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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(7): 531-542, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies. METHODS: Cortical thickness and surface area (based on the Desikan-Killiany atlas) were compared between case subjects with ADHD (N=2,246) and control subjects (N=1,934) for children, adolescents, and adults separately in ENIGMA-ADHD, a consortium of 36 centers. To assess familial effects on cortical measures, case subjects, unaffected siblings, and control subjects in the NeuroIMAGE study (N=506) were compared. Associations of the attention scale from the Child Behavior Checklist with cortical measures were determined in a pediatric population sample (Generation-R, N=2,707). RESULTS: In the ENIGMA-ADHD sample, lower surface area values were found in children with ADHD, mainly in frontal, cingulate, and temporal regions; the largest significant effect was for total surface area (Cohen's d=-0.21). Fusiform gyrus and temporal pole cortical thickness was also lower in children with ADHD. Neither surface area nor thickness differences were found in the adolescent or adult groups. Familial effects were seen for surface area in several regions. In an overlapping set of regions, surface area, but not thickness, was associated with attention problems in the Generation-R sample. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle differences in cortical surface area are widespread in children but not adolescents and adults with ADHD, confirming involvement of the frontal cortex and highlighting regions deserving further attention. Notably, the alterations behave like endophenotypes in families and are linked to ADHD symptoms in the population, extending evidence that ADHD behaves as a continuous trait in the population. Future longitudinal studies should clarify individual lifespan trajectories that lead to nonsignificant findings in adolescent and adult groups despite the presence of an ADHD diagnosis.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0207967, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In a three-wave 6 yrs longitudinal study we investigated if the expansion of lateral ventricle (LV) volumes (regarded as a proxy for brain tissue loss) predicts third wave performance on a test of response inhibition (RI). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Trajectories of left and right lateral ventricle volumes across the three waves were quantified using the longitudinal stream in Freesurfer. All participants (N = 74;48 females;mean age 66.0 yrs at the third wave) performed the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT). Response time on the third condition of CWIT, divided into fast, medium and slow, was used as outcome measure in a machine learning framework. Initially, we performed a linear mixed-effect (LME) analysis to describe subject-specific trajectories of the left and right LV volumes (LVV). These features were input to a multinomial logistic regression classification procedure, predicting individual belongings to one of the three RI classes. To obtain results that might generalize, we evaluated the significance of a k-fold cross-validated f1-score with a permutation test, providing a p-value that approximates the probability that the score would be obtained by chance. We also calculated a corresponding confusion matrix. RESULTS: The LME-model showed an annual ∼ 3.0% LVV increase. Evaluation of a cross-validated score using 500 permutations gave an f1-score of 0.462 that was above chance level (p = 0.014). 56% of the fast performers were successfully classified. All these were females, and typically older than 65 yrs at inclusion. For the true slow performers, those being correctly classified had higher LVVs than those being misclassified, and their ages at inclusion were also higher. CONCLUSION: Major contributions were: (i) a longitudinal design, (ii) advanced brain imaging and segmentation procedures with longitudinal data analysis, and (iii) a data driven machine learning approach including cross-validation and permutation testing to predict behaviour, solely from the individual's brain "signatures" (LVV trajectories).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820670

RESUMO

Adolescents hearing non-existent voices may be at risk for psychosis, but the prevalence of voice-hearing (VH) in the general population complicates clinical interpretations. Differentiating between VH with and without distress may aid treatment decisions in psychosis services, but understanding the differences between these two phenomena as they present in the normal adolescent population is necessary to validate this differentiation. The present study compared VH with and without distress in 10,346 adolescents in relation to clinical characteristics, known risk factors, predictors and psychosocial moderators of psychosis. A population-based cohort of Norwegian 16-19 years old adolescents completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire, including two questions from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale: (1) I often hear a voice speaking my thoughts aloud and (2) I have been troubled by hearing voices in my head. Adolescents reporting no VH, non-distressing VH or distressing VH were compared on 14 psychosocial and clinical variables. A multinomial regression model showed that non-disturbing voices were predicted by better school grades, social dysfunction, distractibility, affective symptoms and experience of trauma, while the disturbing voices were predicted by the experience of bullying and trauma, perceived negative self-worth and self-efficacy, less family support, dysregulation of activation, distractibility, self-harm and anxiety. Hearing voices without distress versus being distressed by the voices is related to different constellations of psychosocial variables, suggesting that they represent two separate groups of adolescents. The findings validate the emphasis on distress in clinical practice.

