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1.
J Immunol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492744

RESUMO

Inflammation is involved in initiation and progression of aortic stenosis (AS). However, the role of the complement system, a crucial component of innate immunity in AS, is unclear. We hypothesized that circulating levels of complement factor B (FB), an important component of the alternative pathway, are upregulated and could predict outcome in patients with severe symptomatic AS. Therefore, plasma levels of FB, Bb, and terminal complement complex were analyzed in three cohorts of patients with severe symptomatic AS and mild-to-moderate or severe asymptomatic AS (population 1, n = 123; population 2, n = 436; population 3, n = 61) and in healthy controls by enzyme immunoassays. Compared with controls, symptomatic AS patients had significantly elevated levels of FB (2.9- and 2.8-fold increase in population 1 and 2, respectively). FB levels in symptomatic and asymptomatic AS patients were comparable (population 2 and 3), and in asymptomatic patients FB correlated inversely with valve area. FB levels in population 1 and 2 correlated with terminal complement complex levels and measures of systemic inflammation (i.e., CRP), cardiac function (i.e., NT-proBNP), and cardiac necrosis (i.e., Troponin T). High FB levels were significantly associated with mortality also after adjusting for clinical and biochemical covariates (hazard ratio 1.37; p = 0.028, population 2). Plasma levels of the Bb fragment showed a similar pattern in relation to mortality. We concluded that elevated levels of FB and Bb are associated with adverse outcome in patients with symptomatic AS. Increased levels of FB in asymptomatic patients suggest the involvement of FB from the early phase of the disease.

2.
Circ Res ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495264

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pathogenic variations in the lamin gene (LMNA) cause familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). LMNA insufficiency caused by LMNA pathogenic variants is believed to be the basic mechanism underpinning LMNA-related DCM. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether silencing of cardiac Lmna causes DCM and investigate the role of Yin Yang 1 (Yy1) in suppressing Lmna DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a Lmna DCM mouse model induced by cardiac specific Lmna shRNA. Silencing of cardiac Lmna induced DCM with associated cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. We demonstrated that upregulation of Yy1 suppressed Lmna DCM and cardiac fibrosis by inducing Bmp7 expression and preventing upregulation of Ctgf. Knockdown of upregulated Bmp7 attenuated the suppressive effect of Yy1 on DCM and cardiac fibrosis. However, upregulation of Bmp7 alone was not sufficient to suppress DCM and cardiac fibrosis. Importantly, upregulation of Bmp7 together with Ctgf silencing significantly suppressed DCM and cardiac fibrosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of Yy1 regulated Bmp7 and Ctgf reporter activities and modulated Bmp7 and Ctgf gene expression in cardiomyocytes. Downregulation of Ctgf inhibited TGFß/Smad signaling in DCM hearts. Regulation of both Bmp7 and Ctgf further suppressed TGFß/Smad signaling. In addition, co-modulation of Bmp7 and Ctgf reduced CD3+ T cell numbers in DCM hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that upregulation of Yy1 or co-modulation of Bmp7 and Ctgf offer novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of DCM caused by LMNA insufficiency.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9206, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235849

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) dilatation is a key step in transition to heart failure (HF) in response to pressure overload. Cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) contains fibrillar collagens and proteoglycans, important for maintaining tissue integrity. Alterations in collagen production and cross-linking are associated with cardiac LV dilatation and HF. Lumican (LUM) is a collagen binding proteoglycan with increased expression in hearts of patients and mice with HF, however, its role in cardiac function remains poorly understood. To examine the role of LUM in pressure overload induced cardiac remodeling, we subjected LUM knock-out (LUMKO) mice to aortic banding (AB) and treated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFB) with LUM. LUMKO mice exhibited increased mortality 1-14 days post-AB. Echocardiography revealed increased LV dilatation, altered hypertrophic remodeling and exacerbated contractile dysfunction in surviving LUMKO 1-10w post-AB. LUMKO hearts showed reduced collagen expression and cross-linking post-AB. Transcriptional profiling of LUMKO hearts by RNA sequencing revealed 714 differentially expressed transcripts, with enrichment of cardiotoxicity, ECM and inflammatory pathways. CFB treated with LUM showed increased mRNAs for markers of myofibroblast differentiation, proliferation and expression of ECM molecules important for fibrosis, including collagens and collagen cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase. In conclusion, we report the novel finding that lack of LUM attenuates collagen cross-linking in the pressure-overloaded heart, leading to increased mortality, dilatation and contractile dysfunction in mice.

