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2.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 45(4): 569-581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564297

RESUMO

Major advances have been made in the field of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), or myositis, that are likely to facilitate development of new therapeutic strategies that have not yet been applied in this group of diseases. These advances include new classification criteria to better identify the patients with IIM, detection of several new myositis-specific autoantibodies that facilitates subgrouping of patients into more specific clinical phenotypes, development of outcome measures for disease activity, and new response criteria. We have learned from clinical studies that exercise is an important part of treatment and that pharmacologic treatment should be combined with exercise.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16955-16960, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375628

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, likely autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a strong suspect. We have previously identified increased autoantibody levels toward the chloride-channel protein Anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS. Here, IgG antibody reactivity toward ANO2 and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) was measured using bead-based multiplex serology in plasma samples from 8,746 MS cases and 7,228 controls. We detected increased anti-ANO2 antibody levels in MS (P = 3.5 × 10-36) with 14.6% of cases and 7.8% of controls being ANO2 seropositive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]: 1.5 to 1.8). The MS risk increase in ANO2-seropositive individuals was dramatic when also exposed to 3 known risk factors for MS: HLA-DRB1*15:01 carriage, absence of HLA-A*02:01, and high anti-EBNA1 antibody levels (OR = 24.9; 95%CI: 17.9 to 34.8). Reciprocal blocking experiments with ANO2 and EBNA1 peptides demonstrated antibody cross-reactivity, mapping to ANO2 [aa 140 to 149] and EBNA1 [aa 431 to 440]. HLA gene region was associated with anti-ANO2 antibody levels and HLA-DRB1*04:01 haplotype was negatively associated with ANO2 seropositivity (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5 to 0.7). Anti-ANO2 antibody levels were not increased in patients from 3 other inflammatory disease cohorts. The HLA influence and the fact that specific IgG production usually needs T cell help provides indirect evidence for a T cell ANO2 autoreactivity in MS. We propose a hypothesis where immune reactivity toward EBNA1 through molecular mimicry with ANO2 contributes to the etiopathogenesis of MS.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies targeting histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS, or anti-Jo1) are common in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS). We aimed to investigate immunity against HisRS in blood and lungs of patients with IIM/ASS. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), BALF cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from IIM/ASS (n=24) patients were stimulated with full-length HisRS-protein or a HisRS-derived peptide (HisRS11-23 ). BALF and PBMCs from sarcoidosis patients (n=7) and healthy controls (HCs, n=12) were included as controls. CD4+ T-cell response was assessed by CD40L upregulation and cytokine expression using flow cytometry. Anti-Jo1 autoantibody response in serum and BALF was assessed by ELISA. Lung biopsies (n=14) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In BALF, CD4+ T cells from 3/4 IIM/ASS responded to HisRS-protein stimulation (median CD40L fold-change: 3.6; 2.7-14.7) and 2/3 IIM/ASS had the highest responses to HisRS11-23 (median CD40L fold-change: 88; 27-149). In PBMCs, CD4+ T cells from 14/18 IIM/ASS responded to HisRS-protein (median fold-change: 7.38; IQR, 2.69-31.86, p<0.001) whereas HisRS11-23 response was present in 11/14 IIM/ASS (median fold-change: 3.4, IQR 1.87-10.9, p<0.001). In the control group, there was a HisRS11-23 response in 3/7 sarcoidosis (median CD40L fold-change: 2.09; IQR, 1.45-3.29), and in 5/12 HCs (median fold-change: 2; IQR, 1.89-2.42). CD4+ T cells from IIM/ASS displayed a pronounced Th1 phenotype in BALF when compared to PBMCs (p<0.001), producing high amounts of IFNγ and IL-2 following stimulation. Anti-Jo1 autoantibodies were detected in BALF as well as germinal center (GC)-like structures in lung biopsies of IIM/ASS. CONCLUSIONS: We report the pronounced presence of HisRS-reactive CD4+ T cells in PBMCs and BALF cells of IIM/ASS patients compared to sarcoidosis patients and HCs. This combined with the presence of anti-Jo1 autoantibodies in BALF, and GC-like structures in the lungs suggest that immune activation against HisRS might take place within the lungs of IIM/ASS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the reproductive pattern of women with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) compared to the general population. METHODS: Population-based, nationwide registers were used to identify offspring of women with IIM and comparators. RESULTS: Women with IIM in general had similar reproductive pattern as the comparators whereas those diagnosed between 26 and 45 years of age there was an overall trend for fewer children as well as trend for a higher proportion of nulliparity and a lower fertility rate in women with dermatomyositis than their comparators. CONCLUSION: Reproductive attention should be paid to patients with IIM diagnosed during childbearing period.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate anti-TIF1-γ antibodies in longitudinally followed patients with myositis and cancer. METHODS: Serum levels of anti-TIF1-γ antibodies at different time-points in relation to myositis and cancer diagnosis were analysed by ELISA in 79 patients from a Swedish cohort with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) and a Spanish cohort restricted to DM patients. Anti-TIF1-γ positive and negative patients were compared with Fisher's exact test, student t-tests and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (17 from cohort 1 and 19 from cohort 2) with myositis and cancer were anti-TIF1-γ antibody positive; all had DM. In 88% of anti-TIF1-γ positive patients, cancer was diagnosed within 3 years from DM diagnosis compared to 63% in anti-TIF1-γ negative. Four DM patients, anti-TIF1-γ positive at cancer diagnosis had positive serum samples even antedating cancer diagnosis up to five years. In cohort 1 the median (interquartile range) antibody level was higher, 2.13 au (1.82-2.15), in the seven patients who died <1 year after cancer diagnosis, compared to the seven that died >1 year after cancer diagnosis, 1.34 au (0.92-1.59), (p=0.004). Three patients were still alive and in remission from cancer and DM 14-16 years after cancer treatment of whom two became negative for anti-TIF1-γ antibodies. In the second cohort remission of cancer coincided with remission of DM and low or negative serum levels of autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TIF1-γ antibodies may be detected before clinical symptoms of cancer and may disappear after successful treatment of cancer with remission of DM supporting DM being a paramalignant phenomenon.