5.
Sleep Med ; 54: 244-249, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) is associated with negative outcomes, including reduced daytime performance and difficulties with treatment adherence. These outcomes are mediated by executive functions (EF). In this study, we investigated whether patients with DSWPD report inferior EF compared to a control group. The study consisted of 40 patients diagnosed with DSWPD (12 males, mean age 20.7 (±3.1)) and 20 healthy controls (six males, 21.3 (±2.2), p = 1.00) between 16 and 25 years (p = 0.42). METHODS: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version Self-Report (BRIEF-A) was used for adults ≥18 years (DSWPD n = 28; controls n = 17) whereas Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Self-Report Version (BRIEF-SR) was used for assessment of EF in adolescents <18 years (DSWPD n = 12; controls n = 3). Independent samples t-tests were used to compare patients to controls. RESULTS: The total group of patients with DSWPD scored significantly poorer compared to the control group on the main indexes; Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) (p = <0.0005), Metacognition Index (MI) (p = <0.0005), and Global Executive Composite (GEC) (p = <0.0005). The adult group with DSWPD scored significantly poorer than the adult control group on eleven of the twelve BRIEF-A scales. Among patients <18 years, the DSWPD-group scored significantly poorer than the control group on 8 of the 13 BRIEF-SR-scales. CONCLUSION: Patients with DSWPD reported significantly poorer EF compared to controls. Assessment of EF in patients with DSWPD can be valuable for understanding the consequences of the disorder regarding treatment tailoring and adherence.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279459

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure, comprising histologically distinguishable subfields. These subfields are differentially involved in memory consolidation, spatial navigation and pattern separation, complex functions often impaired in individuals with brain disorders characterized by reduced hippocampal volume, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Given the structural and functional heterogeneity of the hippocampal formation, we sought to characterize the subfields' genetic architecture. T1-weighted brain scans (n = 21,297, 16 cohorts) were processed with the hippocampal subfields algorithm in FreeSurfer v6.0. We ran a genome-wide association analysis on each subfield, co-varying for whole hippocampal volume. We further calculated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of 12 subfields, as well as their genetic correlation with each other, with other structural brain features and with AD and schizophrenia. All outcome measures were corrected for age, sex and intracranial volume. We found 15 unique genome-wide significant loci across six subfields, of which eight had not been previously linked to the hippocampus. Top SNPs were mapped to genes associated with neuronal differentiation, locomotor behaviour, schizophrenia and AD. The volumes of all the subfields were estimated to be heritable (h2 from 0.14 to 0.27, all p < 1 × 10-16) and clustered together based on their genetic correlations compared with other structural brain features. There was also evidence of genetic overlap of subicular subfield volumes with schizophrenia. We conclude that hippocampal subfields have partly distinct genetic determinants associated with specific biological processes and traits. Taking into account this specificity may increase our understanding of hippocampal neurobiology and associated pathologies.

7.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(5): 394-397, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001766

RESUMO

Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229-237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from 'inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]', as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88), and are not 'more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence'.

8.
Front Psychol ; 9: 485, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706908

RESUMO

Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and tends to persist into adulthood. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies indicates that alterations of error processing are core symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD. To test whether adults with ADHD show persisting deficits and compensatory processes, we investigated performance monitoring during stimulus-evaluation and response-selection, with a focus on errors, as well as within-group correlations with symptom scores. Methods: Fifty-five participants (27 ADHD and 28 controls) aged 19-55 years performed a modified flanker task during EEG recording with 64 electrodes, and the ADHD and control groups were compared on measures of behavioral task performance, event-related potentials of performance monitoring (N2, P3), and error processing (ERN, Pe). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to assess ADHD symptom load. Results: Adults with ADHD showed higher error rates in incompatible trials, and these error rates correlated positively with the ASRS scores. Also, we observed lower P3 amplitudes in incompatible trials, which were inversely correlated with symptom load in the ADHD group. Adults with ADHD also displayed reduced error-related ERN and Pe amplitudes. There were no significant differences in reaction time (RT) and RT variability between the two groups. Conclusion: Our findings show deviations of electrophysiological measures, suggesting reduced effortful engagement of attentional and error-monitoring processes in adults with ADHD. Associations between ADHD symptom scores, event-related potential amplitudes, and poorer task performance in the ADHD group further support this notion.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1289, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249828

RESUMO

We have tested published methods for capturing allelic heterogeneity and identifying loci of joint effects to uncover more of the "hidden heritability" of schizophrenia (SCZ). We used two tools, cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP, to analyze meta-statistics from the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on SCZ by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). Stepwise regression on markers with p values <10-7 in cojo-GCTA identified 96 independent signals. Eighty-five passed the genome-wide significance threshold. Cross-validation of cojo-GCTA by CLUMP was 76%, i.e., 26 of the loci identified by the PGC using CLUMP were found to be dependent on another locus by cojo-GCTA. The overlap between cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP was better (up to 92%). Three markers reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10-8) in a joint effect model. In addition, two loci showed possible allelic heterogeneity within 1-Mb genomic regions, while CLUMP analysis had identified 16 such regions. Cojo-GCTA identified fewer independent loci than CLUMP and seems to be more conservative, probably because it accounts for long-range LD and interaction effects between markers. These findings also explain why fewer loci with possible allelic heterogeneity remained significant after cojo-GCTA analysis. With multi-SNP, 86 markers were selected at the threshold 10-7. Multi-SNP identifies fewer independent signals, due to splitting of the data and use of smaller samples. We recommend that cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP are used for post-GWAS analysis of all traits to call independent loci. We conclude that only a few loci in SCZ show joint effects or allelic heterogeneity, but this could be due to lack of power for that data set.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188310, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182663