4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(4): e007045, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating SN (secretoneurin) concentrations are increased in patients with myocardial dysfunction and predict poor outcome. Because SN inhibits CaMKIIδ (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ) activity, we hypothesized that upregulation of SN in patients protects against cardiomyocyte mechanisms of arrhythmia. METHODS: Circulating levels of SN and other biomarkers were assessed in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT; n=8) and in resuscitated patients after ventricular arrhythmia-induced cardiac arrest (n=155). In vivo effects of SN were investigated in CPVT mice (RyR2 [ryanodine receptor 2]-R2474S) using adeno-associated virus-9-induced overexpression. Interactions between SN and CaMKIIδ were mapped using pull-down experiments, mutagenesis, ELISA, and structural homology modeling. Ex vivo actions were tested in Langendorff hearts and effects on Ca2+ homeostasis examined by fluorescence (fluo-4) and patch-clamp recordings in isolated cardiomyocytes. RESULTS: SN levels were elevated in patients with CPVT and following ventricular arrhythmia-induced cardiac arrest. In contrast to NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and hs-TnT (high-sensitivity troponin T), circulating SN levels declined after resuscitation, as the risk of a new arrhythmia waned. Myocardial pro-SN expression was also increased in CPVT mice, and further adeno-associated virus-9-induced overexpression of SN attenuated arrhythmic induction during stress testing with isoproterenol. Mechanistic studies mapped SN binding to the substrate binding site in the catalytic region of CaMKIIδ. Accordingly, SN attenuated isoproterenol induced autophosphorylation of Thr287-CaMKIIδ in Langendorff hearts and inhibited CaMKIIδ-dependent RyR phosphorylation. In line with CaMKIIδ and RyR inhibition, SN treatment decreased Ca2+ spark frequency and dimensions in cardiomyocytes during isoproterenol challenge, and reduced the incidence of Ca2+ waves, delayed afterdepolarizations, and spontaneous action potentials. SN treatment also lowered the incidence of early afterdepolarizations during isoproterenol; an effect paralleled by reduced magnitude of L-type Ca2+ current. CONCLUSIONS: SN production is upregulated in conditions with cardiomyocyte Ca2+ dysregulation and offers compensatory protection against cardiomyocyte mechanisms of arrhythmia, which may underlie its putative use as a biomarker in at-risk patients.

5.
Circulation ; 140(1): 31-41, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and preexisting cardiovascular disorders. These parameters incompletely account for substantial interindividual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM. METHODS: We studied 213 patients with CCM from 3 cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped adults with breast cancer (n=73), and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including 9 prespecified genes, were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas participants (n=2053), healthy volunteers (n=445), and an ancestry-matched reference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed and stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice. RESULTS: CCM was diagnosed 0.4 to 9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult patients with CCM had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the US population. Among 9 prioritized genes, patients with CCM had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts ( P≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtvs) predominated, occurring in 7.5% of patients with CCM versus 1.1% of The Cancer Genome Atlas participants ( P=7.36e-08), 0.7% of healthy volunteers ( P=3.42e-06), and 0.6% of the reference population ( P=5.87e-14). Adult patients who had CCM with TTNtvs experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation ( P=0.003) and impaired myocardial recovery ( P=0.03) than those without. Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wild-type ( P=0.0004 and P<0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Unrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtvs, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events in adults. Genotype, along with cumulative chemotherapy dosage and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, improves the identification of patients who have cancer at highest risk for CCM. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifiers: NCT01173341; AAML1031; NCT01371981.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(476)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674652

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which truncating mutations in MYBPC3 (encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C; cMyBPC) or myosin missense mutations cause hypercontractility and poor relaxation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are incompletely understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we explored how depletion of cMyBPC altered sarcomere function. We demonstrated that stepwise loss of cMyBPC resulted in reciprocal augmentation of myosin contractility. Direct attenuation of myosin function, via a damaging missense variant (F764L) that causes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), normalized the increased contractility from cMyBPC depletion. Depletion of cMyBPC also altered dynamic myosin conformations during relaxation, enhancing the myosin state that enables ATP hydrolysis and thin filament interactions while reducing the super relaxed conformation associated with energy conservation. MYK-461, a pharmacologic inhibitor of myosin ATPase, rescued relaxation deficits and restored normal contractility in mouse and human cardiomyocytes with MYBPC3 mutations. These data define dosage-dependent effects of cMyBPC on myosin that occur across the cardiac cycle as the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which MYBPC3 truncations cause HCM. Therapeutic strategies to attenuate cMyBPC activity may rescue depressed cardiac contractility in patients with DCM, whereas inhibiting myosin by MYK-461 should benefit the substantial proportion of patients with HCM with MYBPC3 mutations.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0201422, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052659