8.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(7): 543-548, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204143

RESUMO

Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase myopathy is less common in children but has been associated with more favorable prognosis than adult patients after immunotherapies. We report anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibody positivity in a 6-year-old boy with progressive muscle weakness, scoliosis, spinal rigidity, multiple joint contractures, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, and elevated serum creatine kinase. In contrast to most of previously reported pediatric anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase myopathy, he showed little response to immunotherapies. Muscle biopsy contained changes suggestive of myofiber necrosis and regeneration and reducing bodies. The diagnosis of reducing body myopathy was later confirmed by reported c.368A>G (p.His123Arg) mutation in the FHL1 gene. Although the level of association between these two conditions is still inconclusive, this is the first report of concurrent positive anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibody with reducing body myopathy emphasizing the possibility of co-occurrence of immune mediated necrotizing myopathy and muscular dystrophy and importance of comprehensive diagnostic investigations in unusual cases.

9.
J Pathol ; 249(2): 215-226, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135059

RESUMO

The etiology of myositis is unknown. Although attempts to identify viruses in myositis skeletal muscle have failed, several studies have identified the presence of a viral signature in myositis patients. Here we postulate that in individuals with susceptible genetic backgrounds, viral infection alters the epigenome to activate the pathological pathways leading to disease onset. To identify epigenetic changes, methylation profiling of Coxsackie B infected human myotubes and muscle biopsies from polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) patients were compared to changes in global transcript expression induced by in vitro Coxsackie B infection. Gene and protein expression analysis and live cell imaging were performed to examine the mechanisms. Analysis of methylation and gene expression changes identified that a mitochondria-localized activator of apoptosis - harakiri (HRK) - is upregulated in myositis skeletal muscle cells. Muscle cells with higher HRK expression have reduced mitochondrial potential and poor ability to repair from injury as compared to controls. In cells from myositis patient toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) activates and sustains high HRK expression. Forced over expression of HRK in healthy muscle cells is sufficient to compromise their membrane repair ability. Endurance exercise that is associated with improved muscle and mitochondrial function in PM and DM patients decreased TLR7 and HRK expression identifying these as therapeutic targets. Increased HRK and TLR7 expression causes mitochondrial damage leading to poor myofiber repair, myofiber death and muscle weakness in myositis patients and exercise induced reduction of HRK and TLR7 expression in patients is associated with disease amelioration. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 996-1002, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases characterised clinically by muscle weakness and heterogeneous systemic organ involvement. The strongest genetic risk is within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Since autoantibody presence defines specific clinical subgroups of IIM, we aimed to correlate serotype and genotype, to identify novel risk variants in the MHC region that co-occur with IIM autoantibodies. METHODS: We collected available autoantibody data in our cohort of 2582 Caucasian patients with IIM. High resolution human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and corresponding amino acid sequences were imputed using SNP2HLA from existing genotyping data and tested for association with 12 autoantibody subgroups. RESULTS: We report associations with eight autoantibodies reaching our study-wide significance level of p<2.9×10-5. Associations with the 8.1 ancestral haplotype were found with anti-Jo-1 (HLA-B*08:01, p=2.28×10-53 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=3.25×10-9), anti-PM/Scl (HLA-DQB1*02:01, p=1.47×10-26) and anti-cN1A autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=1.40×10-11). Associations independent of this haplotype were found with anti-Mi-2 (HLA-DRB1*07:01, p=4.92×10-13) and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*11, p=5.09×10-6). Amino acid positions may be more strongly associated than classical HLA associations; for example with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies and position 74 of HLA-DRB1 (p=3.47×10-64) and position 9 of HLA-B (p=7.03×10-11). We report novel genetic associations with HLA-DQB1 anti-TIF1 autoantibodies and identify haplotypes that may differ between adult-onset and juvenile-onset patients with these autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights regarding the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms within the MHC. As autoantibodies in IIM correlate with specific clinical features of disease, understanding genetic risk underlying development of autoantibody profiles has implications for future research.

