯0.58 m/s/%; p = 0.02) and significantly different between combined post- and pre-capillary PH (Cpc-PH) and isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH) (0.62 ±â€¯0.85 vs. 0.32 ±â€¯0.19 m/s/%; p = 0.04). ePLAR was higher in pre-capillary as compared with post-capillary PH (0.37 ±â€¯0.16 vs. 0.20 ±â€¯0.08; p < 0.001) but did not differ between Ipc-PH and Cpc-PH. ePLAGS demonstrated stronger discriminating power than ePLAR to distinguish pre-capillary from post-capillary PH (AUC = 0.80 vs. 0.70). In the setting of post capillary PH, ePLAGS showed reasonable ability to distinguish Ipc-PH from Cpc-PH (AUC = 0.65). ePLAR, however, did not differentiate these two groups (AUC = 0.49; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ePLAGS accurately differentiates pre-capillary from post-capillary PH and demonstrates higher diagnostic ability than ePLAR.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 827-843, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243866

RESUMO

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening condition typically presenting as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the last month of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in women without another known cause of heart failure. This updated position statement summarizes the knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PPCM. As shortness of breath, fatigue and leg oedema are common in the peripartum period, a high index of suspicion is required to not miss the diagnosis. Measurement of natriuretic peptides, electrocardiography and echocardiography are recommended to promptly diagnose or exclude heart failure/PPCM. Important differential diagnoses include pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease during pregnancy, and pre-existing heart disease. A genetic contribution is present in up to 20% of PPCM, in particular titin truncating variant. PPCM is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but also with a high probability of partial and often full recovery. Use of guideline-directed pharmacological therapy for HFrEF is recommended in all patients respecting contraindications during pregnancy/lactation. The oxidative stress-mediated cleavage of the hormone prolactin into a cardiotoxic fragment has been identified as a driver of PPCM pathophysiology. Pharmacological blockade of prolactin release using bromocriptine as a disease-specific therapy in addition to standard therapy for heart failure treatment has shown promising results in two clinical trials. Thresholds for devices (implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy and implanted long-term ventricular assist devices) are higher in PPCM than in other conditions because of the high rate of recovery. The important role of education and counselling around contraception and future pregnancies is emphasised.

8.
9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127678

RESUMO

AIMS: Classification of acute heart failure (AHF) patients into four clinical profiles defined by evidence of congestion and perfusion is advocated by the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)guidelines. Based on the ESC-EORP-HFA Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, we compared differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes among congestion/perfusion profiles using this classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 7865 AHF patients classified at admission as: 'dry-warm' (9.9%), 'wet-warm' (69.9%), 'wet-cold' (19.8%) and 'dry-cold' (0.4%). These groups differed significantly in terms of baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes. In-hospital mortality was 2.0% in 'dry-warm', 3.8% in 'wet-warm', 9.1% in 'dry-cold' and 12.1% in 'wet-cold' patients. Based on clinical classification at admission, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.78 (1.43-2.21) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 1.33 (1.19-1.48). For profiles resulting from discharge classification, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.46 (1.31-1.63) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 2.20 (1.89-2.56). Among patients discharged alive, 30.9% had residual congestion, and these patients had higher 1-year mortality compared to patients discharged without congestion (28.0 vs. 18.5%). Tricuspid regurgitation, diabetes, anaemia and high New York Heart Association class were independently associated with higher risk of congestion at discharge, while beta-blockers at admission, de novo heart failure, or any cardiovascular procedure during hospitalization were associated with lower risk of residual congestion. CONCLUSION: Classification based on congestion/perfusion status provides clinically relevant information at hospital admission and discharge. A better understanding of the clinical course of the two entities could play an important role towards the implementation of targeted strategies that may improve outcomes.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132222

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the proportion of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who are eligible for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) based on the European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration (EMA/FDA) label, the PARADIGM-HF trial and the 2016 ESC guidelines, and the association between eligibility and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA Long-Term Heart Failure (HF-LT) Registry between March 2011 and November 2013 were considered. Criteria for LCZ696 based on EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and ESC guidelines were applied. Of 5443 patients, 2197 and 2373 had complete information for trial and guideline eligibility assessment, and 84%, 12% and 12% met EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria, respectively. Absent PARADIGM-HF criteria were low natriuretic peptides (21%), hyperkalemia (4%), hypotension (7%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (74%); absent Guidelines criteria were LVEF>35% (23%), insufficient NP levels (30%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (82%); absent label criteria were absence of symptoms (New York Heart Association class I). When a daily requirement of ACEi/ARB ≥ 10 mg enalapril (instead of ≥ 20 mg) was used, eligibility rose from 12% to 28% based on both PARADIGM-HF and guidelines. One-year heart failure hospitalization was higher (12% and 17% vs. 12%) and all-cause mortality lower (5.3% and 6.5% vs. 7.7%) in registry eligible patients compared to the enalapril arm of PARADIGM-HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA HF-LT Registry, 84% met label criteria, while only 12% and 28% met PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria for LCZ696 if requiring ≥ 20 mg and ≥ 10 mg enalapril, respectively. Registry patients eligible for LCZ696 had greater heart failure hospitalization but lower mortality rates than the PARADIGM-HF enalapril group.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011737, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094284