RESUMO

Inattention in childhood is associated with academic problems later in life. The contribution of specific aspects of inattentive behaviour is, however, less known. We investigated feature importance of primary school teachers' reports on nine aspects of inattentive behaviour, gender and age in predicting future academic achievement. Primary school teachers of n = 2491 children (7-9 years) rated nine items reflecting different aspects of inattentive behaviour in 2002. A mean academic achievement score from the previous semester in high school (2012) was available for each youth from an official school register. All scores were at a categorical level. Feature importances were assessed by using multinominal logistic regression, classification and regression trees analysis, and a random forest algorithm. Finally, a comprehensive pattern classification procedure using k-fold cross-validation was implemented. Overall, inattention was rated as more severe in boys, who also obtained lower academic achievement scores in high school than girls. Problems related to sustained attention and distractibility were together with age and gender defined as the most important features to predict future achievement scores. Using these four features as input to a collection of classifiers employing k-fold cross-validation for prediction of academic achievement level, we obtained classification accuracy, precision and recall that were clearly better than chance levels. Primary school teachers' reports of problems related to sustained attention and distractibility were identified as the two most important features of inattentive behaviour predicting academic achievement in high school. Identification and follow-up procedures of primary school children showing these characteristics should be prioritised to prevent future academic failure.


Assuntos
Fracasso Acadêmico , Atenção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Cell Rep ; 21(9): 2597-2613, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186694

RESUMO

Here, we present a large (n = 107,207) genome-wide association study (GWAS) of general cognitive ability ("g"), further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum). Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/análogos & derivados , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/metabolismo
12.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1621, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28979226

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the occurrence of a spectrum of different self-reported sleep problems in adults with ADHD and a control group, and to study the impact of current ADHD medication use and clinical ADHD subtype. Method: Cross-sectional study of 268 clinically ascertained adult ADHD patients (DSM-IV criteria) and 202 randomly selected controls. Sleep problems were self-reported using validated questions, partly from Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire. Results: ADHD patients reported more sleep problems than controls: Lifetime occurrence of sleep problems (82.6 vs. 36.5%), hypnotics use (61.4 vs. 20.2%), current sleep duration below 6 h (26.6 vs. 7.6%), and symptoms/signs during the past 4 weeks of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, loud snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, restless legs, and periodic limb movements in sleep (significant odds ratios ranged from 1.82 to 14.55). Current ADHD medication use was associated with less cataplexy compared with not using medication. Patients with inattentive subtype reported better sleep quality and less restless legs than patients with hyperactive/impulsive subtypes. Conclusions: Adults with ADHD reported a very high occurrence of many different self-reported sleep problems, underlining the importance of screening for sleep disorders. Among the ADHD patients, medication use was not associated with more sleep-related symptoms, but in fact less cataplexy. When comparing ADHD subtypes, the inattentive subtype was associated with less sleep problems.

13.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1436, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890705

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate parent reports of childhood symptoms of inattention as a predictor of adolescent academic achievement, taking into account the impact of the child's intellectual functioning, in two diagnostically and culturally diverse samples. Method: Samples: (a) an all-female sample in the U.S. predominated by youth with ADHD (Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study [BGALS], N = 202), and (b) a mixed-sex sample recruited from a Norwegian population-based sample (the Bergen Child Study [BCS], N = 93). Inattention and intellectual function were assessed via the same measures in the two samples; academic achievement scores during and beyond high school and demographic covariates were country-specific. Results: Childhood inattention predicted subsequent academic achievement in both samples, with a somewhat stronger effect in the BGALS sample, which included a large subgroup of children with ADHD. Intellectual function was another strong predictor, but the effect of early inattention remained statistically significant in both samples when intellectual function was covaried. Conclusion: The effect of early indicators of inattention on future academic success was robust across the two samples. These results support the use of remediation procedures broadly applied. Future longitudinal multicenter studies with pre-planned common inclusion criteria should be performed to increase our understanding of the importance of inattention in primary school children for concurrent and prospective functioning.