12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a pilot study we aimed to identify biomarkers in repeated muscle biopsies and paired blood samples, taken before and after conventional immunosuppressive therapy, in order to predict long-term therapeutic response in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). METHODS: Muscle biopsies were selected from 13 new onset patients, six responders and seven non-responders. Repeated muscle biopsies after a median of 11 months follow-up were available from 9 patients and paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 5 patients. Treatment response after 3 years was defined by MMT-8 measuring muscle strength and the ACR/EULAR 2016 improvement criteria. Frozen biopsy sections were immunohistochemically stained for expression of CD3, CD66b, IL-15, CD68, CD163 and myosin heavy chain neonatal (MHCn). PBMCs were analysed by flow cytometry for monocyte phenotypes (CD14, CD16, CD68, CX3CR1, and CCR2). RESULTS: Before treatment there were no significant differences in any clinical or muscle biopsy variables or monocyte subsets between responders and non-responders. MMT-8 was significantly higher compared to baseline in the responders at 3-year follow-up. In responders the expression of CD68 in the repeated biopsies was significantly lower compared to non-responders (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline biopsy, monocyte profile or clinical data did not predict long-term treatment response, but in the repeated biopsy within 1 year of immunosuppressive treatment, the lower number of macrophages (CD68+) seemed to predict a more favourable long-term clinical response with regard to improved muscle strength.

13.
J Rheumatol ; 46(11): 1509-1514, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of ACS in an incident IIM cohort compared to the general Swedish population. METHODS: A cohort of 655 individuals with incident IIM and 6813 general population comparators were identified from national registries. IIM subjects were diagnosed from 2002 to 2011. Followup started at IIM diagnosis and corresponding date in the general population. ACS, CV comorbidities, and CV risk factors were defined using International Classification of Diseases codes. Incidence rates including 95% CI were calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of ACS in patients with IIM and the general population. The competing risk of death was accounted for using competing risk regression models. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ACS in IIM was higher than in the general population, particularly within the first year of diagnosis and in older individuals. The overall ACS incidence rate in IIM was 15.6 (95% CI 11.7-20.4) per 1000 person-years, with an HR of 2.4 (95% CI 1.8-3.2) compared with the general population. When accounting for the competing risk of death, the risk of ACS in IIM remained increased with a cumulative incidence of 7% at 5 years compared to 3.3% in the general population. CONCLUSION: IIM individuals are at higher risk of ACS, particularly within the first year after diagnosis.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 46(10): 1351-1354, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present and vote on a myositis modified patient-reported outcome core domain set in the life impact area at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018. METHODS: Based on results from international focus groups and Delphi surveys, a draft core set was developed. RESULTS: Domains muscle symptoms, fatigue, level of physical activity, and pain reached ≥ 70% consensus and were mandatory to assess in all trials. Domains lung, joint, and skin symptoms were mandatory in specific circumstances. This core set was endorsed by > 85% at OMERACT 2018. CONCLUSION: We propose a life impact core set for patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and will proceed with instrument selections.

16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1214-1220, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-hoc analyses of the Rituximab in Myositis trial indicate that specific autoantibodies profiles may influence treatment response. We compared the efficacy and safety of rituximab in anti-synthetase antibody (ARS-ab) positive and negative patients. METHODS: Adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) subjects in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register who received ⩾ 1 cycle of rituximab were enrolled. Efficacy assessment was based on the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) core set measures and the 2016 ACR/EULAR definition of improvement for PM and DM. Safety assessment included drug-related adverse event and death during study period. Comparisons were done within and between the ARS-ab defined groups before and after first and last cycles. Associations between selected clinical features and improvement after one rituximab cycle were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-five subjects were included and 43 had a follow-up visit within 5-10 months. Seventy-eight percent of ARS-ab positive subjects had moderate/major ACR/EULAR improvement after one cycle compared with 50% in the ARS-ab negative group. After several cycles, 79% of the ARS-ab positive and 67% of the ARS-ab negative patients achieved moderate/major improvement. A significant glucocorticoid-sparing effect was only observed in the ARS-ab positive group (P = 0.001). The most frequent adverse events were infections. One ARS-ab positive and two ARS-ab negative patients died during follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Irrespectively of their autoantibody status, a majority of subjects treated with several rituximab cycles had moderate/major improvement. In addition, ARS-ab positive subjects experienced a significant glucocorticoid-sparing effect.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17958, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560888