RESUMO

Background Follow-up in a nurse-led heart failure ( HF ) clinic is recommended in HF guidelines, but its association with outcomes remains controversial, with previous studies including few and highly selected patients. Thus, large analyses of "real-world" samples are needed. Aims were to assess: (1) independent predictors of and (2) prognosis associated with planned referral to nurse-led HF clinics. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the SwedeHF (Swedish HF Registry) using multivariable logistic regressions to identify independent predictors of planned referral to a nurse-led HF clinic and multivariable Cox regressions to test associations between planned referral and outcomes (all-cause death, HF hospitalization, and their composite). Of 40 992 patients, 39% were planned to be referred to a follow-up in a nurse-led HF clinic. Independent characteristics associated with planned referral were shorter duration of HF , clinical markers of more-severe HF, such as lower ejection fraction, higher New York Heart Association class and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and lower blood pressure, as well as cohabitating versus living alone, male sex, fewer comorbidities, and more use of HF treatments. After adjustments, planned referral to a nurse-led HF clinic was associated with reduced mortality and mortality/ HF hospitalization, but not HF hospitalization alone. Conclusions In this nation-wide registry, 39% of our identified HF cohort was planned to be referred to a nurse-led HF clinic. Planned referral reflected more-severe HF , but also sex- and family-related factors, and it was independently associated with lower risk of death, but not of HF hospitalization.

12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(8): 1465-1472, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123846

RESUMO

An accurate distinction between isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (Ipc-PH) and combined post- and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) is integral to therapy and prognosis in heart failure (HF). This study aimed to compare the ability of four previously validated Doppler estimates of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRDoppler) to distinguish Ipc-PH from Cpc-PH in a well-defined HF population. Consecutive subjects referred for HF assessment underwent standard echocardiography immediately followed by right heart catheterization (RHC). Subjects with atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, significant valvular disease or poor image quality were excluded. PVRDoppler estimates were correlated with invasive PVR and agreement was studied using Bland-Altman analysis. Receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed to determine the ability of PVRDoppler methods to identify PVR > 3WU. 55 HF subjects (58 ± 16 years, 55% Ipc-PH) were analyzed. PVRDoppler estimates demonstrated weak to modest associations with invasive PVR. The Doppler method proposed by Abbas et al. demonstrated relatively strong discriminatory ability to distinguish Ipc-PH from Cpc-PH (AUC = 0.79; 95% CI 0.63-0.96; p = 0.001). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed wide limits of agreement (bias = 0; SD = 1.83WU) and greater variability at higher mean PVR. Conclusions: PVRDoppler estimates demonstrate reasonable ability to distinguish Ipc-PH from Cpc-PH but may not be reliable independent PH distinguishers in HF.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Pulmonar , Resistência Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(2): 230-270, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100109

RESUMO

Long-term mechanical circulatory support (LT-MCS) is an important treatment modality for patients with severe heart failure. Different devices are available, and many-sometimes contradictory-observations regarding patient selection, surgical techniques, perioperative management and follow-up have been published. With the growing expertise in this field, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) recognized a need for a structured multidisciplinary consensus about the approach to patients with LT-MCS. However, the evidence published so far is insufficient to allow for generation of meaningful guidelines complying with EACTS requirements. Instead, the EACTS presents an expert opinion in the LT-MCS field. This expert opinion addresses patient evaluation and preoperative optimization as well as management of cardiac and non-cardiac comorbidities. Further, extensive operative implantation techniques are summarized and evaluated by leading experts, depending on both patient characteristics and device selection. The faculty recognized that postoperative management is multidisciplinary and includes aspects of intensive care unit stay, rehabilitation, ambulatory care, myocardial recovery and end-of-life care and mirrored this fact in this paper. Additionally, the opinions of experts on diagnosis and management of adverse events including bleeding, cerebrovascular accidents and device malfunction are presented. In this expert consensus, the evidence for the complete management from patient selection to end-of-life care is carefully reviewed with the aim of guiding clinicians in optimizing management of patients considered for or supported by an LT-MCS device.