RESUMO

Pressure overload of the heart leads to cardiac remodeling that may progress into heart failure, a common, morbid and mortal condition. Increased mechanistic insight into remodeling is instrumental for development of novel heart failure treatment. Cardiac remodeling comprises cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth, extracellular matrix alterations including fibrosis, and inflammation. Fibromodulin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that regulates collagen fibrillogenesis. Fibromodulin is expressed in the cardiac extracellular matrix, however its role in the heart remains largely unknown. We investigated fibromodulin levels in myocardial biopsies from heart failure patients and mice, subjected fibromodulin knock-out (FMOD-KO) mice to pressure overload by aortic banding, and overexpressed fibromodulin in cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts using adenovirus. Fibromodulin was 3-10-fold upregulated in hearts of heart failure patients and mice. Both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts expressed fibromodulin, and its expression was increased by pro-inflammatory stimuli. Without stress, FMOD-KO mice showed no cardiac phenotype. Upon aortic banding, left ventricles of FMOD-KO mice developed mildly exacerbated hypertrophic remodeling compared to wild-type mice, with increased cardiomyocyte size and altered infiltration of leukocytes. There were no differences in mortality, left ventricle dilatation, dysfunction or expression of heart failure markers. Although collagen amount and cross-linking were comparable in FMOD-KO and wild-type, overexpression of fibromodulin in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro decreased their migratory capacity and expression of fibrosis-associated molecules, i.e. the collagen-cross linking enzyme lysyl oxidase, transglutaminase 2 and periostin. In conclusion, despite a robust fibromodulin upregulation in clinical and experimental heart failure, FMOD-KO mice showed a relatively mild hypertrophic phenotype. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, fibromodulin has anti-fibrotic effects.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(12): 1680-1690, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878127

RESUMO

Aims: Generation of reproducible cardiac disease phenotypes in mice is instrumental for investigating mechanisms leading to heart failure (HF). For decades, suture-based thoracic aortic constriction has been the preferred method for increasing left ventricular (LV) afterload in rodents, but the degree of stenosis resulting from this method is variable. In an effort to improve this methodology, we subjected mice to constriction of the ascending aorta using o-rings with fixed inner diameters (IDs). Methods and results: Mice of C57BL/6J and FVB/N background were subjected to constriction of the ascending aorta using o-rings with fixed IDs of 0.71, 0.66, and 0.61 mm. O-ring aortic banding resulted in 98.7% survival 2 weeks post-surgery, with very low intra- and inter-surgeon variation. When using the narrowest o-ring (0.61 mm), mice developed hypertrophy within 1 week. Over 20 weeks, the mice gradually developed reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and dilatation with increased left atrial dimensions and lung weight, indicating congestion. When using o-rings with IDs of 0.66 mm and 0.71 mm, the mice developed hypertrophy, but maintained a compensated state with stabilized LVEF 8-20 weeks post-surgery. The up-regulation of signature genes associated with HF, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and the level of activation of MAPK and NFAT signalling pathways corresponded to the degree of stenosis. Conclusion: Here, we introduce a novel method for high precision aortic constriction in mice with high intra- and inter-surgeon reproducibility and low post-operative mortality that allows generation of specific cardiac disease phenotypes.

12.
Matrix Biol ; 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337052

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix remodeling is extensive in several heart diseases and hampers cardiac filling, often leading to heart failure. Proteoglycans have over the last two decades emerged as molecules with important roles in matrix remodeling and fibrosis in the heart. Here we discuss and review current literature on proteoglycans that have been studied in cardiac remodeling. The small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are located within the extracellular matrix and are organizers of the matrix structure. Membrane-bound proteoglycans, such as syndecans and glypicans, act as receptors and direct cardiac fibroblast signaling. Recent studies indicate that proteoglycans are promising as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiac fibrosis, and that they may provide new therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: When aortic valve replacement is needed, a biological valve is usually implanted in patients older than age 60 to 65 years. A large valvular opening area is important to avoid prosthesis-patient mismatch and facilitate reverse left ventricular remodeling. The Trifecta biological valve (St Jude Medical, St Paul, Minn) is, because of its design, believed to reduce transvalvular gradient compared with other biological valves, especially in smaller annuli. Several retrospective studies have compared transvalvular gradients of implanted valves prostheses using the respective manufacturers given size and not the actual annulus size measured by a metric sizer. This makes comparison of the hemodynamic properties of different valve brands and sizes difficult. We therefore performed a prospective randomized study, using the same metric sizer to measure annulus size, and compared hemodynamic profiles of the Trifecta to our standard Mosaic Ultra biological valve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn). METHODS: Ninety elective patients with small to medium annulus diameter undergoing aortic valve replacement were randomized to either Trifecta or Mosaic Ultra. After native valve removal and decalcification, a Hegar-sizer was used to measure true annulus size. Then the largest possible valve of either brand was implanted according to the randomization protocol. Echocardiography was performed 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Baseline parameters of the 2 cohorts were comparable. There were lower transvalvular gradients in the Trifecta compared with the Mosaic Ultra group for the given annulus sizes. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch was present in 28% of patients in the Mosaic group and 3% of patients in the Trifecta group. CONCLUSIONS: Trifecta showed lower transvalvular gradients and less severe prosthesis-patient mismatch compared with Mosaic Ultra for the given annulus sizes. ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: 2011/2596/REK.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1361-1378, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949064