14.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 76: 81-87, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polysubstance use disorder is prevalent in treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder (SUD), with a higher risk of developing comorbid psychiatric symptoms, more pervasive deficits in cognitive functions, and inferior treatment results. The present study investigates if individuals with polysubstance use disorder who achieve at least one year of abstinence show greater improvements in satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress, compared to relapsers and controls. The prospective recovery from polysubstance use disorder assessed with broad output indicators remains understudied. A better understanding of the pattern of recovery of the chosen output indicators could shed light on the recovery process for this group of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated changes in satisfaction with life, executive functions and psychological distress over a period of 12months in patients who remained abstinent and in those who relapsed. Subjects with polysubstance use disorder (N=115) were recruited from outpatient and residential treatment facilities; healthy controls (N=34) were recruited by posters exhibited at social welfare and GP offices. Executive functions were assessed by the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult self-report version (BRIEF-A), psychological distress by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and satisfaction with life by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were categorized as "relapsers" if they had AUDIT score ≥8, or DUDIT score ≥2 for women and ≥6 for men. RESULTS: Results indicated that the abstinent group had the greatest improvement on all the indicators compared with relapsers and controls. Participants who successfully quit substance use for one year showed improved satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress compared to participants who relapsed and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides support for the view that there is a clinically and statistically significant recovery of satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress for SUD patients following one-year of abstinence. This knowledge highlights the importance of time and continued abstinence. Our findings suggest that a gradual and careful step-up of learning requirement should be adopted, and SUD treatment should initially focus on stabilizing the patient and achieving abstinence, while interventions for co-morbid problems and more cognitively demanding treatment components are more likely to succeed later in the treatment sequence.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Satisfação Pessoal , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 61: 209-216, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890662

RESUMO

The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n=670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value<0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n=1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n=1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMD1 SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value=5×10-6, minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p⩽1.2×10-5). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n=3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética
16.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 23(1): 90-97, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27938456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Discrepant findings of age-related effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on executive function (EF) have been described across different studies. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinal age effects on inhibition and switching, two key subfunctions of EF, calculated from results on the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT). METHODS: One hundred twenty-three healthy aging individuals (average age 61.4 years; 67% women) performed the CWIT up to three times, over a period of more than 6 years. Measures of inhibition, switching, and combined inhibition and switching were analyzed. A longitudinal linear mixed effects models analysis was run including basic CWIT conditions, and measures of processing speed, retest effect, gender, education, and age as predictors. RESULTS: After taking all predictors into account, age added significantly to the predictive value of the longitudinal models of (i) inhibition, (ii) switching, and (iii) combined inhibition and switching. The basic CWIT conditions and the processing speed measure added to the predictive value of the models, while retest effect, gender, and education did not. CONCLUSIONS: The present study on middle-aged to older individuals showed age-related decline in inhibition and switching abilities. This decline was retained even when basic CWIT conditions, processing speed, attrition, gender, and education were controlled. (JINS, 2017, 23, 90-97).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Inibição (Psicologia) , Julgamento/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Addict Behav Rep ; 6: 96-101, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450242

RESUMO

Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The present study investigates whether individuals with polysubstance use disorder who remain abstinent for a year after entering treatment have a more substantial reduction in ADHD symptoms than those who relapsed and controls. Material and methods: Subjects were SUD patients (N = 115) and healthy controls (N = 34). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were defined as having relapsed if they had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 or a DUDIT score ≥ 2 for women and ≥ 6 for men. Results: Patients who remained abstinent for one year reported a substantial reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to patients who relapsed and controls. Conclusions: Abstinence alleviates ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder. We suggest that confirmation of an ADHD diagnosis should follow a period of abstinence to avoid identification of false-positive cases.

18.
Front Psychol ; 8: 2154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487545

RESUMO

We investigated the relation between dimensional aspects of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in childhood and peer problems 4 years later, as well as the potential mediating effects of intellectual function. The sample included 127 children (32 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were assessed via parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire. Peer problems were assessed by parent reports on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and children's intellectual functioning by the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Linear regressions showed a significant effect of inattention on future peer problems, partially mediated by slow processing speed. These effects remained significant when ADHD status was covaried. Findings highlight the importance of processing speed in explaining the predictive relation between childhood inattention and later peer problems. Inattention and processing speed in early childhood are potentially malleable factors influencing adolescent social functioning.

19.
Scand J Psychol ; 57(5): 399-405, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589048

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Cognição , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Noruega , Pais/educação
20.
J Atten Disord ; 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in self-reported ADHD symptoms in a group of adults with ADHD and a control group. METHODS: A total of 682 adults with ADHD (49.9% females) and 882 controls (59.2% females) completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), listing the 18 symptoms included in the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. RESULTS: Within the ADHD group, females reported more severe symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity than males. This higher symptom report of females was not found in the control group, where the number of severe inattention symptoms rather was higher in males. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that childhood symptoms of ADHD may have gone unnoticed in girls, emphasizing the need for longitudinal studies of ADHD symptoms across the life span.

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