15.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) may be misdiagnosed. We assessed prevalence and consistency of Framingham criteria signs and symptoms in acute vs subsequent stable HFpEF. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-nine patients with acute HFpEF according to Framingham criteria were re-assessed in stable condition. Four definitions of HFpEF at follow-up: (1) Framingham criteria alone, (2) Framingham criteria and natriuretic peptides (NPs), (3) Framingham criteria, NPs, and European Society of Cardiology HF guidelines echocardiographic criteria, (4) Framingham criteria, NPs, and the Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction (PARAGON) trial echocardiographic criteria. RESULTS: At follow-up, HFpEF was still present in 27%, 22%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Most prevalent in acute HFpEF were dyspnea at exertion (90%), pulmonary rales (71%), persisting at follow-up in 70% and 13%, respectively. Characteristics at acute HF with greater or lesser odds of stable HFpEF; (1) jugular venous distention (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.87; P = .013) and pleural effusion (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85; P = .014) and (4), older age (1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; P = .014) and tachycardia (>100 bpm) 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-1.00; P = .048). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute HFpEF, one-quarter met the HF definition according to Framingham criteria at ambulatory follow-up. The proportion of patients with postdischarge HFpEF was largely unaffected by additional echocardiographic or NP criteria Older age and jugular venous distention at acute presentation predicted persistent HFpEF at follow-up, whereas pleural effusion and tachycardia may yield false HFpEF diagnoses. This finding has implications for HFpEF trial design.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 66-72, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess sex-specific differences in N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) regarding concentrations, predictors of high concentrations, and prognostic role, in a large and unselected population with chronic heart failure (HF) with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 9847 outpatients with HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF (49 vs. 35 vs. 25% females, respectively) from the Swedish HF Registry, median NT-proBNP concentrations were 1598 ng/L in females vs. 1310 ng/L in males in HFpEF, 1764 vs. 1464 ng/L in HFmrEF, and 2543 vs. 2226 ng/L in HFrEF (p < 0.05 for all). The differences persisted after multiple adjustment. The largest sex-difference in NT-proBNP levels was observed in HFpEF with sinus rhythm, where median concentrations were 1.4 folds higher in females (923 vs. 647 ng/L). Independent predictors of NT-proBNP levels (defined as above the different medians according to sex and HF phenotype) were overall consistent across sexes and EF. NT-proBNP levels were similarly associated with risk of all-cause death/HF hospitalization in both sexes regardless of EF. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of NT-proBNP were higher in females across the EF spectrum, with larger relative differences in HFpEF with sinus rhythm. However, similar predictors of high levels were observed in both sexes. There were no sex-differences in the prognostic role of NT-proBNP. These findings support the use of NT-proBNP for prognostic purposes in chronic HF, regardless of sex.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HFmrEF has been recently proposed as a distinct HF phenotype. How HFmrEF differs from HFrEF and HFpEF according to age remains poorly defined. We aimed to investigate age-dependent differences in heart failure with mid-range (HFmrEF) vs. preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: 42,987 patients, 23% with HFpEF, 22% with HFmrEF and 55% with HFrEF, enrolled in the Swedish heart failure registry were studied. HFpEF prevalence strongly increased, whereas that of HFrEF strongly decreased with higher age. All cardiac comorbidities and most non-cardiac comorbidities increased with aging, regardless of the HF phenotype. Notably, HFmrEF resembled HFrEF for ischemic heart disease prevalence in all age groups, whereas regarding hypertension it was more similar to HFpEF in age ≥ 80 years, to HFrEF in age < 65 years and intermediate in age 65-80 years. All-cause mortality risk was higher in HFrEF vs. HFmrEF for all age categories, whereas HFmrEF vs. HFpEF reported similar risk in ≥ 80 years old patients and lower risk in < 65 and 65-80 years old patients. Predictors of mortality were more likely cardiac comorbidities in HFrEF but more likely non-cardiac comorbidities in HFpEF and HFmrEF with < 65 years. Differences among HF phenotypes for comorbidities were less pronounced in the other age categories. CONCLUSION: HFmrEF appeared as an intermediate phenotype between HFpEF and HFrEF, but for some characteristics such as ischemic heart disease more similar to HFrEF. With aging, HFmrEF resembled more HFpEF. Prognosis was similar in HFmrEF vs. HFpEF and better than in HFrEF.

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