RESUMO

Despite improvements in medical therapy and device-based treatment, heart failure (HF) continues to impose enormous burdens on patients and health care systems worldwide. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity contribute to cardiac disease progression, and the recent development of invasive techniques and electrical stimulation devices has opened new avenues for specific targeting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop which brought together clinicians, trialists and basic scientists to discuss the ANS as a therapeutic target in HF. The questions addressed were: (i) What are the abnormalities of ANS in HF patients? (ii) What methods are available to measure autonomic dysfunction? (iii) What therapeutic interventions are available to target the ANS in patients with HF, and what are their specific strengths and weaknesses? (iv) What have we learned from previous ANS trials? (v) How should we proceed in the future?


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Cardiologia , Consenso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3490, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615692

RESUMO

The Wingless (Wnt) pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). To explore the role of Wnt modulators Wnt5a and sFRP3 in DCM patients we analyzed the expression of Wnt5a and sFRP3 in plasma and myocardium of DCM patients and evaluated their effects on NFAT luciferase activity in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. Elevated circulating Wnt5a (n = 102) was associated with increased pulmonary artery pressures, decreased right ventricular function and adverse outcome, with a stronger association in more severely affected patients. A higher Wnt5a/sFRP3 ratio (n = 25) was found in the right ventricle vs. the left ventricle and was correlated with NFAT activation as well as pulmonary artery pressures. Wnt5a induced NFAT activation and sFRP3 release in cardiomyocytes in vitro, while sFRP3 antagonized Wnt5a. Wnt5a is associated with right ventricular dysfunction and adverse outcome in DCM patients and may promote the progression of DCM through NFAT signaling.

16.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 10(4): 401-410, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474304

RESUMO

In dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), adverse myocardial remodeling is essential, potentially involving Notch signaling. We hypothesized that secreted Notch ligands would be dysregulated in DCM. We measured plasma levels of the canonical Delta-like Notch ligand 1 (DLL1) and non-canonical Notch ligands Delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) and periostin (POSN) in 102 DCM patients and 32 matched controls. Myocardial mRNA and protein levels of DLL1, DLK1, and POSN were measured in 25 explanted hearts. Our main findings were: (i) Circulating levels of DLL1 and POSN were higher in patients with severe DCM and correlated with the degree of diastolic dysfunction and (ii) right ventricular tissue expressions of DLL1, DLK1, and POSN were oppositely associated with cardiac function indices, as high DLL1 and DLK1 expression corresponded to more preserved and high POSN expression to more deteriorated cardiac function. DLL1, DLK1, and POSN are dysregulated in end-stage DCM, possibly mediating different effects on cardiac function.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/sangue , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Regulação para Cima , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
17.
J Clin Med ; 6(5)2017 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534817

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis, the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), remains an unresolved problem in most forms of heart disease. In order to be successful in preventing, attenuating or reversing cardiac fibrosis, it is essential to understand the processes leading to ECM production and accumulation. Cardiac fibroblasts are the main producers of cardiac ECM, and harbor great phenotypic plasticity. They are activated by the disease-associated changes in mechanical properties of the heart, including stretch and increased tissue stiffness. Despite much remaining unknown, an interesting body of evidence exists on how mechanical forces are translated into transcriptional responses important for determination of fibroblast phenotype and production of ECM constituents. Such mechanotransduction can occur at multiple cellular locations including the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus. Moreover, the ECM functions as a reservoir of pro-fibrotic signaling molecules that can be released upon mechanical stress. We here review the current status of knowledge of mechanotransduction signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts that culminate in pro-fibrotic gene expression.