RESUMO

IgG Fc-glycans affect IgG function and are altered in autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies. Anti-histidyl tRNA synthetase autoantibodies (anti-Jo1) are frequent in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) with associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, we hypothesized that the total-IgG Fc-glycans from Jo1+ versus Jo1- patients and anti-Jo1-IgG would show characteristic differences, and that particular Fc-glycan features would be associated with specific clinical manifestations. By proteomics based mass spectrometry we observed a high abundance of agalactosylated IgG1 Fc-glycans in ASS/IIM patients (n = 44) compared to healthy age matched controls (n = 24). Using intra-individual normalization of the main agalactosylated glycan (FA2) of IgG1 vs FA2-IgG2, ASS/IIM and controls were distinguished with an area under the curve (AUC) of 79 ± 6%. For Jo1+ patients (n = 19) the AUCs went up to 88 ± 6%. Bisected and afucosylated Fc-glycans were significantly lower in Jo1+ compared to Jo1- patients. Anti-Jo1-IgG enriched from eleven patients contained even significantly lower abundances of bisected, afucosylated and galactosylated forms compared to matched total-IgG. ASS and ILD diagnosis, as well as lysozyme and thrombospondin correlated with Jo1+ characteristic Fc-glycan features. These results suggest that the anti-Jo1+ patient Fc-glycan profile contains phenotype specific features which may underlie the pathogenic role of Jo1 autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Autoimunidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 262, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the 1-year and 2-year outcome of a health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) support program on global pain, pressure pain sensitivity, and exercise-induced segmental and plurisegmental hypoalgesia (EIH) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Thirty participants (27 women and 3 men) were recruited from a larger intervention cohort that engaged in strength training and moderate-intensity aerobic activity. Assessments were performed before the HEPA intervention and at 1-year and 2-year follow-ups. Global pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (0-100). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and suprathreshold pressure pain at rest corresponding to 4/10 (medium pain) (SP4) and 7/10 (strong pain) (SP7) on Borg CR 10 scale were assessed by algometry. In a subsample (n = 21), segmental and plurisegmental EIH were assessed during standardized submaximal static contraction (30% of the individual maximum), by algometry, alternately at the contracting right M. quadriceps and the resting left M. deltoideus. RESULTS: Global pain decreased from before the intervention to 2-year follow-up (median 11 to median 6, P = 0.040). PPTs and SP4 pressure pain at rest did not change from before the intervention to 2-year follow-up, while SP7 decreased from mean 647 kPa to mean 560 kPa (P = 0.006). Segmental EIH during static muscle contraction increased from the assessment before the intervention (from mean 1.02 to mean 1.42, P = 0.001), as did plurisegmental EIH (from mean 0.87 to mean 1.41, P <0.001). There were no statistically significant changes in segmental or plurisegmental EIH from before the intervention to 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Participation in a long-term HEPA support program was associated with reduced global pain, whereas pressure pain sensitivity at rest was not reduced and EIH did not change. Thus, our results do not favor the hypothesis that long-term HEPA reduces pain by improving descending pain inhibition in persons with RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25539102 , ISRCTN registry, date assigned March 4, 2011. The trial was retrospectively registered.

19.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12732, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451307

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate in vivo effects of abatacept on phenotypes of T and B cells in the circulation of myositis patients in a sub-study of the ARTEMIS trial. Twelve patients with paired frozen PBMCs before and after 6-month abatacept treatment were included in this sub-study where mass cytometry (CyTOF) was chosen as a technology to be tested for its utility in a real life clinical immune-monitoring setting. Using CyTOF, the peripheral T cell phenotypes demonstrated considerable variation over time and between individuals precluding the identification of treatment-specific changes. We therefore conclude that studies of patient cohorts displaying wide clinical heterogeneity using mass cytometry must be relatively large in order to be suited for discovery research and immune-monitoring. Still, we did find some correlations with functional muscle outcome, namely positive correlations between the ratio of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells (CD4/CD8) in peripheral blood samples both at baseline and after treatment with muscle endurance improvement as assessed by the functional index (FI-2) test. Our data suggests that the CD4/CD8 ratio in circulation at time of active disease may be a predictor of treatment efficacy in myositis patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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