18.
J Exp Biol ; 220(Pt 14): 2545-2553, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476893

RESUMO

Stress and elevated cortisol levels are associated with pathological heart growth and cardiovascular disease in humans and other mammals. We recently established a link between heritable variation in post-stress cortisol production and cardiac growth in salmonid fish too. A conserved stimulatory effect of the otherwise catabolic steroid hormone cortisol is probably implied, but has to date not been established experimentally. Furthermore, whereas cardiac growth is associated with failure of the mammalian heart, pathological cardiac hypertrophy has not previously been described in fish. Here, we show that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated with cortisol in the diet for 45 days have enlarged hearts with lower maximum stroke volume and cardiac output. In accordance with impaired cardiac performance, overall circulatory oxygen-transporting capacity was diminished as indicated by reduced aerobic swimming performance. In contrast to the well-known adaptive/physiological heart growth observed in fish, cortisol-induced growth is maladaptive. Furthermore, the observed heart growth was associated with up-regulated signature genes of mammalian cardiac pathology, suggesting that signalling pathways mediating cortisol-induced cardiac remodelling in fish are conserved from fish to mammals. Altogether, we show that excessive cortisol can induce pathological cardiac remodelling. This is the first study to report and integrate the etiology, physiology and molecular biology of cortisol-induced pathological remodelling in fish.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipertrofia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Natação/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 95(7): 767-777, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28357477

RESUMO

Wnt signaling is dysregulated in heart failure (HF) and may promote cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and inflammation. Blocking the Wnt ligand Wnt5a prevents HF in animal models. However, the role of Wnt5a in human HF and its functions in cardiac cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated Wnt5a regulation in HF patients and its effects on primary mouse and human cardiac fibroblasts. Serum Wnt5a was elevated in HF patients and associated with hemodynamic, neurohormonal, and clinical measures of disease severity. In failing human hearts, Wnt5a protein correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Wnt5a messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were markedly upregulated in failing myocardium and both mRNA and protein levels declined following left ventricular assist device therapy. In primary mouse and human cardiac fibroblasts, recombinant Wnt5a dose-dependently upregulated mRNA and protein release of IL-6 and TIMP-1. Wnt5a did not affect ß-catenin levels, but activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Importantly, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation attenuated Wnt5a-induced release of IL-6 and TIMP-1. In conclusion, our results show that Wnt5a is elevated in the serum and myocardium of HF patients and is associated with measures of progressive HF. Wnt5a induces IL-6 and TIMP-1 in cardiac fibroblasts, which might promote myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, and thereby contribute to HF progression. KEY MESSAGES: • Wnt5a is elevated in serum and myocardium of HF patients and is associated with measures of progressive HF. • In cardiac fibroblasts, Wnt5a upregulates interleukin (IL)-6 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 through the ERK pathway. • Wnt5a-mediated effects might promote myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, and thereby contribute to HF progression.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteína Wnt-5a/sangue
20.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0165079, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768722

RESUMO

Pressure overload is a frequent cause of heart failure. Heart failure affects millions of patients worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cell surface proteoglycans are emerging as molecular players in cardiac remodeling, and increased knowledge about their regulation and function is needed for improved understanding of cardiac pathogenesis. Here we investigated glypicans (GPC1-6), a family of evolutionary conserved heparan sulfate proteoglycans anchored to the extracellular leaflet of the cell membrane, in experimental and clinical heart failure, and explored the function of glypican-6 in cardiac cells in vitro. In mice subjected to pressure overload by aortic banding (AB), we observed elevated glypican-6 levels during hypertrophic remodeling and dilated, end-stage heart failure. Consistently, glypican-6 mRNA was elevated in left ventricular myocardium from explanted hearts of patients with end-stage, dilated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Glypican-6 levels correlated negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction in patients, and positively with lung weight after AB in mice. Glypican-6 mRNA was expressed in both cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, and the corresponding protein displayed different sizes in the two cell types due to tissue-specific glycanation. Importantly, adenoviral overexpression of glypican-6 in cultured cardiomyocytes increased protein synthesis and induced mRNA levels of the pro-hypertrophic signature gene ACTA1 and the hypertrophy and heart failure signature genes encoding natriuretic peptides, NPPA and NPPB. Overexpression of GPC6 induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and co-treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the GPC6-induced increase in NPPA, NPPB and protein synthesis. In conclusion, our data suggests that glypican-6 plays a role in clinical and experimental heart failure progression by regulating cardiomyocyte growth through ERK signaling.


Assuntos
Glipicanas/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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